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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724315/persistent-atrial-fibrillation-vs-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-differences-in-management
#1
Andrei D Margulescu, Lluis Mont Girbau
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common human arrhythmia. AF is a progressive disease, initially being nonsustained and induced by trigger activity, and progressing towards persistent AF through alteration of the atrial myocardial substrate. Treatment of AF aims to decrease the risk of stroke and improve the quality of life, by preventing recurrences (rhythm control) or controlling the heart rate during AF (rate control). In the last 20 years, catheter-based and, less frequently, surgical and hybrid ablation techniques have proven more successful compared with drug therapy in achieving rhythm control in patients with AF...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721830/redox-state-in-atrial-fibrillation-pathogenesis-and-relevant-therapeutic-approaches
#2
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Athina Goliopoulou, Evangelos Oikonomou, Sotiris Tsalamandris, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, George Lazaros, Eleftherios Tsiamis, George Latsios, Stella Brili, Spyridon Papaioannou, Vasiliki Gennimata, Dimitris Tousoulis
Myocardial redox state is a critical determinant of myocardial biology, regulating cardiomyocytes' apoptosis, hypertrophy, ion channels function and cardiac contractility and relaxation. Data from animal models have shown that altered myocardial nitroso-redox balance and NADPH oxidases activity are pivotally involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Similarly experimental animal data have demonstrated that increased reactive oxygen / nitrogen species formation in the atrial tissue is associated with altered electrophysiological properties of atrial myocytes and electrical remodeling...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718666/atrial-cardiopathy-a-mechanism-of-cryptogenic-stroke
#3
Shadi Yaghi, Hooman Kamel, Mitchell S V Elkind
Cryptogenic stroke accounts for approximately 30% of all ischemic strokes. Recently, atrial cardiopathy diagnosed by the presence of one of its serum, imaging, or electrocardiogram biomarkers has been shown to be associated with ischemic stroke, particularly of embolic subtypes. Areas covered: This paper aims to summarize data on occult atrial fibrillation and stroke, provide an overview on mechanisms, such as inflammation and fibrosis, of stroke in atrial cardiopathy, critically review data on biomarkers of atrial cardiopathy and their association with stroke, and suggest therapeutic implications, including directions for future research...
July 18, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699363/response-to-letter-bear-tracks-hypothesis-from-atrial-fibrillation-to-atrial-fibrosis-syndrome-in-stroke-risk-assessment
#4
Louisa O'Neill, James Harrison, Mark O'Neill, Steven E Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697653/bear-tracks-hypothesis-from-atrial-fibrillation-to-atrial-fibrosis-syndrome-in-stroke-risk-assessment
#5
Ozcan Ozeke, Serkan Cay, Firat Ozcan, Ayten Hacili, Serkan Topaloglu, Dursun Aras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690312/wolff-parkinson-white-syndrome-with-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-a-brazilian-family
#6
Lenises de Paula van der Steld, Oscar Campuzano, Alexandra Pérez-Serra, Mabel Moura de Barros Zamorano, Selma Sousa Matos, Ramon Brugada
BACKGROUND PRKAG2 syndrome diagnosis is already well-defined as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), ventricular hypertrophy (VH) due to glycogen accumulation, and conduction system disease (CSD). Because of its rarity, there is a lack of literature focused on the treatment. The present study aimed to describe appropriate strategies for the treatment of affected family members with PRKAG2 syndrome with a long follow-up period. CASE REPORT We studied 60 selected individuals from 84 family members (32 males, 53...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680407/cardiac-ion-channel-regulation-in-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-long-qt-syndrome-and-atrial-fibrillation
#7
REVIEW
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665544/pioglitazone-attenuates-atrial-remodeling-and-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rabbits
#8
Changle Liu, Ruimeng Liu, Huaying Fu, Jian Li, Xinghua Wang, Lijun Cheng, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Gary Tse, Guangping Li, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent evidence indicates that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activators exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these agents prevent atrial remodeling in diabetes are not completely elucidated. We sought to investigate the potential effects of pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ activator, on atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility in diabetic rabbits. METHODS: Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: diabetes only, diabetes treated with low-dose pioglitazone (4 mg/day/kg), or diabetes treated with high dose pioglitazone (8 mg/day/kg) (n = 24 for each group)...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663760/atrial-fibrosis-an-obligatory-component-of-arrhythmia-mechanisms-in-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Pyotr G Platonov
Atrial fibrosis is common in atrial fibrillation (AF). Experimental studies have provided convincing evidence that fibrotic transformation of atrial myocardium results in deterioration of atrial conduction, increasing anisotropy of impulse propagation and building of boundaries that promote re-entry in the atrial walls that maybe directly relevant for the mechanisms responsible for maintaining AF. Whether or not fibrosis is a result of structural remodelling caused by persistent AF or a manifestation of occult myocardial process that leads to development of arrhythmia is less clear...
