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Identity development

Clara Inés Ortiz-Ramírez, Sayonara Plata-Arboleda, Natalia Pabón-Mora
Background and Aims: The genetic basis of fruit development has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis, where major transcription factors controlling valve identity (i.e. FRUITFULL), replum development (i.e. REPLUMLESS) and the differentiation of the dehiscence zones (i.e. SHATTERPROOF, INDEHISCENT and ALCATRAZ) have been identified. This gene regulatory network in other flowering plants is influenced by duplication events during angiosperm diversification. Here we aim to characterize candidate fruit development genes in the Solanaceae and compare them with those of Brassicaceae...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Jimmy Ly, Noel S Ha, Shilin Cheung, R Michael van Dam
Miniaturized synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers is poised to offer numerous advantages including reduced tracer production costs and increased availability of diverse tracers. While many steps of the tracer production process have been miniaturized, there has been relatively little development of microscale systems for the quality control (QC) testing process that is required by regulatory agencies to ensure purity, identity, and biological safety of the radiotracer before use in human subjects...
February 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jon Fisher, Paul Gaillard, Carl R Fellbaum, Senthil Subramanian, Steve Smith
Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis results in root nodules where rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen into plant usable forms in exchange for plant-derived carbohydrates. The development of these specialized root organs involves a set of carefully orchestrated plant hormone signaling. In particular, a spatio-temporal balance between auxin and cytokinin appears to be crucial for proper nodule development. We put together a construct that carried nuclear localized fluorescence sensors for auxin and cytokinin, and used two photon induced fluorescence microscopy for concurrent quantitative 3-dimensional imaging to determine cellular level auxin and cytokinin outputs and ratios in root and nodule tissues of soybean...
February 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Daniel Hernandez, Mohamed Elsayed Eldib, Mohamed A A Hegazy, Myung Hye Cho, Min Hyoung Cho, Soo Yeol Lee
A small head motion of the patient can compromise the image quality detrimentally in a dental CT in which a slow cone-beam scan is adopted. We introduce a retrospective head-motion estimation method by which we can estimate the motion waveform from the projection images without employing any external motion monitoring devices. We compute the cross-correlation between every two successive projection images which would result in a sinusoid-like displacement curve over the projection view when there is no patient motion...
February 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
João R Mesquita, Madalena Almeida-Santos, Maria Fernandes, Fernando Maltez, Sara Lino, Liliana Alves, Joana Abreu-Silva, Ricardo M S Oliveira, Martin D Curran, Maria S J Nascimento
Hepatitis E in industrialized countries is mainly associated with genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) and normally causes a sporadic self-limiting disease in immunocompetent individuals. Unlike genotype 3, genotypes 1 and 2 circulate in developing countries, produce severe disease and occur in the epidemic form. Hepatitis E occurring in travellers returning from endemic areas in developing countries is not a novel epidemiological occurrence, however the vast majority of cases remain to be genetically studied...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Shanchun Guo, Changde Zhang, Melyssa Bratton, Madhusoodanan Mottamal, Jiawang Liu, Peng Ma, Shilong Zheng, Qiu Zhong, Lin Yang, Thomas E Wiese, Yong Wu, Matthew J Ellis, Margarite Matossian, Matthew E Burow, Lucio Miele, René Houtman, Guangdi Wang
Advances in oral SERDs development so far have been confined to nonsteroidal molecules such as those containing a cinnamic acid moiety, which are in earlystage clinical evaluation. ZB716 was previously reported as an orally bioavailable SERD structurally analogous to fulvestrant. In this study, we examined the binding details of ZB716 to the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) by computer modeling to reveal its interactions with the ligand binding domain as a steroidal molecule. We also found that ZB716 modulates ERα-coregulator interactions in nearly identical manner to fulvestrant...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Regine Redelstein, Thomas Dinter, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner
Saltmarsh plants are exposed to multiple stresses including tidal inundation, salinity, wave action and sediment anoxia, which require specific root system adaptations to secure sufficient resource capture and firm anchorage in a temporary toxic environment. It is well known that many saltmarsh species develop large below-ground biomass (roots and rhizomes) but relations between fine roots, in particular, and the abiotic conditions in salt marshes are widely unknown. We studied fine root mass (<2 mm in diameter), fine root depth distribution and fine root morphology in three typical communities ( Spartina anglica -dominated pioneer zone, Atriplex portulacoides -dominated lower marsh, Elytrigia atherica -dominated upper marsh) across elevational gradients in two tidal salt marshes of the German North Sea coast [a mostly sandy marsh on a barrier island (Spiekeroog), and a silty-clayey marsh on the mainland coast (Westerhever)]...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mark W Majesky
The vascular system forms as a branching network of endothelial cells that acquire identity as arterial, venous, hemogenic, or lymphatic. Endothelial specification depends on gene targets transcribed by Ets domain-containing factors, including Ets variant gene 2 (Etv2), together with the activity of chromatin-remodeling complexes containing Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1). Once specified and assembled into vessels, mechanisms regulating lumen diameter and axial growth ensure that the structure of the branching vascular network matches the need for perfusion of target tissues...
