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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780032/severe-outcomes-associated-with-respiratory-viruses-in-newborns-and-infants-a-prospective-viral-surveillance-study-in-jordan
#1
Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Lindsey Lawrence, Bhinnata Piya, Li Wang, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Samir Faouri, Asem Shehabi, Sten H Vermund, John V Williams, Natasha B Halasa
OBJECTIVE: To assess virus-specific hospitalisation rates, risk factors for illness severity and seasonal trends in children hospitalised with acute respiratory infections (ARI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A government hospital serving low-income and middle-income population in Amman, Jordan. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 2 years of age hospitalised with fever and/or respiratory symptoms (n=3168) from 16 March 2010 to 31 March 2013...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779724/the-emerging-use-of-social-media-for-health-related-purposes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-scoping-review
#2
Emily Hagg, V Susan Dahinten, Leanne M Currie
BACKGROUND: Social media allows for instant access to, and dissemination of, information around the globe. Access to social media in low- and middle-income countries has increased exponentially in recent years due to technological advances. Despite this growth, the use of social media in low- and middle-income countries is less well-researched than in high-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To identify, explore and summarize the current state of the literature on the use of social media for health in low- and middle-income countries...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778514/conditional-admission-religious-exemption-type-and-nonmedical-vaccine-exemptions-in-california-before-and-after-a-state-policy-change
#3
Alison M Buttenheim, Malia Jones, Caitlin Mckown, Daniel Salmon, Saad B Omer
Recent measles and pertussis outbreaks in the US have focused national attention on state laws governing exemptions from mandatory vaccines for school entry. After several years of increases in nonmedical exemptions in California, the state assembly passed Assembly Bill 2109 in 2012, making nonmedical exemptions more difficult to obtain by requiring parents to obtain a signature from a health care provider. We used data from the California Department of Public Health to describe changes in the overall prevalence of personal belief exemptions and compositional changes in immunization status for the school years 2012-2013 through 2015-2016...
May 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773774/us-and-cuban-scientists-forge-collaboration-on-arbovirus-research
#4
Jorge Pérez-Ávila, Maria G Guzmán-Tirado, Jorge Fraga-Nodarse, Gray Handley, James Meegan, Jose L Pelegrino-Martínez de la Cotera, Anthony S Fauci
After December 17, 2014, when the US and Cuban governments announced their intent to restore relations, the two countries participated in various exchange activities in an effort to encourage cooperation in public health, health research and biomedical sciences. The conference entitled Exploring Opportunities for Arbovirus Research Collaboration, hosted at Havana's Hotel Nacional, was part of these efforts and was the first major US-Cuban scientific conference in over 50 years. Its purpose was to share information about current arbovirus research and recent findings, and to explore opportunities for future joint research...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770049/pan-canadian-framework-for-action-on-antimicrobial-resistance-and-antimicrobial-use
#5
(no author information available yet)
Antimicrobial-resistant infections are becoming more frequent and increasingly difficult to treat, and this situation is exacerbated by the widespread use of antimicrobials in both human and veterinary medicine and by the agriculture industry. As part of Canada's coordinated response to addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use: A Pan-Canadian Framework for Action, was released in September 2017. The Framework is a high-level policy document that outlines the strategic objectives, outcomes and opportunities to guide collaborative action on AMR and antimicrobial use (AMU)...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770048/synopsis-lyme-disease-in-canada-a-federal-framework
#6
(no author information available yet)
The Federal Framework on Lyme Disease Act required the federal government to develop a Federal Framework on Lyme Disease. To do this, the Public Health Agency of Canada held a conference with a wide variety of stakeholders who shared their experiences with Lyme disease, and discussed current knowledge and research. A draft version of the Framework was publicly posted on Canada.ca for a 30-day public consultation period. The final report, Lyme Disease in Canada: A Federal Framework was released in May 2017. The Framework includes the three pillars of surveillance; education and awareness; and guidelines and best practices...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761759/seasonal-and-temporal-trends-in-childhood-conjunctivitis-in-burkina-faso
#7
Ali Sié, Abdramane Diarra, Ourohiré Millogo, Augustin Zongo, Elodie Lebas, Till Bärnighausen, James Chodosh, Travis C Porco, Michael S Deiner, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan, Catherine E Oldenburg
Acute conjunctivitis follows a seasonal pattern. Although its clinical course is typically self-limited, conjunctivitis epidemics incur a substantial economic burden because of missed school and work days. This study investigated seasonal and temporal trends of childhood conjunctivitis in the entire country of Burkina Faso from 2013 to 2016, using routine monthly surveillance from 2,444 government health facilities. A total of 783,314 cases were reported over the 4-year period. Conjunctivitis followed a seasonal pattern throughout the country, with a peak in April...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761094/2017-dutch-report-card-results-from-the-first-physical-activity-report-card-plus-for-dutch-youth-with-a-chronic-disease-or-disability
#8
Marcella Burghard, Nynke B de Jong, Selina Vlieger, Tim Takken
