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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916775/a-case-report-of-adenosquamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-duodenal-papilla
#1
Yuki Segi, Akira Hashimoto, Hiroki Yukimoto, Naohiko Yoshizawa, Masatoshi Aoki, Hiroyuki Fuke, Hiroyuki Kawabata, Atsuya Shimizu, Ken Ichikawa, Hiroshi Nakano
Adenosquamous carcinoma of the duodenal papilla is rare. A 73-year-old man was referred to the Saiseikai-Matsusaka General Hospital with upper abdominal pain and liver dysfunction. Computed tomography (CT) revealed dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD) and intrahepatic bile duct along with a tumor in the distal CBD. The tumor showed enhancement in the arterial phase on contrast-enhanced CT. We performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and noted a red, erosive, bleeding mass in the duodenal papilla with obstruction of the distal CBD, and dilatation of the CBD...
2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916375/the-role-of-the-adaptive-immune-system-in-burn-induced-heterotopic-ossification-and-mesenchymal-cell-osteogenic-differentiation
#2
Kavitha Ranganathan, Shailesh Agarwal, David Cholok, Shawn Loder, Jonathan Li, Hsiao Hsin Sung Hsieh, Stewart C Wang, Steven R Buchman, Benjamin Levi
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathologic process of extraskeletal bone formation. Although the exact etiology remains unknown, inflammation appears to catalyze disease progression. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of the adaptive immune system on HO. METHODS: HO was induced in 8-wk-old control C57BL/6 and immunocompromised Rag1tm1Mom (Rag1 KO) male mice deficient in B- and T-lymphocytes via combined Achilles tenotomy and burn injury...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913889/ocular-pharmacology-of-tear-film-dry-eye-and-allergic-conjunctivitis
#3
Shilpa Gulati, Sandeep Jain
Dry Eye Disease (DED) is "a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear-film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface." DED comprises two etiologic categories: aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye (EDE). Diagnostic workup of DED should include clinical history, symptom questionnaire, fluorescein TBUT, ocular surface staining grading, Schirmer I/II, lid and meibomian pathology, meibomian expression, followed by other available tests...
December 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907215/cd8-t-cells-induce-fatal-brainstem-pathology-during-cerebral-malaria-via-luminal-antigen-specific-engagement-of-brain-vasculature
#4
Phillip A Swanson, Geoffrey T Hart, Matthew V Russo, Debasis Nayak, Takele Yazew, Mirna Peña, Shahid M Khan, Chris J Janse, Susan K Pierce, Dorian B McGavern
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that results in thousands of deaths each year, mostly in African children. The in vivo mechanisms underlying this fatal condition are not entirely understood. Using the animal model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), we sought mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CM. Fatal disease was associated with alterations in tight junction proteins, vascular breakdown in the meninges / parenchyma, edema, and ultimately neuronal cell death in the brainstem, which is consistent with cerebral herniation as a cause of death...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890528/pathological-concentration-of-zinc-dramatically-accelerates-abnormal-aggregation-of-full-length-human-tau-and-thereby-significantly-increases-tau-toxicity-in-neuronal-cells
#5
Ji-Ying Hu, De-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Ling Liu, Xue-Shou Li, Xiao-Qing Cheng, Jie Chen, Hai-Ning Du, Yi Liang
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles mainly composed of bundles of fibrils formed by microtubule-associated protein Tau. Here we study the effects of Zn(2+) on abnormal aggregation and cytotoxicity of a pathological mutant ΔK280 of full-length human Tau. As revealed by Congo red binding assays, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and immunogold electron microscopy, pathological concentration of Zn(2+) dramatically accelerates the fibrillization of ΔK280 both in vitro and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881786/neuronal-dysfunction-in-ipsc-derived-medium-spiny-neurons-from-chorea-acanthocytosis-patients-is-reversed-by-src-kinase-inhibition-and-f-actin-stabilization
