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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635186/catheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-with-box-isolation-of-fibrotic-areas-lessons-on-fibrosis-distribution-and-extent-clinical-characteristics-and-their-impact-on-long-term-outcome
#1
Doreen Schreiber, Andreas Rieger, Fabian Moser, Hans Kottkamp
INTRODUCTION: The BIFA concept (box isolation of fibrotic areas) supplementing pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was implemented in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy (FACM) to improve catheter ablation outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: 92 patients with FACM underwent PVI+BIFA. We investigated patient characteristics (58 persistent/34 paroxysmal,68±8y,LA 44±7mm,CHA2 DS2 -VASc 2.6±1.3,FACM I:15.2%,II:53.3%,III:26.1%,IV:5.4%), periprocedural data concerning fibrosis extent/distribution and their impact on outcome...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634079/relaxin-reduces-susceptibility-to-post-infarct-atrial-fibrillation-in-mice-due-to-anti-fibrotic-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#2
Thomas Beiert, Vedat Tiyerili, Vincent Knappe, Verena Effelsberg, Markus Linhart, Florian Stöckigt, Sabine Klein, Robert Schierwagen, Jonel Trebicka, Georg Nickenig, Jan W Schrickel, René P Andrié
BACKGROUND: Relaxin-2 (RLX) is a peptide hormone that exerts beneficial anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in diverse models of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RLX treatment on the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Mice with cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall were treated for two weeks with either RLX (75 μg/kg/d) or vehicle (sodium acetate) delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#3
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610723/pathophysiology-of-paroxysmal-and-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-rotors-foci-and-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Dennis H Lau, Dominik Linz, Ulrich Schotten, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders, Jonathan M Kalman
Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF) have further underscored the complex pathophysiological basis of the arrhythmia. It has become apparent that the current clinical classification of AF does not reflect the severity of the underlying atrial disease. Atrial fibrosis has been identified as the key structural change in different substrates that are responsible for the perpetuation of AF. Three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping and late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging are novel modalities that can be used to facilitate identification and quantitation of atrial fibrosis for improved delineation of the AF substrate...
May 24, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606607/state-of-the-art-review-atrial-fibrillation-in-athletes
#5
REVIEW
M Darragh Flannery, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders, André La Gerche
Exercise has substantial health benefits with pleomorphic vascular, metabolic, psychological and anti-neoplastic actions resulting in improved quality of life and longevity. Despite these many benefits, numerous studies have shown that endurance athletes are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation (AF) than non-athletes. The type, intensity and amount of sport appears to influence the risk of developing AF. Several endurance sport activities have been shown to increase the risk of developing AF but an excess in AF has not been shown in non-endurance sports...
June 3, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592962/how-to-detect-atrial-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Juan Lacalzada-Almeida, Javier García-Niebla
In the last twenty years, new imaging techniques to assess atrial function and to predict the risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation after treatment have been developed. The present review deals with the role of these techniques in the detection of structural and functional changes of the atrium and diagnosis of atrial remodeling, particularly atrial fibrosis. Echocardiography allows the detection of anatomical, functional changes and deformation of the atrial wall during the phases of the cardiac cycle...
March 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592960/atrial-fibrosis-an-obligatory-component-of-arrhythmia-mechanisms-in-atrial-fibrillation
#7
Pyotr G Platonov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582702/shapecut-bayesian-surface-estimation-using-shape-driven-graph
#8
Gopalkrishna Veni, Shireen Y Elhabian, Ross T Whitaker
A variety of medical image segmentation problems present significant technical challenges, including heterogeneous pixel intensities, noisy/ill-defined boundaries and irregular shapes with high variability. The strategy of estimating optimal segmentations within a statistical framework that combines image data with priors on anatomical structures promises to address some of these technical challenges. However, methods that rely on local optimization techniques and/or local shape penalties (e.g., smoothness) have been proven to be inadequate for many difficult segmentation problems...