Background: The Dutch Active Healthy Kids (AHK) Report Card+ (RC+ ) consolidates and translates research and assesses how the Netherlands is being responsible in providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for youth (< 18 years) with a chronic disease or disability. The aim of this article is to summarize the results of the Dutch RC+ . Methods: Nine indicators were graded using the AHK Global Alliance RC development process, which includes a synthesis of best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings, and expert consensus...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754431/expanding-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-sari-surveillance-beyond-influenza-the-process-and-data-from-1-year-of-implementation-in-vietnam
#9
Karen A Alroy, Trang Thuy Do, Phu Dac Tran, Tan Quang Dang, Long Ngoc Vu, Nga Thi Hang Le, Anh Duc Dang, Nghia Duy Ngu, Tu Huy Ngo, Phuong Mai Vu Hoang, Lan Trong Phan, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Long Thanh Nguyen, Thinh Viet Nguyen, Mai Quang Vien, Huy Xuan Le, Anh The Dao, Trieu Bao Nguyen, Duoc Tho Pham, Van Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc Pham, Binh Hai Phan, Brett Whitaker, Thuy Thi Thu Do, Phuong Anh Dao, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Anthony W Mounts
BACKGROUND: In 2016, as a component of the Global Health Security Agenda, the Vietnam Ministry of Health expanded its existing influenza sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) to include testing for 7 additional viral respiratory pathogens. This article describes the steps taken to implement expanded SARI surveillance in Vietnam and reports data from 1 year of expanded surveillance. METHOD: The process of expanding the suite of pathogens for routine testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) included laboratory trainings, procurement/distribution of reagents, and strengthening and aligning SARI surveillance epidemiology practices at sentinel sites and regional institutes (RI)...
May 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753979/policy-uncertainty-and-corporate-performance-in-government-sponsored-voluntary-environmental-programs
#10
Ning Liu, Shui-Yan Tang, Xueyong Zhan, Carlos Wing-Hung Lo
This study combines insights from the policy uncertainty literature and neo-institutional theory to examine corporate performance in implementing a government-sponsored voluntary environmental program (VEP) during 2004-2012 in Guangzhou, China. In this regulatory context, characterized by rapid policy changes, corporate performance in VEPs is affected by government surveillance, policy uncertainty, and peer pressures. Specifically, if VEP participants have experienced more government surveillance, they tend to perform better in program implementation...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749294/questioning-the-current-public-health-approach-to-countering-violent-extremism
#11
Neil Krishan Aggarwal
Since the start of the global War on Terror, governments have used the mental health system for counterintelligence purposes. A recent manifestation of this trend is the call from policymakers and mental health researchers to screen individuals at risk for violent extremism through the public health system. Civil rights organisations have raised alarms that Muslims are being disproportionately referred to law enforcement agencies and that Muslim communities are being selected for surveillance despite government assurances that violent extremism is not exclusive to any ideology...
May 11, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742136/impact-on-birth-weight-and-child-growth-of-participatory-learning-and-action-women-s-groups-with-and-without-transfers-of-food-or-cash-during-pregnancy-findings-of-the-low-birth-weight-south-asia-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-lbwsat-in-nepal
#12
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sen, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Raghbendra Sah, Puskar Paudel, Andrew Copas, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brännström, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Machhindra Basnet, Saskia de Pee, Andrew Hall, Jayne Harthan, Meelan Thondoo, Sonja Klingberg, Janice Messick, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition during pregnancy leads to low birthweight, poor growth and inter-generational undernutrition. We did a non-blinded cluster-randomised controlled trial in the plains districts of Dhanusha and Mahottari, Nepal to assess the impact on birthweight and weight-for-age z-scores among children aged 0-16 months of community-based participatory learning and action (PLA) women's groups, with and without food or cash transfers to pregnant women. METHODS: We randomly allocated 20 clusters per arm to four arms (average population/cluster = 6150)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736271/verbal-autopsy-in-health-policy-and-systems-a-literature-review
#13
Lisa-Marie Thomas, Lucia D'Ambruoso, Dina Balabanova
Introduction: Estimates suggest that one in two deaths go unrecorded globally every year in terms of medical causes, with the majority occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This can be related to low investment in civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems. Verbal autopsy (VA) is a method that enables identification of cause of death where no other routine systems are in place and where many people die at home. Considering the utility of VA as a pragmatic, interim solution to the lack of functional CRVS, this review aimed to examine the use of VA to inform health policy and systems improvements...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731468/-a-new-business-in-the-world-the-telegraph-privacy-and-the-u-s-constitution-in-the-nineteenth-century
#14
Thomas Jepsen
Disclosures about electronic surveillance by the U.S. National Security Agency have revived interest in issues of communications privacy and Fourth Amendment rights. In the early days of the telegraph, there was no legal protection afforded to the privacy of telegraphic communication, and seizures of telegraphic dispatches figured in major events of the nineteenth century in the United States. Attempts to protect the content of telegrams by defining a customer/operator "privilege" under common law were rejected by the courts, as were attempts to protect the confidentiality of telegraphic communications through an analogy with the postal service...
