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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734128/the-experience-of-initiating-injection-drug-use-and-its-social-context-a-qualitative-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis
#1
REVIEW
Andy Guise, Danielle Horyniak, Jason Melo, Ryan McNeill, Dan Werb
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Understanding the experience of initiating injection drug use and its social contexts is crucial to inform efforts to prevent transitions into this mode of drug consumption and support harm reduction. We systematically reviewed and synthesized existing qualitative scientific literature to identify the socio-structural contexts for, and experiences of, the initiation of injection drug use. METHODS: We systematically searched six databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, IBSS, and SSCI), along with a manual search, including of key journals and subject experts...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732025/hand-factor-ablation-causes-defective-left-ventricular-chamber-development-and-compromised-adult-cardiac-function
#2
Joshua W Vincentz, Kevin P Toolan, Wenjun Zhang, Anthony B Firulli
Coordinated cardiomyocyte growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis are essential for heart formation. We demonstrate that the bHLH transcription factors Hand1 and Hand2 play critical regulatory roles for left ventricle (LV) cardiomyocyte proliferation and morphogenesis. Using an LV-specific Cre allele (Hand1LV-Cre), we ablate Hand1-lineage cardiomyocytes, revealing that DTA-mediated cardiomyocyte death results in a hypoplastic LV by E10.5. Once Hand1-linage cells are removed from the LV, and Hand1 expression is switched off, embryonic hearts recover by E16...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731634/measuring-the-quality-of-hospital-food-services-development-and-reliability-of-a-meal-quality-audit-tool
#3
Merrilyn Banks, Mary Hannan-Jones, Lynda Ross, Ann Buckley, Jennifer Ellick, Adrienne Young
AIM: To develop and test the reliability of a Meal Quality Audit Tool (MQAT) to audit the quality of hospital meals to assist food service managers and dietitians in identifying areas for improvement. METHODS: The MQAT was developed using expert opinion and was modified over time with extensive use and feedback. A phased approach was used to assess content validity and test reliability: (i) trial with 60 dietetic students, (ii) trial with 12 food service dietitians in practice and (iii) interrater reliability study...
April 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731566/heterogeneity-in-kinesin-function
#4
Babu J N Reddy, Suvranta Tripathy, Michael Vershinin, Marvin Tanenbaum, Jing Xu, Michelle Mattson-Hoss, Karim Arabi, Dail Chapman, Tory Doolin, Changbong Hyeon, Steven P Gross
The kinesin family proteins are often studied as prototypical molecular motors; a deeper understanding of them can illuminate regulation of intracellular transport. It is typically assumed that they function identically. Here we find that this assumption of homogeneous function appears incorrect: variation among motors' velocities in vivo and in vitro is larger than the stochastic variation expected for an ensemble of 'identical" motors. When moving on microtubules, slow and fast motors are persistently slow, and fast, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731267/heuristic-knowledge-based-planning-for-single-isocenter-stereotactic-radiosurgery-to-multiple-brain-metastases
#5
Benjamin P Ziemer, Parag Sanghvi, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth, Kevin L Moore
PURPOSE: Single-isocenter, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for multiple brain metastases (multi-mets) can deliver highly conformal dose distributions and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other techniques. However, treatment planning for multi-met cases is highly complex due to variability in numbers and sizes of brain metastases, as well as their relative proximity to organs-at-risk (OARs). The purpose of this study was to automate the VMAT planning of multi-met cases through a knowledge-based planning (KBP) approach that adapts single target SRS dose predictions to multiple target predictions...
July 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730384/verifying-identities-of-plant-based-multivitamins-using-phytochemical-fingerprinting-in-combination-with-multiple-bioassays
#6
Yeni Lim, Yoon Hee Ahn, Jae Keun Yoo, Kyoung Sik Park, Oran Kwon
Sales of multivitamins have been growing rapidly and the concept of natural multivitamin, plant-based multivitamin, or both has been introduced in the market, leading consumers to anticipate additional health benefits from phytochemicals that accompany the vitamins. However, the lack of labeling requirements might lead to fraudulent claims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a strategy to verify identity of plant-based multivitamins. Phytochemical fingerprinting was used to discriminate identities...
July 20, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730312/hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-quantitation-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-validation-and-application-to-reference-materials
#7
Krista M Thomas, Daniel G Beach, Kelley L Reeves, Ryan S Gibbs, Elliott S Kerrin, Pearse McCarron, Michael A Quilliam
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by marine dinoflagellates that are responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. This work highlights our ongoing efforts to develop quantitative methods for PSTs using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Compared with the commonly used method of liquid chromatography with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection (LC-ox-FLD), HILIC-MS/MS has the potential of being more robust, sensitive and straightforward to operate, and provides unequivocal confirmation of toxin identity...
