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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527374/talking-about-sunbed-tanning-social-representations-and-identity-work
#1
Jennifer Taylor, Michael Murray, Alexandra Lamont
RATIONALE: Despite the publicised health risks associated with its usage, sunbed tanning remains popular in many Western countries. Previous research indicates that knowledge of the harmful effects does not necessarily lead to a reduction in sunbed use. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a more extensive social psychological understanding of sunbed use, in the United Kingdom, by exploring the social representations of sunbed tanning held by both those who use and who have never used sunbeds...
May 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526770/therapeutic-ige-antibodies-harnessing-a-macrophage-mediated-immune-surveillance-mechanism-against-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Sophia N Karagiannis, Debra H Josephs, Heather J Bax, James F Spicer
IgG monoclonal antibodies have made significant contributions to cancer therapy, but suffer from several limitations that restrict their effectiveness in unleashing host immune system components against tumors. The development of monoclonal antibodies of an alternative class, namely IgE, may offer enhanced immune surveillance and superior effector cell potency against cancer cells. In our recent article, we elaborate our proof-of-concept studies of a mouse/human chimeric IgE antibody (MOv18 IgE), which is specific for the cancer-associated antigen folate receptor alpha...
May 19, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524555/considering-gender-and-student-leadership-through-the-lens-of-intersectionality
#3
Daniel Tillapaugh, Donald Mitchell, Krista M Soria
This chapter explores the concept of intersectionality and its applicability to student leadership development as well as recommendations on how intersectionality can provide transformative learning for students of all gender identities.
June 2017: New Directions for Student Leadership
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522861/comparative-analysis-of-dendrobium-plastomes-and-utility-of-plastomic-mutational-hotspots
#4
Niu Zhitao, Zhu Shuying, Pan Jiajia, Li Ludan, Sun Jing, Ding Xiaoyu
Dendrobium is one of the largest genera in Orchidaceae, comprising about 800-1500 species mainly distributed in tropical Asia, Australasia, and Australia. There are 74 species and two varieties of this genus in China. Because of their ornamental and commercial value, Dendrobium orchids have been studied at low taxonomic levels. However, structural changes and effective mutational hotspots of Dendrobium plastomes have rarely been documented. Here, 30 Dendrobium plastomes were compared, comprising 25 newly sequenced in this study and five previously published...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522650/examining-the-association-between-hemodialysis-access-type-and-mortality-the-role-of-access-complications
#5
Pietro Ravani, Robert Quinn, Matthew Oliver, Bruce Robinson, Ronald Pisoni, Neesh Pannu, Jennifer MacRae, Braden Manns, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Matthew James, Marcello Tonelli, Brenda Gillespie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People receiving hemodialysis to treat kidney failure need a vascular access (a fistula, a graft, or a central venous catheter) to connect to the blood purification machine. Higher rates of access complications are considered the mechanism responsible for the excess mortality observed among catheter or graft users versus fistula users. We tested this hypothesis using mediation analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We studied incident patients who started hemodialysis therapy from North America, Europe, and Australasia (the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study; 1996-2011)...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522411/halloysite-and-chitosan-oligosaccharide-nanocomposite-for-wound-healing
#6
Giuseppina Sandri, Carola Aguzzi, Silvia Rossi, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Giovanna Bruni, Cinzia Boselli, Antonia Icaro Cornaglia, Federica Riva, Cesar Viseras, Carla Caramella, Franca Ferrari
Halloysite is a natural nanotubular clay mineral (HNTs, Halloysite Nano Tubes) chemically identical to kaolinite and, due to its good biocompatibility, is an attractive nanomaterial for a vast range of biological applications. Chitosan oligosaccharides are homo- or heterooligomers of N-acetylglucosamine and D-glucosamine, that accelerate wound healing by enhancing the functions of inflammatory and repairing cells. The aim of the work was the development of a nanocomposite based on HNTs and chitosan oligosaccharides, to be used as pour powder to enhance healing in the treatment of chronic wounds...
May 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521380/-clinical-practical-examination-in-orthopaedic-teaching-who-is-the-ideal-examiner
#7
Peter Melcher, Andreas Roth, Mohamed Ghanem, Daisy Rotzoll
Background Medical curricula require an increasing amount of integrated clinical practical skills education. German medical faculties are increasingly implementing the OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) to test students' practical as well as communication skills. Teaching and assessment tools for practical skills include simulators and simulated patient scenarios, where peer-assisted teaching (PAT) is applied. Trained student tutors support this process. This study examines for the first time the use of PAT student tutors as examiners in an orthopaedic OSCE unit and the existence of possible differences in rating between faculty and PAT student tutors...