2018: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730440/a-qualitative-exploration-of-thai-alcohol-policy-in-regulating-availability-and-access
#15
Ratchakorn Kaewpramkusol, Kate Senior, Richard Chenhall, Sutham Nanthamongkolchai, Surasak Chaiyasong
BACKGROUND: Despite abundant alcohol control regulations and measures in Thailand, prevalence of alcohol consumption has been relatively steady for the past decade and alcohol-related harm remains high. This study aims to explore, through the perspectives of key public health stakeholders, the current performance of regulations controlling alcohol availability and access, and the future directions for the implementation of Thai alcohol policy. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with public health stakeholders from three sectors; the government, academia and civil society...
May 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724239/defining-and-measuring-population-health-quality-of-outpatient-diabetes-care-in-israel-lessons-from-the-quality-indicators-in-community-health-program
#16
REVIEW
Leonard M Pogach, David C Aron
In Israel, as in other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, performance measurement is a key public health strategy in monitoring and improving population health outcomes. The Israeli Quality Indicators in Community Healthcare (QICH) program has utilized electronic health records to monitor ambulatory care for the entire Israeli population since 2002. In 2006 the measures were updated to include laboratory values. They have been subsequently revised by stratifying by age, duration, adding medications, and changing frequency of testing for certain process measures...
May 3, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715287/multisectoral-prioritization-of-zoonotic-diseases-in-uganda-2017-a-one-health-perspective
#17
Musa Sekamatte, Vikram Krishnasamy, Lilian Bulage, Christine Kihembo, Noelina Nantima, Fred Monje, Deo Ndumu, Juliet Sentumbwe, Betty Mbolanyi, Robert Aruho, Winyi Kaboyo, David Mutonga, Colin Basler, Sarah Paige, Casey Barton Behravesh
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703417/next-generation-microbiological-risk-assessment-potential-of-omics-data-for-hazard-characterisation
#18
Nabila Haddad, Nick Johnson, Sophia Kathariou, Aline Métris, Trevor Phister, Annemarie Pielaat, Chrysoula Tassou, Marjon H J Wells-Bennik, Marcel H Zwietering
According to the World Health Organization estimates in 2015, 600 million people fall ill every year from contaminated food and 420,000 die. Microbial risk assessment (MRA) was developed as a tool to reduce and prevent risks presented by pathogens and/or their toxins. MRA is organized in four steps to analyse information and assist in both designing appropriate control options and implementation of regulatory decisions and programs. Among the four steps, hazard characterisation is performed to establish the probability and severity of a disease outcome, which is determined as function of the dose of toxin and/or pathogen ingested...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699025/-study-on-the-effectiveness-of-implementation-the-national-demonstration-areas-for-comprehensive-prevention-and-control-of-non-communicable-diseases
#19
J Zhang, R R Jin, J J Li, J L Li, X W Su, G J Deng, S Ma, J Zhao, Y P Wang, F Bian, Y M Qu, Z Z Shen, Y Jiang, Y L Liu
Objective: To assess the implementation and impact of programs carried out by the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Methods: Both sociological and epidemiological methods were used to collect qualitative and quantitative data in November and December, 2016 in order to conduct on process and outcome evaluation of the above mentioned objective. In the meantime, case study was also conducted. Results: All the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases were found well implemented across the country, with health education and health promotion, surveillance and safeguard measures in particular...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685593/routine-immunization-services-costs-and-financing-in-china-2015
#20
Wenzhou Yu, Ming Lu, Huaqing Wang, Lance Rodewald, Saisai Ji, Chao Ma, Yixing Li, Jingshan Zheng, Yifan Song, Miao Wang, Yamin Wang, Dan Wu, Lei Cao, Chunxiang Fan, Xuan Zhang, Yanmin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the costs of routine immunization (RI) services in China in 2015, to provide objective data relevant to investment in the Expanded Program on Immunization, and to contribute to global data on costing and financing of RI. METHODS: The study was conducted between January and March 2016. We selected 276 villages, 138 townships, 46 counties, and 40 prefectures from 15 provinces as investigation sites at random, stratified by eastern, middle, and western regions...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
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