July 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729922/meningococcal-disease-outbreak-related-to-the-world-scout-jamboree-in-japan-2015
#8
Mizue Kanai, Hajime Kamiya, Alison Smith-Palmer, Hideyuki Takahashi, Yushi Hachisu, Munehisa Fukusumi, Takehito Saitoh, Makoto Ohnishi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
PROBLEM: Six invasive meningococcal disease cases occurred among Scottish and Swedish nationals associated with the World Scout Jamboree (WSJ), an international mass gathering, held in Japan. The index case developed symptoms while returning home. The strains from all six cases were identical and seldom seen in Japan. CONTEXT: Over 33 000 participants from 155 countries attended WSJ. At the Jamboree site, participants of the North of Scotland's and Sweden's units camped within the same subcamp and kept the same schedule of events...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729867/exposure-to-the-epstein-barr-viral-antigen-latent-membrane-protein-1-induces-myelin-reactive-antibodies-in-vivo
#9
Yakov Lomakin, Georgii Pavlovich Arapidi, Alexander Chernov, Rustam Ziganshin, Evgenii Tcyganov, Irina Lyadova, Ivan Olegovich Butenko, Maria Osetrova, Natalia Ponomarenko, Georgy Telegin, Vadim Markovich Govorun, Alexander Gabibov, Alexey Belogurov
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728600/comparison-of-the-polyphenolic-profile-and-antibacterial-activity-of-the-leaves-fruits-and-flowers-of-rhododendron-ambiguum-and-rhododendron-cinnabarinum
#10
Abhinandan Shrestha, Ahmed Rezk, Inamullah Hakeem Said, Victoria von Glasenapp, Rachelle Smith, Matthias S Ullrich, Hartwig Schepker, Nikolai Kuhnert
BACKGROUND: Rhododendron species have been traditionally used in countries like China, Nepal, Russia and North America for treating human diseases. These species are known to be a good source of polyphenolic plant secondary plant metabolites. They are known to have beneficial health properties for humans and have been used to treat diseases like asthma, skin diseases. In this contribution we investigate the phenolic profile and antibacterial activity of extracts from several plant organs including for the first time from leaves of different development stages...
July 20, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728409/heterogeneous-reactions-between-toluene-and-no2-on-mineral-particles-under-simulated-atmospheric-conditions
#11
Hejingying Niu, Kezhi Li, Biwu Chu, Wenkang Su, Junhua Li
Heterogeneous reactions between organic and inorganic gases with aerosols are important to the study of smog occurrence and development. In this study, heterogeneous reactions between toluene and NO2 with three atmospheric mineral particles in the presence or absence of UV light were investigated. The three mineral particles were SiO2, α-Fe2O3 and BS (butlerite and szmolnokite). In a dark environment, benzaldehyde was produced on α-Fe2O3. For BS, nitrotoluene and benzaldehyde were obtained. No aromatic products were produced in the absence of NO2 in the system...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728309/escherichia-coli-outer-membrane-protein-f-ompf-an-immunogenic-protein-induces-cross-reactive-antibodies-against-escherichia-coli-and-shigella
#12
Xiao Wang, Da Teng, Qingfeng Guan, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Xiumin Wang, Junhu Yao, Jianhua Wang
Diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and animals. Due to antibiotics resistance and the lack of efficient vaccine, more attention should be paid to find potential versatile vaccine candidates to prevent diseases. In this study, the sequence homology analysis indicated that OmpF from E. coli CVCC 1515 shares a high identity (90-100%) with about half of the E. coli (46.7%) and Shigella (52.8%) strains. Then the recombinant OmpF was supposed to be developed as a versatile vaccine to prevent E...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727993/how-do-nurse-practitioners-work-in-primary-health-care-settings-a-scoping-review
#13
REVIEW
Julian Grant, Lauren Lines, Philip Darbyshire, Yvonne Parry
OBJECTIVES: This scoping review explores the work of nurse practitioners in primary health care settings in developed countries and critiques their contribution to improved health outcomes. DESIGN: A scoping review design was employed and included development of a research question, identification of potentially relevant studies, selection of relevant studies, charting data, collating, summarising and reporting findings. An additional step was added to evaluate the methodological rigor of each study...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727040/genome-wide-association-studies-and-meta-analysis-reveal-novel-quantitative-trait-loci-and-pleiotropic-loci-for-swine-head-related-traits
#14
H Chen, T Huang, Z Zhang, B Yang, C Jiang, J Wu, Z Zhou, H Zheng, W Xin, M Huang, M Zhang, C Chen, J Ren, H Ai, L Huang