March 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Ana Lazaro, Evelyn Obeng-Hinneh, Maria C Albani
The alpine perennial Arabis alpina initiates flower buds during prolonged exposure to cold. In the accession Pajares we demonstrate that the length of vernalization influences flowering time and inflorescence fate, but does not affect the axillary branches that maintain vegetative growth. The expression of floral organ identity genes gradually increases in the main shoot apex during vernalization, correlating with an increase in floral commitment. In northern Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, the length of vernalization modulates the stable silencing of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)...
February 21, 2018: Plant Physiology
Gary Banker
In 1988, Carlos Dotti, Chris Sullivan, and I published a paper on the establishment of polarity by hippocampal neurons in culture, which continues to be frequently cited 30 years later (Dotti et al., 1988). By following individual neurons from the time of plating until they had formed well developed axonal and dendritic arbors, we identified the five stages of development that lead to the mature expression of neuronal polarity. We were surprised to find that, before axon formation, the cells pass through a multipolar phase, in which several, apparently identical short neurites undergo periods of extension and retraction...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Anagha Anand Mahajani, Abhijit Shrinivas Prabhughate, Pearl Tiwari, Shubhangi Sohoni, Ajay Gajanan Phatak, Vallaree Anant Morgaonkar, Somashekhar Marutirao Nimbalkar
BACKGROUND: Community Health Workers (CHWs) play an instrumental role in promoting socio-behavioural change at the community level, which results in changed indicators of community health. While outcomes are mostly reviewed for achieving program objectives, it is pertinent to understand the process of program implementation mainly from the perception of participating CHWs. METHODS: A qualitative study to understand the perception of Sakhi's (CHWs) regarding the outcomes of their participation in Home-Based Neonatal Care (HBNC) Program implemented by a non-governmental organization (NGO)...
February 21, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Gergely Ivády, László Madar, Erika Dzsudzsák, Katalin Koczok, János Kappelmayer, Veronika Krulisova, Milan Macek, Attila Horváth, István Balogh
BACKGROUND: Current technologies in next-generation sequencing are offering high throughput reads at low costs, but still suffer from various sequencing errors. Although pyro- and ion semiconductor sequencing both have the advantage of delivering long and high quality reads, problems might occur when sequencing homopolymer-containing regions, since the repeating identical bases are going to incorporate during the same synthesis cycle, which leads to uncertainty in base calling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of a pyrosequencing-based next-generation sequencing system in detecting homopolymer sequences using homopolymer-preintegrated plasmid constructs and human DNA samples originating from patients with cystic fibrosis...
