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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131288/mechanisms-of-cardioembolic-stroke-revisited-atrial-cardiopathy
#1
Justyna Mączyńska, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Rafał Dąbrowski
There has been only moderate progress in our understanding of potential relation between atrial arrhythmia and stroke over years. Current approach is still based on a hypothesis that atrial contractile dysfunction due to fibrillation causes blood stasis, which accompanied by other factors acting together as Virchow's triad produces thrombus and embolism to the brain. In this review we would like to discuss a relatively new concept of atrial cardiopathy. It assumes that risk of thromboembolism is increased regardless of atrial rhythm, being largely driven by atrial tissue abnormalities, such as fibrosis, endothelial and myocytes dysfunction and atrial dilatation...
November 13, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104737/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-which-information-is-useful-for-the-arrhythmologist
#2
REVIEW
Elia De Maria, Annachiara Aldrovandi, Ambra Borghi, Letizia Modonesi, Stefano Cappelli
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a non-invasive, non-ionizing, diagnostic technique that uses magnetic fields, radio waves and field gradients to generate images with high spatial and temporal resolution. After administration of contrast media (e.g., gadolinium chelate), it is also possible to acquire late images, which make possible the identification and quantification of myocardial areas with scar/fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement, LGE). CMR is currently a useful instrument in clinical cardiovascular practice for the assessment of several pathological conditions, including ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies and congenital heart disease...
October 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104639/snail1-is-positively-correlated-with-atrial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-rheumatic-heart-disease
#3
Furong Guo, Xin Yi, Mingjiang Li, Jinrong Fu, Sha Li
The present study investigated the association between Snail1 and atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and to determine the possible mechanism underlying this interrelation. A total of 19 patients were included in the current study and were divided into two groups: A sinus rhythm (SR) group (n=9) and an AF group (n=10). All patients underwent heart valve replacement surgery, during which ~200 mg right atrium tissue was obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome-stained sections were used to evaluate the morphological changes of cardiomyocytes and the level of fibrosis...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100747/box-isolation-of-fibrotic-areas-a-substrate-modification-approach-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients
#4
REVIEW
Fabian Moser, Doreen Schreiber, Andreas Rieger, Monica Trofin, Christian Pönisch, Hans Kottkamp
In the last years, atrial fibrosis was shown to be an independent predictor of procedural failure in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. Ablation strategies have been developed to improve the outcome of catheter ablation by targeting detected areas of fibrosis, based either on endocardial voltage mapping or cardiac magnetic resonance. Box isolation of fibrotic areas (BIFA) is a new and promising patient-tailored ablation strategy for atrial fibrillation patients targeting substantial fibrotic areas by circumferential isolation of left atrial fibrosis...
October 31, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096943/role-of-sprouty1-spry1-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atrial-fibrosis
#5
Gang Qiao, Dongsheng Xia, Zhaoyun Cheng, Guobao Zhang
Atrial fibrosis is the hallmark of atrial fibrillation (AF) dependent structure remodeling. Besides, sprouty 1 (Spry1) plays a key role in the process of fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether Spry1 could regulate TGF-β1 in atrial fibrosis. Ten dogs or patients were assigned to control (n=4) and AF group (n=6). The left atrium of dogs or right atrial appendage of patients was taken. After that, cardiac fibroblasts were treated with or without angiotensin II (Ang II). Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were transfected with lentivirus of Spry1 over-expression vector, Spry1 shRNA or negative control (NC)...
April 28, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089463/increased-serum-lysyl-oxidase-like-2-levels-correlate-with-the-degree-of-left-atrial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Yingming Zhao, Kangting Tang, Xu Tianbao, Junhong Wang, Jin Yang, Dianfu Li
Atrial fibrillation (AF) progression is generally accompanied by increased atrial fibrosis and atrial structural remodeling. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is known to play an important role in many fibrotic conditions, including cardiac fibrosis. This study aimed to explore the relationship between serum LOXL2 levels and AF. Fifty-four AF patients and 32 control subjects were enrolled in the study. High-density three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping was performed, and mean bipolar voltage was assessed in AF patients...
