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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222466/deciphering-transcriptional-regulation-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells-specified-towards-a-trophoblast-fate
#1
Ashish Jain, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts, Geetu Tuteja
Differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) continue to provide a model for studying early trophoblast cells (TB), but many questions have been raised regarding their true identity. Therefore, we carried out a global and unbiased analysis on previously published transcriptomic profiles for hESC differentiated to TB by means of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and inhibitors of activin A and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling (BAP treatment). Our results confirm that BAP treated hESC (ESCd) lack a mesoderm signature and are a subtype of placental cells unlike those present at term...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222401/genetics-of-floral-development-by-christine-fleet
#2
(no author information available yet)
Summaryplantcell;29/11/tpc.117.tt1117/FIG1F1fig1A basic model for floral organ identity has been developed using model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana, snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and petunia (Petunia hybrida). In this model, different combinations of proteins known as ABCDE proteins, mostly MADS-domain transcription factors, activate the transcription of target genes to specify the identity of each whorl of floral organs. Changes in the regulation or activation of these target genes contribute to the wide variety of floral forms that we see within and across species...
November 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221504/a-social-identity-analysis-of-responses-to-economic-inequality
#3
REVIEW
Jolanda Jetten, Zhechen Wang, Niklas K Steffens, Frank Mols, Kim Peters, Maykel Verkuyten
Even though there is growing awareness that economic inequality is harmful for people's health, the way that such inequality affects social behavior and political attitudes remains poorly understood. Moving beyond a focus on the health and well-being costs of income inequality, we review research that examines how economic inequality shapes dynamics between groups within societies, addressing the questions why, when, and for whom inequality affects social behavior and political attitudes. On the basis of classic social identity theorizing, we develop five hypotheses that focus on the way inequality shapes the fit of wealth categorizations (H1), intergroup relations (H2), and stereotypes about wealth groups (H3)...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221093/low-loss-demonstration-and-refined-characterization-of-silicon-arrayed-waveguide-gratings-in-the-near-infrared
#4
Eric J Stanton, Nicolas Volet, John E Bowers
A resonator is characterized with two cascaded arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) in a ring formation. From this structure, the on-chip transmittance of a single AWG is extracted, independent of coupling efficiency. It provides improved measurement accuracy, which is essential for developing AWGs with extremely low loss. Previous methods normalize the off-chip AWG transmittance to that of a reference waveguide with identical coupling, leading to an uncertainty of ∼14 % on the extracted on-chip AWG transmittance...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220715/getting-to-know-you-the-development-of-mechanisms-underlying-face-learning
#5
Claire M Matthews, Emily E Davis, Catherine J Mondloch
Nearly every study investigating the development of face recognition has focused on the ability to tell people apart using one or two tightly controlled images to represent each identity. Such research ignores the challenge of recognizing the same person despite variability in appearance. Whereas natural variation in appearance makes unfamiliar faces difficult to recognize, by 6 years of age people easily recognize multiple images of familiar faces. Two mechanisms are proposed to underlie the process by which adults become familiar with newly encountered faces...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220512/a-survey-and-evaluations-of-histogram-based-statistics-in-alignment-free-sequence-comparison
#6
Brian B Luczak, Benjamin T James, Hani Z Girgis
Motivation: Since the dawn of the bioinformatics field, sequence alignment scores have been the main method for comparing sequences. However, alignment algorithms are quadratic, requiring long execution time. As alternatives, scientists have developed tens of alignment-free statistics for measuring the similarity between two sequences. Results: We surveyed tens of alignment-free k-mer statistics. Additionally, we evaluated 33 statistics and multiplicative combinations between the statistics and/or their squares...
December 6, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218709/predicting-plant-immunity-gene-expression-by-identifying-the-decoding-mechanism-of-calcium-signatures
#7
Gioia Lenzoni, Junli Liu, Marc R Knight
Calcium plays a key role in determining the specificity of a vast array of signalling pathways in plants. Cellular calcium elevations with different characteristics (calcium signatures) carry information on the identity of the primary stimulus, ensuring appropriate downstream responses. However, the mechanism for decoding calcium signatures is unknown. To determine this, decoding of the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant immunity signalling network controlling gene expression was examined. A dynamic mathematical model of the SA-mediated plant immunity network was developed...