February 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
T Charles Witzel, Will Nutland, Adam Bourne
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) have higher HIV incidence and prevalence when compared to other MSM, despite similar levels of condom use and testing. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be a useful intervention to reduce these inequalities. This research therefore aims to understand the dimensions of acceptability of a potential PrEP service for BMSM aged 18-45 years in London. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 PrEP-eligible BMSM between April and August 2016. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, then subject to a thematic framework analysis, informed by intersectionality theory...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
John L Johnson, Georgios Georgakilas, Jelena Petrovic, Makoto Kurachi, Stanley Cai, Christelle Harly, Warren S Pear, Avinash Bhandoola, E John Wherry, Golnaz Vahedi
T cell development is orchestrated by transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes initially buried within inaccessible chromatin, but the transcription factors that establish the regulatory landscape of the T cell lineage remain unknown. Profiling chromatin accessibility at eight stages of T cell development revealed the selective enrichment of TCF-1 at genomic regions that became accessible at the earliest stages of development. TCF-1 was further required for the accessibility of these regulatory elements and at the single-cell level, it dictated a coordinate opening of chromatin in T cells...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
Veena B Nair, V G Manasa, M S Sinto, K Jayasree, Francis V James, S Kannan
OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women in developing countries, including India. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are gaining importance in cancer biology because of their involvement in various cellular processes. The present study aimed to profile miRNA expression pattern in cervical cancer, identify their target genes, and understand their role in carcinogenesis. METHODS: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection statuses in samples were assessed by heminested polymerase chain reaction followed by direct DNA sequencing...
March 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Vaida Linkuvienė, Vladimir O Talibov, U Helena Danielson, Daumantas Matulis
Structure-kinetic relationship analyses and identification of dominating interactions for optimisation of lead compounds should ideally be based on intrinsic rate constants instead of the more easily accessible observed kinetic constants, which account also for binding-linked reactions. The intrinsic rate constants for sulfonamide inhibitors and pharmacologically relevant isoforms of carbonic anhydrase were determined by a novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based approach, using chemodynamic analysis of binding-linked pH-dependent effects...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Dorene F Balmer, Alix Darden, Latha Chandran, Donna D'Alessandro, Maryellen E Gusic
PURPOSE: Despite academic medicine's endorsement of professional development and mentoring, little is known about what junior faculty learn about mentoring in the implicit curriculum of professional development programs, and how their mentor identity evolves in this context. The authors explored what faculty-participants in the Educational Scholars Program implicitly learned about mentoring and how the implicit curriculum affected mentor identity transformation. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with 19 of 36 former faculty-participants were conducted in 2016...
February 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Ankie C M Hazen, Esther de Groot, Antoinette A de Bont, Simone de Vocht, Johan J de Gier, Marcel L Bouvy, Niek J de Wit, Dorien L M Zwart
PURPOSE: To unravel boundary crossing as it relates to professional identity formation in pharmacists transitioning from a community pharmacy to working as nondispensing clinical pharmacists in general practice, with the aim of optimizing their education. METHOD: A multiple case study, including two-stage interviews, peer feedback, and individual reflection, that collected data in 2014 and 2015 from eight clinical pharmacists working in general practice in The Netherlands...
February 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Zabiullah Ali, Christopher Cox, Michala K Stock, Eddy E Zandee vanRilland, Ana Rubio, David R Fowler
Postmortem computed tomography (CT) has been extensively used in the last decade for identification purposes and in various anthropologic studies. Postmortem CT measurements of scapulae, analyzed using logistic discriminant function developed in this study, showed 94.5% accuracy in estimating sex. Data analyzed using the Dabbs and Moore-Jansen (2010) discriminant function and the discriminant function generated in this study provided nearly identical results with disagreement in only one case. Height and weight were not statically significant in sex prediction...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Wenlong Li, James Branley, Archana Sud
PURPOSE: Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a widely accepted and safe therapeutic option for carefully selected patients. This study reviewed the practice of an OPAT service in a large Australian tertiary teaching hospital in Western Sydney over a 10-year period. METHOD: Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained electronic database which included information on patient demographics, clinical diagnosis, microbiological identity, antimicrobial therapy, complications and readmissions...
February 20, 2018: Infection
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