October 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081173/-analysis-on-clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-mitral-valve-prolapse
#7
Y Guo, S Y Wang, X J Duan, X Wu, X X Zheng, J Lu, X H Huang
Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and prognosis of 148 MVP patients who underwent mitral valve surgery in Fuwai hospital from January 2012 to December 2015.The patients were divided into mucoid degeneration group (52 cases) and without mucoid degeneration group(19 cases) according to pathological examination of leaflets and chordate. Results: The clinical symptoms of MVP patients included dyspnea (59...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038991/pathophysiological-and-therapeutic-implications-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure
#8
REVIEW
Felix Hohendanner, F R Heinzel, F Blaschke, B M Pieske, W Haverkamp, H L Boldt, A S Parwani
Heart failure and atrial fibrillation are common and responsible for significant mortality of patients. Both share the same risk factors like hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis, and age. A variety of microscopic and macroscopic changes favor the genesis of atrial fibrillation in patients with preexisting heart failure, altered subcellular Ca(2+) homeostasis leading to increased cellular automaticity as well as concomitant fibrosis that are induced by pressure/volume overload and altered neurohumoral states...
October 16, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016990/age-and-sex-differences-in-atrial-fibrosis-among-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Nazem Akoum, Christian Mahnkopf, Eugene G Kholmovski, Johannes Brachmann, Nassir F Marrouche
Aim: Age and female sex are associated with a higher risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to determine whether advancing age and female sex are associated with higher atrial fibrosis. Methods and results: We conducted an observational cohort study of patients with AF enrolled in the University of Utah AF Database and a non-AF control group who underwent late-gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) for atrial fibrosis quantification...
August 9, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016766/temporal-pattern-episode-duration-based-classification-of-atrial-fibrillation-as-paroxysmal-vs-persistent-is-it-time-to-develop-a-more-integrated-prognostic-score-to-optimize-management
#10
Matthew Hammond-Haley, Rui Providência, Pier D Lambiase
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a clinically heterogeneous arrhythmia that is currently classified according to the variety of temporal rhythm based manifestations observed clinically, including 'first detected episode', 'paroxysmal', 'persistent', or 'permanent' AF. Despite being widely adopted by the most recent consensus guidelines, the utility of this classification system to stratify patients into distinct and clinically useful groups that have different outcomes including mortality, morbidity, specific cardiovascular outcomes, and quality of life (QoL), remains questionable...
July 11, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993090/possible-role-of-rivaroxaban-in-attenuating-pressure-overload-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-fibrillation
#11
Hidekazu Kondo, Ichitaro Abe, Akira Fukui, Shotaro Saito, Miho Miyoshi, Kohei Aoki, Tetsuji Shinohara, Yasushi Teshima, Kunio Yufu, Naohiko Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Coagulation factor Xa (FXa) promotes thrombus formation and exacerbates inflammation via activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2. We tested the hypothesis of whether administration of direct oral anticoagulant, rivaroxaban, would attenuate transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced atrial inflammatory fibrosis and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF) in mice. METHODS: Ten-week-old male CL57/B6 mice were divided into a sham-operation (CNT) group and TAC-surgery group...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990508/biomarkers-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-hypertension
#12
Costas Tsioufis, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Elias Nikolakopoulos, Evi Vemou, Theodoros Kalos, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Nikos Vogiatzakis, Aristos Ifantis, Konstantinos Konstantinou, V Gennimata, Dimitris Tousoulis
It is well known that atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia worldwide and substantially increases the risk for thromboembolic disease. One of the main problems is that it remains undiagnosed (about 20% of all cases of AF). On the other hand, hypertension amplifies the risk for both AF occurrences through hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic mechanisms and cerebrovascular ischemia. Under this prism, prompt diagnosis of undetected AF in hypertensive patients is of pivotal importance. Biomarkers could be used in AF diagnosis as well as in predicting the transition of paroxysmal AF to sustained AF...
October 6, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981521/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-heart-block-in-hospitalized-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Alessandro Mantovani, Riccardo Rigolon, Isabella Pichiri, Stefano Bonapace, Giovanni Morani, Giacomo Zoppini, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
Recent studies suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiac tachyarrhythmias (mainly atrial fibrillation) in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to examine whether an association also exists between NAFLD and heart block. We have retrospectively evaluated a hospital-based cohort of 751 patients with type 2 diabetes discharged from our Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology during years 2007-2014. Standard electrocardiograms were performed on all patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964164/sensitivity-of-reentrant-driver-localization-to-electrophysiological-parameter-variability-in-image-based-computational-models-of-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-sustained-by-a-fibrotic-substrate
#14
Dongdong Deng, Michael J Murphy, Joe B Hakim, William H Franceschi, Sohail Zahid, Farhad Pashakhanloo, Natalia A Trayanova, Patrick M Boyle
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, causing morbidity and mortality in millions worldwide. The atria of patients with persistent AF (PsAF) are characterized by the presence of extensive and distributed atrial fibrosis, which facilitates the formation of persistent reentrant drivers (RDs, i.e., spiral waves), which promote fibrillatory activity. Targeted catheter ablation of RD-harboring tissues has shown promise as a clinical treatment for PsAF, but the outcomes remain sub-par...