December 8, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218560/a-successful-combination-coupling-se-hplc-with-saxs
#8
Javier Pérez, Patrice Vachette
A monodispersed and ideal solution is a central (unique?) requirement of SAXS to allow one to extract structural information from the recorded pattern. On-line Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) marked a major breakthrough, separating particles present in solution according to their size. Identical frames under an elution peak can be averaged and further processed free from contamination. However, this is not always straightforward, separation is often incomplete and software have been developed to deconvolve the contributions from the different species (molecules or oligomeric forms) within the sample...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217510/loss-of-vascular-myogenic-tone-in-mir-143-145-knockout-mice-is-associated-with-hypertension-induced-vascular-lesions-in-small-mesenteric-arteries
#9
Johan Holmberg, Anirban Bhattachariya, Azra Alajbegovic, Catarina Rippe, Mari Ekman, Diana Dahan, Tran Thi Hien, Thomas Boettger, Thomas Braun, Karl Swärd, Per Hellstrand, Sebastian Albinsson
OBJECTIVE: Pressure-induced myogenic tone is involved in autoregulation of local blood flow and confers protection against excessive pressure levels in small arteries and capillaries. Myogenic tone is dependent on smooth muscle microRNAs (miRNAs), but the identity of these miRNAs is unclear. Furthermore, the consequences of altered myogenic tone for hypertension-induced damage to small arteries are not well understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The importance of smooth muscle-enriched microRNAs, miR-143/145, for myogenic tone was evaluated in miR-143/145 knockout mice...
December 7, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217200/timing-is-everything-reiterative-wnt-bmp-and-ra-signaling-regulate-developmental-competence-during-endoderm-organogenesis
#10
Scott A Rankin, Kyle W McCracken, David M Luedeke, Lu Han, James M Wells, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn
A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217079/haploinsufficiency-for-the-six2-gene-increases-nephron-progenitor-proliferation-promoting-branching-and-nephron-number
#11
Alexander N Combes, Sean Wilson, Belinda Phipson, Brandon B Binnie, Adler Ju, Kynan T Lawlor, Cristina Cebrian, Sarah L Walton, Ian M Smyth, Karen M Moritz, Raphael Kopan, Alicia Oshlack, Melissa H Little
The regulation of final nephron number in the kidney is poorly understood. Cessation of nephron formation occurs when the self-renewing nephron progenitor population commits to differentiation. Transcription factors within this progenitor population, such as SIX2, are assumed to control expression of genes promoting self-renewal such that homozygous Six2 deletion results in premature commitment and an early halt to kidney development. In contrast, Six2 heterozygotes were assumed to be unaffected. Using quantitative morphometry, we found a paradoxical 18% increase in ureteric branching and final nephron number in Six2 heterozygotes, despite evidence for reduced levels of SIX2 protein and transcript...
December 4, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216968/gender-trouble-the-world-health-organization-the-international-statistical-classification-of-diseases-and-related-health-problems-icd-11-and-the-trans-kids
#12
Sam Winter
The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising its diagnostic manual, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). At the time of writing, and based on recommendations from its ICD Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health, WHO is proposing a new ICD chapter titled Conditions Related to Sexual Health, and that the gender incongruence diagnoses (replacements for the gender identity disorder diagnoses used in ICD-10) should be placed in that chapter. WHO is proposing that there should be a Gender incongruence of childhood (GIC) diagnosis for children below the age of puberty...
October 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216519/mine-is-better-than-yours-investigating-the-ownership-effect-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-typically-developing-children
#13
Calum Hartley, Sophie Fisher
Ownership has a unique and privileged influence on human psychology. Typically developing (TD) children judge their objects to be more desirable and valuable than similar objects belonging to others. This 'ownership effect' is due to processing one's property in relation to 'the self'. Here we explore whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - a population with impaired self-understanding - prefer and over-value property due to ownership. In Experiment 1, we discovered that children with ASD did not favour a randomly endowed toy and frequently traded for a different object...
