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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668124/a-reduced-dose-of-fluconazole-as-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-a-hla-identical-sibling
#1
B Sarina, J Mariotti, S Bramanti, L Morabito, R Crocchiolo, A Rimondo, F Tordato, D Pocaterra, E Casari, Chiara De Philippis, C Carlo-Stella, A Santoro, L Castagna
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a common side effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), resulting in increased non relapse mortality (NRM) and reduced overall survival (OS) rates. 75-days of Fluconazole 400 mg/day represents the standard primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) after allo-SCT, especially for low-risk transplants. However, the ideal dosage of fluconazole has never been tested. METHODS: Here we report the experience of our institution on 113 consecutive patients receiving an allo-SCT from a HLA identical sibling between 1999 and 2015, where PAP consisted of fluconazole 100 mg/day only during the pre-engraftment phase...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667703/diagnosis-and-management-practices-for-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-australia-cross-sectional-survey-of-the-multidisciplinary-team
#2
Nina Meloncelli, Adrian Barnett, Fiona Pelly, Susan de Jersey
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy disorders; however, if well managed, women with GDM experience similar pregnancy outcomes to those without. Currently, there is limited evidence on actual management practices across Australia or how multidisciplinary teams interact to optimise care. AIMS: To examine the current screening, diagnostic, task and role perceptions and management practices, as reported by members of the GDM multidisciplinary team...
April 18, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#3
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666595/attitudes-toward-transgender-men-and-women-development-and-validation-of-a-new-measure
#4
Thomas J Billard
A series of three studies were conducted to generate, develop, and validate the Attitudes toward Transgender Men and Women (ATTMW) scale. In Study 1, 120 American adults responded to an open-ended questionnaire probing various dimensions of their perceptions of transgender individuals and identity. Qualitative thematic analysis generated 200 items based on their responses. In Study 2, 238 American adults completed a questionnaire consisting of the generated items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed two non-identical 12-item subscales (ATTM and ATTW) of the full 24-item scale...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666373/a-geometric-approach-to-characterize-the-functional-identity-of-single-cells
#5
Shahin Mohammadi, Vikram Ravindra, David F Gleich, Ananth Grama
Single-cell transcriptomic data has the potential to radically redefine our view of cell-type identity. Cells that were previously believed to be homogeneous are now clearly distinguishable in terms of their expression phenotype. Methods for automatically characterizing the functional identity of cells, and their associated properties, can be used to uncover processes involved in lineage differentiation as well as sub-typing cancer cells. They can also be used to suggest personalized therapies based on molecular signatures associated with pathology...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665513/levels-of-depression-in-transgender-people-and-its-predictors-results-of-a-large-matched-control-study-with-transgender-people-accessing-clinical-services
#6
Gemma L Witcomb, Walter Pierre Bouman, Laurence Claes, Nicola Brewin, John R Crawford, Jon Arcelus
BACKGROUND: Depression is a serious disorder which significantly impacts wellbeing and quality of life. Studies exploring mental wellbeing in the transgender population are mostly limited by small, non-homogenous samples and lack of matched controls. This study aimed to address these limitations and explore depression rates in a large sample of transgender people, compared with matched controls from the general population, as well as factors predicting depression in those taking cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) compared to those not...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665492/sex-and-orientation-identity-matter-in-the-substance-use-behaviors-of-sexual-minority-adolescents-in-the-united-states
#7
Theodore L Caputi
BACKGROUND: Health sciences researchers are beginning to understand the differing experiences and health risks among sexual minority subgroups (i.e., those who describe themselves as homosexual/gay/lesbian, bisexual, or unsure/questioning). Such research can promote the allocation of resources to high-risk groups and the development of interventions tailored to their needs. The present study extends this line of research to substance use among adolescents. METHODS: The lifetime and/or past 30-day alcohol, tobacco, cigarette, e-cigarette, marijuana, prescription drug, and illicit drug use of sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents was analyzed using data from the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665110/illusion-thermotics
#8
Run Hu, Shuling Zhou, Ying Li, Dang-Yuan Lei, Xiaobing Luo, Cheng-Wei Qiu
"Fata Morgana" or "Mirage" phenomena have long been captivated as optical illusions, which actually relies on gradient-density air or vapor. Man-made optical illusions have witnessed significant progress by resorting to artificially structured metamaterials. Nevertheless, two long-standing challenges remain formidable: first, exotic parameters (negative or less than unity) become inevitable; second, the signature of original object is altered to that of a virtual counterpart. It is thus not able to address the holy grail of illusion per se, since a single virtual object still exposes the location...