April 29, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571241/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-complicated-by-amiodarone-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-don-t-let-your-guard-down
#9
Vipin Kumar Singh, Vijeta Maheshwari
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent which is commonly used to treat both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This iodine containing compound has been associated with several adverse events like it tends to accumulate in several organs. Among those, the most serious is Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity (APT). While the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone but it can occur with any dose. Pulmonary complications usually present as an acute or subacute pneumonitis...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571007/eplerenone-prevents-atrial-fibrosis-via-the-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#10
Lili Du, Mu Qin, Yi Yi, Xiaoqing Chen, Weifeng Jiang, Li Zhou, Daoliang Zhang, Kai Xu, Yiqing Yang, Chao Li, Yan Liu, Xu Liu, Sheng-Zhong Duan
OBJECTIVES: Eplerenone (EPL), an antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor, is beneficial for atrial fibrillation and atrial fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanism remains less well known. We aimed to investigate the effect of EPL on atrial fibrosis using a mouse with selective atrial fibrosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: EPL-treated MHC-TGFcys33ser transgenic mice that have selective atrial fibrosis (Tx+EPL mice), as well as control mice, were used for in vivo studies including histological analyses, Western blotting, and qRT-PCR studies...
June 2, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562571/hemodynamic-instability-after-pulmonary-veins-isolation-in-a-patient-with-dual-chamber-pacemaker-the-phantom-injury-of-the-ventricular-lead
#11
Márcio Galindo Kiuchi, Guilherme Miglioli Lobato, Shaojie Chen
INTRODUCTION: The standard treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND) is the pacemaker implantation, and the ideal methodology for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) is rhythm control, but this is sometimes very hard to accomplish. For such actions, complete isolation of all pulmonary veins (PVI) is currently widely accepted as the best endpoint. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case, we report a female patient, 81 years old, with controlled hypertension, without coronary artery disease, bearer of bilateral knee replacement, and dual chamber pacemaker implanted 1...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546006/atrial-myofibroblast-activation-and-connective-tissue-formation-in-a-porcine-model-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-reduced-left-ventricular-function
#12
Patrick Lugenbiel, Fabian Wenz, Katharina Govorov, Pascal Syren, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with fibrosis that slows electrical conduction and causes perpetuation of the arrhythmia. The molecular characterization of AF pathophysiology may provide novel therapeutic options. This study was designed to elucidate profibrotic signaling and myofibroblast activation in a porcine model of atrial tachypacing-induced AF and reduced left ventricular function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten domestic pigs were randomized to sinus rhythm (SR) or AF groups...
July 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525549/the-change-in-circulating-galectin-3-predicts-absence-of-atrial-fibrillation-after-thoracoscopic-surgical-ablation
#13
Wouter R Berger, Benoît Jagu, Nicoline W E van den Berg, Dean R P P Chan Pin Yin, Jan P van Straalen, Onno J de Boer, Antoine H G Driessen, Jolien Neefs, Sébastien P J Krul, WimJan P van Boven, Allard C van der Wal, Joris R de Groot
Aims: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an important mediator of cardiac fibrosis, particularly in heart failure. Increased Gal-3 concentration (Gal-3), associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF), may reflect atrial fibrotic remodelling underlying AF progression. We aimed to investigate whether the change in serum Gal-3 reflects alterations of the arrhythmogenic atrial substrate following thoracoscopic AF surgery, and predicts absence of AF. Methods and results: Consecutive patients undergoing thoracoscopic AF surgery were included...
May 19, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507568/effect-of-ramipril-hydrochlorothiazide-and-ramipril-canrenone-combination-on-atrial-fibrillation-recurrence-in-hypertensive-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy
#14
Daniele Bosone, Alfredo Costa, Natascia Ghiotto, Matteo Cotta Ramusino, Annalisa Zoppi, Angela D'Angelo, Roberto Fogari
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ramipril/canrenone versus ramipril/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination on atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence in type 2 diabetic hypertensives with and without cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 289 hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients, 95 with CAN, in sinus rhythm but with at least two episodes of AF in the previous 6 months were randomized to ramipril 5 mg plus canrenone 50 mg (titrated to 10/100 mg) or to ramipril 5 mg plus HCTZ 12...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498436/exposure-to-a-chronic-high-fat-diet-promotes-atrial-structure-and-gap-junction-remodeling-in-rats
#15
Tianyu Meng, Gong Cheng, Yuejiao Wei, Shuting Ma, Yongrong Jiang, Jine Wu, Xin Zhou, Chaofeng Sun
Obesity has been demonstrated to be linked to atrial fibrillation (AF) with atrial enlargement and tissue fibrosis. Long-term high calorie intake is the main reason for the prevalence of obesity. To investigate the possible causes of AF, such as chronic high-fat diet (HFD), and to identify the underlying mechanisms, the present study analyzed a variety of structural and gap junctional electrophysiological alterations in the atria of female rats fed an HFD. After consistent HFD feeding of female rats for 12 weeks, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's staining, RT-qPCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence and TUNEL staining were performed...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495464/microrna-21-via-dysregulation-of-ww-domain-containing-protein-1-regulate-atrial-fibrosis-in-atrial-fibrillation
#16
Hui Tao, Meng Zhang, Jing-Jing Yang, Kai-Hu Shi
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRs) have been reported to regulate cell biological functions. To explore the underlying mechanism of miR-21 involvement in patients with atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: In total, 49 patients (24 AF, sinus rhythm 25) aged 33-68 years old, including heart valve replacement surgery and cardiac catheterization. The pathological changes and collagen depositions was analyzed by Masson's Trichrome Staining. miR-21, TGF-β1, Smad2, p-Smad2, WWP-1, collagen I and collagen III expression were analyzed by Western blotting, qRT-PCR, miR one step qRT-PCR, respectively...