#6
Nancy Stanslowsky, Peter Reinhardt, Hannes Glass, Norman Kalmbach, Maximilian Naujock, Niko Hensel, Verena Lübben, Arun Pal, Anna Venneri, Francesca Lupo, Lucia De Franceschi, Peter Claus, Jared Sterneckert, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann, Florian Wegner
: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by red blood cell acanthocytes and striatal neurodegeneration. Recently, severe cell membrane disturbances based on depolymerized cortical actin and an elevated Lyn kinase activity in erythrocytes from ChAc patients were identified. How this contributes to the mechanism of neurodegeneration is still unknown. To gain insight into the pathophysiology, we established a ChAc patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell model and an efficient differentiation protocol providing a large population of human striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the main target of neurodegeneration in ChAc...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867269/platyphylloside-isolated-from-betula-platyphylla-inhibit-adipocyte-differentiation-and-induce-lipolysis-via-regulating-adipokines-including-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#7
Mina Lee, Sang Hyun Sung
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863252/the-allelic-landscape-of-human-blood-cell-trait-variation-and-links-to-common-complex-disease
#8
William J Astle, Heather Elding, Tao Jiang, Dave Allen, Dace Ruklisa, Alice L Mann, Daniel Mead, Heleen Bouman, Fernando Riveros-Mckay, Myrto A Kostadima, John J Lambourne, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Kate Downes, Kousik Kundu, Lorenzo Bomba, Kim Berentsen, John R Bradley, Louise C Daugherty, Olivier Delaneau, Kathleen Freson, Stephen F Garner, Luigi Grassi, Jose Guerrero, Matthias Haimel, Eva M Janssen-Megens, Anita Kaan, Mihir Kamat, Bowon Kim, Amit Mandoli, Jonathan Marchini, Joost H A Martens, Stuart Meacham, Karyn Megy, Jared O'Connell, Romina Petersen, Nilofar Sharifi, Simon M Sheard, James R Staley, Salih Tuna, Martijn van der Ent, Klaudia Walter, Shuang-Yin Wang, Eleanor Wheeler, Steven P Wilder, Valentina Iotchkova, Carmel Moore, Jennifer Sambrook, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Stephen Kaptoge, Taco W Kuijpers, Enrique Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, David Juan, Daniel Rico, Alfonso Valencia, Lu Chen, Bing Ge, Louella Vasquez, Tony Kwan, Diego Garrido-Martín, Stephen Watt, Ying Yang, Roderic Guigo, Stephan Beck, Dirk S Paul, Tomi Pastinen, David Bujold, Guillaume Bourque, Mattia Frontini, John Danesh, David J Roberts, Willem H Ouwehand, Adam S Butterworth, Nicole Soranzo
Many common variants have been associated with hematological traits, but identification of causal genes and pathways has proven challenging. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank and INTERVAL studies, testing 29.5 million genetic variants for association with 36 red cell, white cell, and platelet properties in 173,480 European-ancestry participants. This effort yielded hundreds of low frequency (<5%) and rare (<1%) variants with a strong impact on blood cell phenotypes. Our data highlight general properties of the allelic architecture of complex traits, including the proportion of the heritable component of each blood trait explained by the polygenic signal across different genome regulatory domains...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862328/primary-giant-cell-tumor-of-the-female-breast-a-diagnostic-red-herring-with-therapeutic-implications
#9
Balan Louis Gaspar, Saniya Sharma, Rajinder Singh, Rakesh Kumar Vasishta
Primary giant cell tumor of the female breast is extremely rare. Major diagnostic difficulty is encountered not only by the surgeon but also by the radiologist and pathologist. Pathologically, it is similar to the bone and soft tissue counterparts. However, this is not always true. We describe a patient presenting clinically as cystosarcoma phyllodes and histopathological examination revealed a primary giant cell tumor which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Interestingly, an intimate relationship between the mononuclear component of the tumor cells with eosinophils and mast cells was observed electron microscopically...