April 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664945/accuracy-reliability-and-timing-of-visual-evaluations-of-decay-in-fresh-cut-lettuce
#9
Ivan Simko, Ryan J Hayes
Visual assessments are used for evaluating the quality of food products, such as fresh-cut lettuce packaged in bags with modified atmosphere. We have compared the accuracy and the reliability of visual evaluations of decay on fresh-cut lettuce performed with experienced and inexperienced raters. In addition, we have analyzed decay data from over 4.5 thousand bags to determine the optimum timing for evaluations to detect differences among accessions. Lin's concordance coefficient (ρc) that takes into consideration both the closeness of the data and the conformance to the identity line showed high repeatability (intra-rater reliability, ρc = 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664015/a-new-concept-of-fibroblast-dynamics-in-post-myocardial-infarction-remodeling
#10
Thomas Eschenhagen
The identity and function of the fibroblast, a highly prevalent cell type in the heart, have remained poorly defined. Recent faithful genetic lineage-tracing studies revealed that during development, the cardiac fibroblasts are derived from the epicardium and the endothelium, whereas in the adult heart, they constitute the cardiac injury-responsive resident fibroblast. In the current issue of the JCI, Molkentin and colleagues decipher the time course and mechanism of the fibroblast in response to myocardial infarction (MI)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663798/avoiding-antibiotic-inactivation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-rv3406-through-strategic-nucleoside-modification
#11
Matthew R Bockman, Curtis A Engelhart, Surendra Dawadi, Peter Larson, Divya Tiwari, David M Ferguson, Dirk Schnappinger, Courtney C Aldrich
5'-[ N-(d-biotinoyl)sulfamoyl]amino-5'-deoxyadenosine (Bio-AMS, 1) possesses selective activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) and arrests fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis through inhibition of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis biotin protein ligase ( MtBPL). Mtb develops spontaneous resistance to 1 with a frequency of at least 1 × 10-7 by overexpression of Rv3406, a type II sulfatase that enzymatically inactivates 1. In an effort to circumvent this resistance mechanism, we describe herein strategic modification of the nucleoside at the 5'-position to prevent enzymatic inactivation...
April 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663717/salivary-gland-stem-cells-a-review-of-development-regeneration-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Elaine Emmerson, Sarah M Knox
Salivary glands are responsible for maintaining the health of the oral cavity and are routinely damaged by therapeutic radiation for head and neck cancer as well as by autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome. Regenerative approaches based on the reactivation of endogenous stem cells or the transplant of exogenous stem cells hold substantial promise in restoring the structure and function of these organs to improve patient quality of life. However, these approaches have been hampered by a lack of knowledge on the identity of salivary stem cell populations and their regulators...
April 16, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663446/dualities-of-dementia-illness-narratives-and-their-role-in-a-narrative-economy
#13
Alexandra Hillman, Ian Rees Jones, Catherine Quinn, Sharon M Nelis, Linda Clare
The concept of 'narrative economies' has recently been proposed as a set of exchange relationships that, through biography and story-telling, facilitate access to resources and act as a source of value. We utilise this concept to inform our analysis of 18 qualitative interviews with five people with dementia and four informal carers. Our participants are members of a pre-existing group of dementia advocates, representing the voices of those living with the condition. There are a growing number of people in the early stages of dementia - like our participants - being called upon to account for their experience, as a means of developing a politicised 'collective illness identity'...
April 16, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663396/internet-trolling-and-everyday-sadism-parallel-effects-on-pain-perception-and-moral-judgment
#14
Erin E Buckels, Paul D Trapnell, Tamara Andjelovic, Delroy L Paulhus
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the association between online trolling and sadistic personality; and provide evidence that the reward and rationalization processes at work in sadism are likewise manifest in online trolling. METHOD: Online respondents (total N = 1,715) completed self-report measures of personality and trolling behavior. They subsequently engaged in one of two judgment tasks. In Study 1, respondents viewed stimuli depicting scenes of emotional/physical suffering, and provided ratings of (a) perceived pain intensity and (b) pleasure experienced while viewing the photos...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662986/discovery-and-characterization-of-natural-products-that-act-as-pheromones-in-fish
#15
REVIEW
Ke Li, Tyler J Buchinger, Weiming Li
Covering: up to 2018Fish use a diverse collection of molecules to communicate with conspecifics. Since Karlson and Lüscher termed these molecules 'pheromones', chemists and biologists have joined efforts to characterize their structures and functions. In particular, the understanding of insect pheromones developed at a rapid pace, set, in part, by the use of bioassay-guided fractionation and natural product chemistry. Research on vertebrate pheromones, however, has progressed more slowly. Initially, biologists characterized fish pheromones by screening commercially available compounds suspected to act as pheromones based upon their physiological function...