May 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521208/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-two-%C3%AE-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein-synthase-i-genes-from-jatropha-curcas-l
#8
Wangdan Xiong, Qian Wei, Pingzhi Wu, Sheng Zhang, Jun Li, Yaping Chen, Meiru Li, Huawu Jiang, Guojiang Wu
The β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (KASI) is involved in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in many organisms. Two putative KASI genes, JcKASI-1 and JcKASI-2, were isolated from Jatropha curcas. The deduced amino acid sequences of JcKASI-1 and JcKASI-2 exhibit around 83.8% and 72.5% sequence identities with AtKASI, respectively, and both contain conserved Cys-His-Lys-His-Phe catalytic active sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that JcKASI-2 belongs to a clade with several KASI proteins from dicotyledonous plants...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520954/h2b-ubiquitylation-and-the-histone-chaperone-asf1-cooperatively-mediate-the-formation-and-maintenance-of-heterochromatin-silencing
#9
Meng-Ying Wu, Chia-Yeh Lin, Hsin-Yi Tseng, Fei-Man Hsu, Pao-Yang Chen, Cheng-Fu Kao
Heterochromatin is a heritable form of gene repression, with critical roles in development and cell identity. Understanding how chromatin factors results in such repression is a fundamental question. Chromatin is assembled and disassembled during transcription, replication and repair by anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1), a highly conserved histone chaperone. Transcription and DNA replication are also affected by histone modifications that modify nucleosome dynamics, such as H2B ubiquitylation (H2Bub). We report here that H2Bub and Asf1 cooperatively promote transcriptional silencing at yeast telomeres and mating loci...
May 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518099/dissection-of-larval-zebrafish-gonadal-tissue
#10
Xinjian Wang, Sijie Chen, Wei Zhang, Yiyuan Ren, Quan Zhang, Gang Peng
Although wild zebrafish possess a ZZ/ZW sex-determination system, domesticated zebrafish have lost the sex chromosome. They utilize a polygenic sex determination system, where several genes distributed throughout the genome collectively determine the sex identities of individual fish. Currently, the genes involved in regulating gonad development and how they work remain elusive. Normally, isolating gonadal tissue is the first step to examine the sex developmental processes. Here, we present a procedure to isolate gonadal tissue from 17 dpf (days post fertilization) and 25 dpf zebrafish larvae...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518073/extraction-and-characterization-of-surfactants-from-atmospheric-aerosols
#11
Barbara Nozière, Violaine Gérard, Christine Baduel, Corinne Ferronato
Surface-active compounds, or surfactants, present in atmospheric aerosols are expected to play important roles in the formation of liquid water clouds in the Earth's atmosphere, a central process in meteorology, hydrology, and for the climate system. But because specific extraction and characterization of these compounds have been lacking for decades, very little is known on their identity, properties, mode of action and origins, thus preventing the full understanding of cloud formation and its potential links with the Earth's ecosystems...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517943/implications-of-parent-child-relationships-for-emerging-adults-subjective-feelings-about-adulthood
#12
Anna K Lindell, Nicole Campione-Barr, Sarah E Killoren
Little is known about the role of parents in promoting their children's successful transition to adulthood, particularly for college students who may maintain stronger ties to parents than other emerging adults. The present study therefore investigated longitudinal implications of parent-child relationship qualities during emerging adults' first year of college for their feelings about the upcoming transition to adulthood 3 years later, as well as implications of 3 types of parental control (behavioral control, psychological control, helicopter parenting) for these associations...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517044/intercentrum-versus-pleurocentrum-growth-in-early-tetrapods-a-paleohistological-approach
#13
Marylène Danto, Florian Witzmann, Stephanie E Pierce, Nadia B Fröbisch
A variety of vertebral centrum morphologies have evolved within early tetrapods which range from multipartite centra consisting of intercentra and pleurocentra in stem-tetrapods, temnospondyls, seymouriamorphs, and anthracosaurs up to monospondylous centra in lepospondyls. With the present study, we aim to determine the formation of both intercentrum and pleurocentrum and asked whether these can be homologized based on their bone histology. Both intercentra and pleurocentra ossified endochondrally and periosteal bone was subsequently deposited on the outer surface of the centra...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515730/analysis-of-mads-box-gene-family-reveals-conservation-in-floral-organ-abcde-model-of-moso-bamboo-phyllostachys-edulis
#14
Zhanchao Cheng, Wei Ge, Long Li, Dan Hou, Yanjun Ma, Jun Liu, Qingsong Bai, Xueping Li, Shaohua Mu, Jian Gao
Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS)-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKC(C), MIKC(∗), Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515723/different-somatic-hypermutation-levels-among-antibody-subclasses-disclosed-by-a-new-next-generation-sequencing-based-antibody-repertoire-analysis