April 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658680/submucosal-fibrosis-in-achalasia-patients-is-a-rare-cause-of-aborted-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-procedures
#10
Qiu-Ning Wu, Xiao-Yue Xu, Xiao-Cen Zhang, Mei-Dong Xu, Yi-Qun Zhang, Wei-Feng Chen, Ming-Yan Cai, Wen-Zheng Qin, Jian-Wei Hu, Li-Qing Yao, Quan-Lin Li, Ping-Hong Zhou
Background and aims Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is now an established treatment for esophageal achalasia. The standard protocol ensures a smooth operation in most patients, but technical challenges and failures exist and little is known about the incidence, causes, and impact of aborted procedures. Here, using a large patient cohort, we attempted to answer these questions. Methods All patients admitted for planned POEM between August 2010 and July 2015 underwent chart review. Aborted POEM was defined as the inability to finish the procedure after submucosal injection...
June 28, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639003/the-crucial-role-of-activin-a-alk4-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ang-ii-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation
#11
Qian Wang, Ying Yu, Pengpai Zhang, Yihe Chen, Changyi Li, Jie Chen, Yuepeng Wang, Yigang Li
Atrial fibrosis, the hallmark of structural remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), is characterized by abnormal proliferation of atrial fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/Smad2/3/4 pathway has been reported to be involved in the process. Recent studies have implicated both activin A and its specific downstream component activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) in stimulating fibrosis in non-cardiac organs...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635186/catheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-with-box-isolation-of-fibrotic-areas-lessons-on-fibrosis-distribution-and-extent-clinical-characteristics-and-their-impact-on-long-term-outcome
#12
Doreen Schreiber, Andreas Rieger, Fabian Moser, Hans Kottkamp
INTRODUCTION: The BIFA concept (box isolation of fibrotic areas) supplementing pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was implemented in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy (FACM) to improve catheter ablation outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: 92 patients with FACM underwent PVI+BIFA. We investigated patient characteristics (58 persistent/34 paroxysmal,68±8y,LA 44±7mm,CHA2 DS2 -VASc 2.6±1.3,FACM I:15.2%,II:53.3%,III:26.1%,IV:5.4%), periprocedural data concerning fibrosis extent/distribution and their impact on outcome...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634079/relaxin-reduces-susceptibility-to-post-infarct-atrial-fibrillation-in-mice-due-to-anti-fibrotic-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#13
Thomas Beiert, Vedat Tiyerili, Vincent Knappe, Verena Effelsberg, Markus Linhart, Florian Stöckigt, Sabine Klein, Robert Schierwagen, Jonel Trebicka, Georg Nickenig, Jan W Schrickel, René P Andrié
BACKGROUND: Relaxin-2 (RLX) is a peptide hormone that exerts beneficial anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in diverse models of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RLX treatment on the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Mice with cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall were treated for two weeks with either RLX (75 μg/kg/d) or vehicle (sodium acetate) delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610723/pathophysiology-of-paroxysmal-and-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-rotors-foci-and-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Dennis H Lau, Dominik Linz, Ulrich Schotten, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders, Jonathan M Kalman
Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF) have further underscored the complex pathophysiological basis of the arrhythmia. It has become apparent that the current clinical classification of AF does not reflect the severity of the underlying atrial disease. Atrial fibrosis has been identified as the key structural change in different substrates that are responsible for the perpetuation of AF. Three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping and late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging are novel modalities that can be used to facilitate identification and quantitation of atrial fibrosis for improved delineation of the AF substrate...
May 24, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606607/state-of-the-art-review-atrial-fibrillation-in-athletes
#16
REVIEW
M Darragh Flannery, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders, André La Gerche
Exercise has substantial health benefits with pleomorphic vascular, metabolic, psychological and anti-neoplastic actions resulting in improved quality of life and longevity. Despite these many benefits, numerous studies have shown that endurance athletes are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation (AF) than non-athletes. The type, intensity and amount of sport appears to influence the risk of developing AF. Several endurance sport activities have been shown to increase the risk of developing AF but an excess in AF has not been shown in non-endurance sports...
June 3, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592962/how-to-detect-atrial-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Juan Lacalzada-Almeida, Javier García-Niebla
In the last twenty years, new imaging techniques to assess atrial function and to predict the risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation after treatment have been developed. The present review deals with the role of these techniques in the detection of structural and functional changes of the atrium and diagnosis of atrial remodeling, particularly atrial fibrosis. Echocardiography allows the detection of anatomical, functional changes and deformation of the atrial wall during the phases of the cardiac cycle...
March 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592960/atrial-fibrosis-an-obligatory-component-of-arrhythmia-mechanisms-in-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Pyotr G Platonov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582702/shapecut-bayesian-surface-estimation-using-shape-driven-graph
#19
Gopalkrishna Veni, Shireen Y Elhabian, Ross T Whitaker
A variety of medical image segmentation problems present significant technical challenges, including heterogeneous pixel intensities, noisy/ill-defined boundaries and irregular shapes with high variability. The strategy of estimating optimal segmentations within a statistical framework that combines image data with priors on anatomical structures promises to address some of these technical challenges. However, methods that rely on local optimization techniques and/or local shape penalties (e.g., smoothness) have been proven to be inadequate for many difficult segmentation problems...
April 29, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571241/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-complicated-by-amiodarone-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-don-t-let-your-guard-down
#20
Vipin Kumar Singh, Vijeta Maheshwari
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent which is commonly used to treat both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This iodine containing compound has been associated with several adverse events like it tends to accumulate in several organs. Among those, the most serious is Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity (APT). While the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone but it can occur with any dose. Pulmonary complications usually present as an acute or subacute pneumonitis...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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