December 4, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216185/a-cyber-linked-undergraduate-research-experience-in-computational-biomolecular-structure-prediction-and-design
#14
Rebecca F Alford, Andrew Leaver-Fay, Lynda Gonzales, Erin L Dolan, Jeffrey J Gray
Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field, and many computational biology research projects involve distributed teams of scientists. To accomplish their work, these teams must overcome both disciplinary and geographic barriers. Introducing new training paradigms is one way to facilitate research progress in computational biology. Here, we describe a new undergraduate program in biomolecular structure prediction and design in which students conduct research at labs located at geographically-distributed institutions while remaining connected through an online community...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216184/automated-classification-of-dolphin-echolocation-click-types-from-the-gulf-of-mexico
#15
Kaitlin E Frasier, Marie A Roch, Melissa S Soldevilla, Sean M Wiggins, Lance P Garrison, John A Hildebrand
Delphinids produce large numbers of short duration, broadband echolocation clicks which may be useful for species classification in passive acoustic monitoring efforts. A challenge in echolocation click classification is to overcome the many sources of variability to recognize underlying patterns across many detections. An automated unsupervised network-based classification method was developed to simulate the approach a human analyst uses when categorizing click types: Clusters of similar clicks were identified by incorporating multiple click characteristics (spectral shape and inter-click interval distributions) to distinguish within-type from between-type variation, and identify distinct, persistent click types...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216127/monolithic-iii-nitride-photonic-integration-toward-multifunctional-devices
#16
Xumin Gao, Zheng Shi, Yan Jiang, Shuai Zhang, Chuan Qin, Jialei Yuan, Yuhuai Liu, Peter Grünberg, Yongjin Wang
The multiple functionalities of III-nitride semiconductors enable the integration with different components into a multicomponent system with enhanced functions. Here, we propose to fabricate and characterize a monolithic InGaN photonic circuit of a transmitter, waveguide, and receiver on an III-nitride-on-silicon platform. Both the transmitter and the receiver, sharing identical InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well structures and fabrication procedures, work to emit light and detect light independently. The 8 μm wide and 200 μm long InGaN waveguide couples the modulated light from the transmitter and sends the guided light to the receiver, leading to the formation of an in-plane light transmission system...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215901/introduction-of-the-dsm-5-levels-of-personality-functioning-questionnaire
#17
Steven K Huprich, Sharon M Nelson, Kevin B Meehan, Caleb J Siefert, Gregory Haggerty, James Sexton, V Barry Dauphin, Matthew Macaluso, Jennifer Jackson, Rosey Zackula, Lyle Baade
With the introduction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) of a hybrid system of personality disorder assessment, the ability to assess patients' traits, as well as their level of personality functioning, has become increasingly important. To assess this criterion, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Questionnaire (DLOPFQ) was developed. The DLOPFQ assesses individuals' self-impairments and other impairments in several domains (self-direction, identity, empathy, and intimacy) and across 2 contexts (work/school and relationships)...
December 7, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214480/amicarbazone-degradation-promoted-by-zvi-activated-persulfate-study-of-relevant-variables-for-practical-application
#18
Cátia A L Graça, Lucas T N Fugita, Adriana Correia de Velosa, Antonio Carlos S C Teixeira
Alarming amounts of organic pollutants are being detected in waterbodies due to their ineffective removal by conventional treatment techniques, which warn of the urgent need of developing new technologies for their remediation. In this context, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), especially those based on Fenton reactions, have proved to be suitable alternatives, due to their efficacy of removing persistent organic compounds. However, the use of ferrous iron in these processes has several operational constraints; to avoid this, an alternative iron source was here investigated: zero-valent-iron (ZVI)...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214014/influence-of-perceived-difficulty-of-cases-on-student-osteopaths-diagnostic-reasoning-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Aurelien L Noyer, Jorge E Esteves, Oliver P Thomson
Background: Diagnostic reasoning refers to the cognitive processes by which clinicians formulate diagnoses. Despite the implications for patient safety and professional identity, research on diagnostic reasoning in osteopathy remains largely theoretical. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perceived task difficulty on the diagnostic reasoning of students osteopaths. Methods: Using a single-blinded, cross sectional study design, sixteen final year pre-registration osteopathy students diagnosed two standardized cases under two context conditions (complex versus control)...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212819/transcriptional-and-translational-dynamics-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-in-early-chicken-development
#20
Young Sun Hwang, Minseok Seo, Sohyun Bang, Heebal Kim, Jae Yong Han
Maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is the critical process for the establishment of embryonic identity across vertebrates. During this period, the massive transcriptional activation, called zygotic genome activation (ZGA), is mediated by maternally stored factors, and maternal mRNA clearance by conserved zygotic microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs; however, the important transition in avian species was identified by morphologic perspectives only. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis to examine the molecular transitions of intrauterine development in chickens...
December 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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