March 12, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457700/human-connexin40-mutations-slow-conduction-and-increase-propensity-for-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Ajita Kanthan, Peter Fahmy, Renuka Rao, Jim Pouliopoulos, Ian E Alexander, Stuart P Thomas, Eddy Kizana
BACKGROUND: Patch clamping studies using non-cardiomyocytes revealed that the human connexin40 mutations P88S, G38D, and A96S are associated with reduced gap junction conductances compared to wild type connexin40 (wtCx40). Their effects within myocytes however are unclear. We aimed to characterise P88S, G38D, and A96S after expression in rat hearts and primary cardiomyocyte cultures. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rat atria were transduced with a lentivector containing a transgene encoding wtCx40, P88S, G38D, A96S, or eGFP (n=6 per transgene)...
March 21, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427903/atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-in-human-left-atrium-and-treatment-with-decitabine-reduces-atrial-tachyarrhythmias-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#18
R Doñate Puertas, E Meugnier, C Romestaing, C Rey, E Morel, J Lachuer, N Gadot, A Scridon, C Julien, F Tronc, B Chapuis, C Valla, A Janin, L Pirola, A Méjat, S Rome, P Chevalier
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. As the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology are largely unknown, this cardiac arrhythmia remains difficult to treat. To identify specific molecular actors involved in AF, we have performed a transcriptomic analysis on left atrium (LA) from patients with valvular heart disease with or without AF. We showed that 1627 genes had altered basal expression level in LA tissue of AF patients compared with the control group. The significantly enriched gene ontology biological process "anatomical structure morphogenesis" contained the highest number of genes in line with changes in structure that occur when the human heart remodels following AF development (ie, LA dilatation and interstitial fibrosis)...
March 30, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418895/gender-differences-in-fibrosis-remodeling-in-patients-with-long-standing-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Zhi Li, Zengwei Wang, Zongtao Yin, Yuji Zhang, Xiaodong Xue, Jinsong Han, Yan Zhu, Jian Zhang, Maximilian Y Emmert, Huishan Wang
The success rate of catheter ablation in atrial fibrillation (AF) is known to be lower in females than in males. However, while the exact mechanism for this phenomenon remains to be elucidated, tissue fibrosis may play an important role in this regard. It has been shown that fibrosis promotes AF and its recurrence, thereby substantially reducing the efficacy of catheter ablation in AF patients. Thus, we hypothesized that fibrosis may contribute to gender differences in the outcomes of AF catheter ablation.Here we systematically assessed pulmonary vein sleeves obtained from 166 patients with and without long-standing persistent-AF (LSP-AF) in order to identify gender-specific mechanistic differences in fibrosis remodeling of AF patients...
March 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397812/upregulation-of-sestrins-protect-atriums-against-oxidative-damage-and-fibrosis-in-human-and-experimental-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Zengxiang Dong, Chaolan Lin, Yujiao Liu, Hongbo Jin, Hong Wu, Zhenjun Li, Liping Sun, Lu Zhang, Xi Hu, Yingying Wei, Chengcheng Wang, Wei Han
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is common in the elderly and Sestrins (Sesns) have been suggested to prevent age-related pathologies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Sesns in AF. Clinical data were collected and a small sample of atrial appendage and atrium was obtained from patients undergoing valve repairment. The expression of Sesn1, Sesn2, and Sesn3 was significantly higher in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (PmAF) than that in sinus rhythm (SR), and further greater in the left atrium than the right in PmAF patients...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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