November 16, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858704/comparison-of-bipolar-radiofrequency-ablation-zones-in-an-in-vivo-porcine-model-correlation-of-histology-and-gross-pathological-findings
#10
Ole Gemeinhardt, Franz G M Poch, Bernhard Hiebl, Urte Kunz-Zurbuchen, Giuliano M Corte, Stefan F Thieme, Janis L Vahldiek, Stefan M Niehues, Martin E Kreis, Robert Klopfleisch, Kai S Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Continuing research ex vivo and in vivo with animal models is performed to advance the oncological safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors. In these experiments, frequently imaging modalities (e.g. MRI or CT) or macro-morphological measurements are used to determine the full extent of the different ablation zones inside of RFA lesions. However, no systematic study has been performed so far, which verified the accuracy of the macro-morphological findings. Therefore, the present study aimed to correlate histological and gross pathological findings of bipolar radiofrequency ablation zones of pig livers with regard to cell viability in vivo...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856945/microfluidic-cartridges-for-automated-point-of-care-blood-cell-counting
#11
Suzanne Smith, Phophi Madzivhandila, René Sewart, Ureshnie Govender, Holger Becker, Pieter Roux, Kevin Land
Disposable, low-cost microfluidic cartridges for automated blood cell counting applications are presented in this article. The need for point-of-care medical diagnostic tools is evident, particularly in low-resource and rural settings, and a full blood count is often the first step in patient diagnosis. Total white and red blood cell counts have been implemented toward a full blood count, using microfluidic cartridges with automated sample introduction and processing steps for visual microscopy cell counting to be performed...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855523/immunomodulatory-and-cellular-anti-oxidant-activities-of-caffeic-ferulic-and-p-coumaric-phenolic-acids-a-structure-activity-relationship-study
#12
Soumaya Kilani-Jaziri, Imen Mokdad-Bzeouich, Mounira Krifa, Nouha Nasr, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekir-Ghedira
Many studies have been performed to assess the potential utility of natural products as immunomodulatory agents to enhance host responses and to reduce damage to the human body. To determine whether phenolic compounds (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids) have immunomodulatory effects and clarify which types of immune effector cells are stimulated in vitro, we evaluated their effect on splenocyte proliferation and lysosomal enzyme activity. We also investigated the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
November 18, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836986/targeting-thrombomodulin-to-circulating-red-blood-cells-augments-its-protective-effects-in-models-of-endotoxemia-and-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#13
Ronald Carnemolla, Carlos H Villa, Colin F Greineder, Sergei Zaitsev, Kruti R Patel, M Anna Kowalska, Dmitriy N Atochin, Douglas B Cines, Don L Siegel, Charles T Esmon, Vladimir R Muzykantov
Endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) regulates coagulation and inflammation via several mechanisms, including production of activated protein C (APC). Recombinant APC and soluble fragments of TM (sTM) have been tested in settings associated with insufficiency of the endogenous TM/APC pathway, such as sepsis. We previously designed a fusion protein of TM [single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv)/TM] targeted to red blood cells (RBCs) to improve pharmacokinetics and antithrombotic effects without increasing bleeding...