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948002/linking-atrial-fibrillation-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-potential-common-therapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Ya-Hui Ding, Yuan Ma, Lin-Yan Qian, Qiang Xu, Li-Hong Wang, Dong-Sheng Huang, Hai Zou
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are common chronic non-infectious diseases with rising incidences. NAFLD is an independent risk factor for the onset of AF, after adjusting potentially related factors. The pathogenesis of these diseases share several mechanisms including reduced adiponectin level, insulin resistance, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, in addition to activation of common disease pathways that promote inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942872/association-of-sst2-and-hs-crp-levels-with-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-in-coronary-artery-disease
#16
Santeri Nortamo, Olavi Ukkola, Samuli Lepojärvi, Tuomas Kenttä, Antti Kiviniemi, Juhani Junttila, Heikki Huikuri, Juha Perkiömäki
BACKGROUND: The data on biomarkers as predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited. METHODS: A total of 1946 patients with CAD were recruited to the ARTEMIS study. At baseline, the study patients underwent clinical and echocardiographic examinations and had laboratory tests. The patients (n=1710) with the information about the occurrence of new-onset AF during the follow-up were included in the present analysis...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939175/fragmented-qrs-may-predict-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#17
Mahmut Yesin, Macit Kalçık, Metin Çağdaş, Yavuz Karabağ, İbrahim Rencüzoğulları, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Süleyman Çağan Efe, Süleyman Karakoyun
BACKGROUND: Fragmented QRS (fQRS) has been shown to be a marker of local myocardial conduction abnormalities, cardiac fibrosis in previous studies. It was also reported to be a predictor of sudden cardiac death and increased morbidity and mortality in selected populations. However, there is no study investigating the role of fQRS in the development of atrial fibrillation in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the presence of fQRS after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and in-hospital development of new-onset atrial fibrilation (AF) in patients with STEMI...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938960/galectin-3-and-incidence-of-atrial-fibrillation-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Oluwaseun E Fashanu, Faye L Norby, David Aguilar, Christie M Ballantyne, Ron C Hoogeveen, Lin Y Chen, Elsayed Z Soliman, Alvaro Alonso, Aaron R Folsom
BACKGROUND: Galectin-3, a β-galactoside binding lectin involved in important regulatory roles in adhesion, inflammation, immunity, and fibrosis, may be relevant to atrial fibrillation (AF) etiology. METHODS: We included 8,436 participants free of AF at baseline (1996-1998) and with measures of plasma galectin-3 from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We ascertained incident AF through 2013 from study visit electrocardiograms, hospitalizations, and death certificates...
October 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938531/premature-senescence-of-cardiac-fibroblasts-and-atrial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Jun Xie, Yuhan Chen, Chuanxian Hu, Quanhua Pan, Bingjian Wang, Xueling Li, Jin Geng, Biao Xu
Premature senescence is associated with atrial fibrosis and has an antifibrotic effect in mice. However, the role of senescence in atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the association of premature senescence with fibrosis and also determined the role of senescence in the recurrence of AF after surgery ablation. Western blot, Sirius red staining, SA-β-gal staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the degree of atrial fibrosis ,the expression of TGF-β and collagens, and also the senescence markers in 72 tissue specimens of left atrial appendage in this study...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935953/very-low-density-lipoprotein-of-metabolic-syndrome-modulates-gap-junctions-and-slows-cardiac-conduction
#20
Hsiang-Chun Lee, Chih-Chieh Chen, Wei-Chung Tsai, Hsin-Ting Lin, Yi-Lin Shiao, Sheng-Hsiung Sheu, Bin-Nan Wu, Chu-Huang Chen, Wen-Ter Lai
Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) is a hallmark of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and each manifestation of MetS is related to atrial fibrillation (AF) risks. Slowed atrial conduction is a mechanism of AF in MetS. We hypothesized that VLDL can modulate and reduce atrial gap junctions. VLDLs were separated from normal (Normal-VLDL) and MetS (MetS-VLDL) individuals. VLDLs (15 µg/g) and equivalent volumes of saline (CTL) were injected respectively to C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. Electrocardiograms demonstrated that MetS-VLDL induced prolongation of P wave (P = 0...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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