April 17, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662914/ligament-strain-response-between-lower-extremity-contralateral-pairs-during-in-vitro-landing-simulation
#16
April L McPherson, Nathanial A Bates, Nathan D Schilaty, Christopher V Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
Background: Limb asymmetries, as determined through in vivo biomechanical measures, are known risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Previous cadaveric studies have shown a lack of significant differences in ligament strain between contralateral lower extremities when identical kinematics were simulated on specimens. Recent methodological developments have applied in vivo knee kinetics to exert landing forces on cadaveric lower extremities to mimic ACL injury events, but it is unknown whether contralateral limbs fail in a consistent manner during impact simulator testing...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661944/atrial-fibrillation-burden-moving-beyond-atrial-fibrillation-as-a-binary-entity-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#17
REVIEW
Lin Y Chen, Mina K Chung, Larry A Allen, Michael Ezekowitz, Karen L Furie, Pamela McCabe, Peter A Noseworthy, Marco V Perez, Mintu P Turakhia
Our understanding of the risk factors and complications of atrial fibrillation (AF) is based mostly on studies that have evaluated AF in a binary fashion (present or absent) and have not investigated AF burden. This scientific statement discusses the published literature and knowledge gaps related to methods of defining and measuring AF burden, the relationship of AF burden to cardiovascular and neurological outcomes, and the effect of lifestyle and risk factor modification on AF burden. Many studies examine outcomes by AF burden classified by AF type (paroxysmal versus nonparoxysmal); however, quantitatively, AF burden can be defined by longest duration, number of AF episodes during a monitoring period, and the proportion of time an individual is in AF during a monitoring period (expressed as a percentage)...
April 16, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661850/distinct-3-utrs-regulate-the-life-cycle-specific-expression-of-two-tctp-paralogs-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#18
Borka Jojic, Simona Amodeo, Irina Bregy, Torsten Ochsenreiter
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. It is involved in growth and development, cell cycle progression, protection against cellular stresses and apoptosis, indicating the multifunctional role of the protein. Here, for the first time we characterize the expression and function of TCTP in the human and animal pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei We identified two paralogs ( TCTP1 and TCTP2 ) that are differentially expressed in the life cycle of the parasite...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661249/using-qualitative-and-community-based-engagement-approaches-to-gain-access-and-to-develop-a-culturally-appropriate-sti-prevention-intervention-for-foreign-female-entertainment-workers-in-singapore
#19
Raymond Boon Tar Lim, Olive N Y Cheung, Dede Kam Tyng Tham, Hanh Hao La, Thein Than Win, Roy Chan, Mee Lian Wong
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing global movement of foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs), a hard-to-reach population vulnerable to HIV/STIs. This paper described the needs assessment phase before intervention implementation where the socio-organisation, sexual risk behaviours and access to health services of foreign FEWs in Singapore were explored. We also highlighted how qualitative inquiry, census enumeration technique and community-based engagement approaches were used to gain access and to develop a culturally appropriate STI prevention intervention...
April 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661150/a-moderate-500-m-treadmill-walk-for-estimating-peak-oxygen-uptake-in-men-with-nyha-class-i-ii-heart-failure-and-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction
#20
Gianni Mazzoni, Biagio Sassone, Giovanni Pasanisi, Jonathan Myers, Simona Mandini, Stefano Volpato, Francesco Conconi, Giorgio Chiaranda, Giovanni Grazzi
BACKGROUND: Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold-standard for cardiorespiratory fitness assessment in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. However, high costs, required medical supervision, and safety concerns make maximal exercise testing impractical for evaluating mobility-impaired adults. Thus, several submaximal walking protocols have been developed and currently used to estimate peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) in CHF patients. However, these tests have to be performed at close to maximum exercise intensity...
April 16, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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