November 11, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834220/red-cells-dynamic-morphologies-govern-blood-shear-thinning-under-microcirculatory-flow-conditions
#14
Luca Lanotte, Johannes Mauer, Simon Mendez, Dmitry A Fedosov, Jean-Marc Fromental, Viviana Claveria, Franck Nicoud, Gerhard Gompper, Manouk Abkarian
Blood viscosity decreases with shear stress, a property essential for an efficient perfusion of the vascular tree. Shear thinning is intimately related to the dynamics and mutual interactions of RBCs, the major component of blood. Because of the lack of knowledge about the behavior of RBCs under physiological conditions, the link between RBC dynamics and blood rheology remains unsettled. We performed experiments and simulations in microcirculatory flow conditions of viscosity, shear rates, and volume fractions, and our study reveals rich RBC dynamics that govern shear thinning...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831646/mechanism-of-feedback-regulation-of-neutrophil-inflammation-in-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#15
J-J Wu, Y-T Zhu, Y-M Hu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of complement-neutrophil feedback regulation of inflammatory response in Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) through constructing an animal model of HSP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four SPF grade Japanese large-eared white rabbits were randomly divided into normal group and model group, 12 for each group. HSP model was constructed by challenging rabbits with gastric gavage of a decoction solution containing ginger, Piper longum L...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829387/relation-of-peritubular-capillary-features-to-class-of-lupus-nephritis
#16
Sirirat Anutrakulchai, Tanin Titipungul, Thanyaluk Pattay, Putachart Mesung, Anucha Puapairoj, Dhavee Sirivongs, Cholatip Pongsakul, Prasit Futrakul, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have linked peritubular capillary (PTC) loss with progression of chronic kidney disease. Minimal information on PTC in lupus nephritis (LN) has been reported. We therefore evaluated the PTC area in different classes of LN and determined if specific clinical characteristics correlated with PTC changes. METHODS: Renal biopsies of 253 subjects with LN (categorized using the ISN/RPS 2003 classification) and 13 normal renal donors (the controls) were retrospectively evaluated for PTC morphology by staining for CD31 with immunohistochemistry method...
November 9, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821912/accumulation-of-mott-cells-in-the-spleen-in-a-cb6f1-tg-rash2-mouse
#17
Tomoya Sano, Yuichi Takai, Hisashi Anayama, Takeshi Watanabe, Ryo Fukuda
Mott cells are a variant form of plasma cells in humans and laboratory animals. This report describes the morphological characteristics of Mott cells observed in a 33-week-old female CB6F1-Tg rasH2 mouse. Microscopically, a large number of round cells with abundant eosinophilic globules, which were variable in size, were observed in the spleen and were densely distributed in the red pulp adjacent to the marginal zone. A few similar cells were present in the submandibular lymph node and bone marrow. Neither systemic nor local chronic inflammatory changes were seen in this animal...
October 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818317/assessment-of-dry-eye-in-a-gvhd-murine-model-approximation-through-tear-osmolarity-measurement
#18
Rafael Martínez-Carrasco, Luis Ignacio Sánchez-Abarca, Cristina Nieto-Gómez, Elisabet Martín García, Teresa L Ramos, Almudena Velasco, Fermín Sánchez-Guijo, José Aijón, Emiliano Hernández-Galilea
Dry eye disease is one of the most frequent pathological events that take place in the course of the graft versus host disease (GVHD), and is the main cause of deterioration in quality of life for patients. Thus, demonstration of dry eye signs in murine models of oGVHD is crucial for the validation of these models for the study of the disease. Given the increasing evidence that tear osmolarity is an important player of dry eye disease, our purpose in this study was to validate the use of a reliable method to assess tear osmolarity in mice: the electrical impedance method...
November 3, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817049/overexpression-of-endogenous-anti-oxidants-with-selenium-supplementation-protects-trophoblast-cells-from-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-apoptosis-in-a-bcl-2-dependent-manner
#19
Alisha Khera, Jessica J Vanderlelie, Olivia Holland, Anthony V Perkins
The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red)...
November 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807857/blood-products-use-in-france-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Anne-Marie Fillet, Maxime Desmarets, Suzanne Assari, Jean-François Quaranta, Anne François, Aurore Pugin, Anne Schuhmacher, Bernard Lassale, Elisabeth Monnet, Philippe Cabre, Dominique Legrand, Delphine Binda, Rachid Djoudi
BACKGROUND: Blood products use has increased in France between 2000 and 2011. To understand the reasons for this increase, data about transfused patients and transfusion practices needed to be updated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was performed with health care establishments. Diagnoses and indication for the transfusion, pretransfusion laboratory results, and blood products used were collected during a randomly selected 24-hour period in 2011...
December 2016: Transfusion
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