#15
Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroshi Yamashita, Hitomi Ayabe, Tadasu Shini, Takaji Matsutani, Ryuji Suzuki
A diverse antibody repertoire is primarily generated by the rearrangement of V, D, and J genes and subsequent somatic hypermutation (SHM). Class-switch recombination (CSR) produces various isotypes and subclasses with different functional properties. Although antibody isotypes and subclasses are considered to be produced by both direct and sequential CSR, it is still not fully understood how SHMs accumulate during the process in which antibody subclasses are generated. Here, we developed a new next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based antibody repertoire analysis capable of identifying all antibody isotype and subclass genes and used it to examine the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 12 healthy individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515211/functional-equivalence-of-the-sox2-and-sox3-transcription-factors-in-the-developing-mouse-brain-and-testes
#16
Fatwa Adikusuma, Daniel Pederick, Dale McAninch, James Hughes, Paul Thomas
Gene duplication provides spare genetic material that evolution can craft into new functions. Sox2 and Sox3 are evolutionarily-related genes with overlapping and unique sites of expression during embryogenesis. It is currently unclear whether SOX2 and SOX3 have identical or different functions. Here we use CRISPR/Cas9-assisted mutagenesis to perform a gene-swap, replacing the Sox3 ORF with the Sox2 ORF to investigate their functional equivalence in the brain and testes. We show that increased expression of SOX2 can functionally replace SOX3 in the development of the infundibular recess/ventral diencephalon and largely rescues pituitary gland defects that occur in Sox3 null mice...
May 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514913/action-learning-ripples-within-and-beyond-the-set
#17
Robert James Warwick, Adam Palmer, Janet McCray
Purpose This paper aims to explore the impact of action learning (AL) on an individual and an organisation, particularly the process by which each affected the other. The organisation is a UK National Health Service (NHS) Trust that includes two hospitals. Design/methodology/approach This is a single person case study involving a clinician, but the voice of an author can also be heard. It involves the experience of the individual as they experience AL as part of a leadership development programme leading to a postgraduate certificate...
May 2, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514688/the-e-id-protein-axis-specifies-adaptive-lymphoid-cell-identity-and-suppresses-thymic-innate-lymphoid-cell-development
#18
Masaki Miyazaki, Kazuko Miyazaki, Kenian Chen, Yi Jin, Jacob Turner, Amanda J Moore, Rintaro Saito, Kenichi Yoshida, Seishi Ogawa, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Yin C Lin, Hiroshi Kawamoto, Cornelis Murre
Innate and adaptive lymphoid development is orchestrated by the activities of E proteins and their antagonist Id proteins, but how these factors regulate early T cell progenitor (ETP) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unclear. Using multiple genetic strategies, we demonstrated that E proteins E2A and HEB acted in synergy in the thymus to establish T cell identity and to suppress the aberrant development of ILCs, including ILC2s and lymphoid-tissue-inducer-like cells. E2A and HEB orchestrated T cell fate and suppressed the ILC transcription signature by activating the expression of genes associated with Notch receptors, T cell receptor (TCR) assembly, and TCR-mediated signaling...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514658/cns-macrophages-control-neurovascular-development-via-cd95l
#19
Si Chen, Nathalie Tisch, Marcel Kegel, Rosario Yerbes, Robert Hermann, Hannes Hudalla, Cecilia Zuliani, Gülce Sila Gülcüler, Klara Zwadlo, Jakob von Engelhardt, Carmen Ruiz de Almodóvar, Ana Martin-Villalba
The development of neurons and vessels shares striking anatomical and molecular features, and it is presumably orchestrated by an overlapping repertoire of extracellular signals. CNS macrophages have been implicated in various developmental functions, including the morphogenesis of neurons and vessels. However, whether CNS macrophages can coordinately influence neurovascular development and the identity of the signals involved therein is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that activity of the cell surface receptor CD95 regulates neuronal and vascular morphogenesis in the post-natal brain and retina...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513582/behavioural-individuality-in-clonal-fish-arises-despite-near-identical-rearing-conditions
#20
David Bierbach, Kate L Laskowski, Max Wolf
Behavioural individuality is thought to be caused by differences in genes and/or environmental conditions. Therefore, if these sources of variation are removed, individuals are predicted to develop similar phenotypes lacking repeatable individual variation. Moreover, even among genetically identical individuals, direct social interactions are predicted to be a powerful factor shaping the development of individuality. We use tightly controlled ontogenetic experiments with clonal fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa), to test whether near-identical rearing conditions and lack of social contact dampen individuality...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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