The pig is an important domestic animal that provides a larger amount of meat and serves as a biomedical animal model for human. Head and facial features are closely linked to identity recognition in mammal communication. To uncover the genetic architecture of swine head and facial features, we constructed 5 experimental pig populations and accurately measured 10 traits related to head and facial features, for which genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis were later carried out. As a result, we identified a total of 24 loci harboring 437 SNP on 8 swine chromosomes (SSC) that surpassed suggestively significant levels, of which 17 loci on 6 chromosomes exceeded the 5% genome-wide significance thresholds...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726743/the-effect-of-n-terminal-cyclization-on-the-function-of-the-hiv-entry-inhibitor-5p12-rantes
#15
Anna F Nguyen, Megan S Schill, Mike Jian, Patricia J LiWang
Despite effective treatment for those living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), there are still two million new infections each year. Protein-based HIV entry inhibitors, being highly effective and specific, could be used to protect people from initial infection. One of the most promising of these for clinical use is 5P12-RANTES, a variant of the chemokine RANTES/CCL5. The N-terminal amino acid of 5P12-RANTES is glutamine (Gln; called Q0), a residue that is prone to spontaneous cyclization when at the N-terminus of a protein...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726725/a-cultural-conscience-for-conservation
#16
Caroline Good, Dawn Burnham, David W Macdonald
On 2 July 2015, the killing of a lion nicknamed "Cecil" prompted the largest global reaction in the history of wildlife conservation. In response to this, it is propitious to consider the ways in which this moment can be developed into a financial movement to transform the conservation of species such as the lion that hold cultural significance and sentiment but whose numbers in the wild are dwindling dangerously. This provocative piece explores how a species royalty could be used effectively by drawing revenue from the heavy symbolic use of charismatic animals in affluent economies...
July 20, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726600/age-and-sex-associated-differences-in-phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#17
Pramod Nehete, Elizabeth Magden, Bharti Nehete, Lawrence Williams, Christian Abee, K Sastry
Chimpanzees are the closest phylogenetic relatives to humans, sharing more than 98% genetic sequence identity. Thesegenetic similarities prompted the belief that chimpanzees can serve as an ideal model for human disease conditions andvaccine development. However, in light of the recent NIH decision to phase out biomedical research in chimpanzees and retire NIH-supported chimpanzees, data from the present study will continue to provide value for the care of aged and sick chimpanzees located in zoos, sanctuaries, and primate centers...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726454/attitude-roots-and-jiu-jitsu-persuasion-understanding-and-overcoming-the-motivated-rejection-of-science
#18
Matthew J Hornsey, Kelly S Fielding
There is a worryingly large chasm between scientific consensus and popular opinion. Roughly one third of Americans are skeptical that humans are primarily responsible for climate change; rates of some infectious diseases are climbing in the face of anti-immunization beliefs; and significant numbers of the population worldwide are antievolution creationists. It is easy to assume that resistance to an evidence-based message is a result of ignorance or failure to grasp evidence (the "deficit model" of science communication)...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726443/contextualizing-risk-and-protection-perceptions-of-bedouin-mothers-from-unrecognized-villages-in-the-naqab
#19
Ibtisam Marey-Sarwan, Dorit Roer-Strier, Hiltrud Otto
This qualitative study utilizes ecological theory, a context-informed perspective, and an interactive model to study minority children, while considering structural factors, oppression, segregation, power dynamics, and awareness of the political context. It examines perceptions of risk and protection using "snowball" sampling of 33 Bedouin mothers, citizens of Israel, from the unrecognized villages (UVs) in the Naqab in Southern Israel. Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews during 2011 to 2013...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726096/identification-and-characterization-of-the-flower-meristem-identity-gene-mhylfy-in-mycoheterotrophic-plant-monotropa-hypopitys
#20
A V Shchennikova, O A Shulga, A V Beletsky, M A Filyushin, E Z Kochieva, N V Ravin, K G Skryabin
The gene encoding the transcription factor LEAFY was identified in the genome of the mycoheterotrophic plant, pinesap Monotropa hypopitys. In the transcriptomes of roots, bracts, and flowers of flowering pinesaps, the MhyLFY gene expression was absent. These data suggest the conservativeness of the LFY-dependent mechanism of flower meristem identity and flower formation in heterotrophic species with some differences associated to the specificity of development and the structure of such plants. The pinesap flowering under the control of the transcription factor MhyLFY may be initiated either in an embryonic inflorescence during spring dormancy release of adventitious root buds or in an inflorescence of a growing reproductive stem after photoperiodic induction...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
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