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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918686/utility-of-surveillance-research-to-inform-physical-activity-policy-an-exemplar-from-canada
#1
Cora L Craig, Christine A Cameron, Adrian Bauman
BACKGROUND: There are several well-known risk factor monitoring systems, but few examples of comprehensive surveillance systems designed specifically to inform physical activity (PA) policy. This paper examines the utility of Canada`s Physical Activity and Sport Monitoring System in guiding policy and practice. METHODS: Indicators were determined in conjunction with government, non-governmental associations and academics. Serial measures were collected from representative population (telephone interviews, n=4,000-11,000) and setting-based (postal surveys, n=1,425-4,304) surveys...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917960/a-vision-for-the-future-of-pastoralism
#2
J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, G Zinsstag, L Crump, I O Alfaroukh, M F Abakar, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, K Liechti, M A Seid, E Schelling
Pastoral regions are challenged by social and ecological changes. Yet, there is increasingly robust evidence that pastoralism is a viable and sustainable livelihood and that pastoralists play a role in attaining the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the authors take a broad view of pastoralism and pastoral livestock production from a number of different perspectives, taking into account societal and ecological viewpoints as well as issues of animal and human health...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916342/exploring-the-context-for-effective-clinical-governance-in-infection-control
#3
Kate Halton, Lisa Hall, Anne Gardner, Deborough MacBeth, Brett G Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Effective clinical governance is necessary to support improvements in infection control. Historically, the focus has been on ensuring that infection control practice and policy is based on evidence, and that there is use of surveillance and auditing for self-regulation and performance feedback. There has been less exploration of how contextual and organizational factors mediate an infection preventionists (IP's) ability to engage with evidence-based practice and enact good clinical governance...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914853/monitoring-the-fitness-of-antiviral-resistant-influenza-strains-during-an-epidemic-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#4
Kathy Leung, Marc Lipsitch, Kwok Yung Yuen, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Antivirals (eg, oseltamivir) are important for mitigating influenza epidemics. In 2007, an oseltamivir-resistant influenza seasonal A H1N1 strain emerged and spread to global fixation within 1 year. This event showed that antiviral-resistant (AVR) strains can be intrinsically more transmissible than their contemporaneous antiviral-sensitive (AVS) counterpart. Surveillance of AVR fitness is therefore essential. Our objective was to develop a simple method for estimating AVR fitness from surveillance data...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913312/crossborder-travel-and-multidrugresistant-tuberculosis-mdrtb-in-europe
#5
Alberto Matteelli, Rosella Centis, Giorgia Sulis, Marina Tadolini
The number of international migrants worldwide has continued to grow rapidly over the past fifteen years and the trend is expected to continue, making the health matters associated with migration a crucial public health challenges faced by governments and societies. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a paradigm of transmissible diseases that do not respect borders and poses a multifaceted and complex challenge on migrant health. The guiding principles for the health response are the respect of equity and human rights as well as the accurate analysis of epidemiological trends and determinants of TB in migrants...
November 29, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895828/quality-of-facility-based-family-planning-services-for-adolescents-in-malawi-findings-from-a-national-census-of-health-facilities
#6
Vinitha Jayachandran, Gertrude Chapotera, William Stones
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to describe the quality, in terms of provision and experience of care, of facility-based family planning services for adolescents compared to older clients in Malawi. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was performed on data obtained from the Service Provision Assessment survey 2013-14, a census of all formal health facilities in the country. For the present study the inclusion criterion was that the client's age was recorded in the data set, which gave a weighted total of 1388 observations of consultations, reflecting provision of care, and client exit interviews, reflecting experience of care...
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887796/vaccine-strategies-optimising-outcomes
#7
Karin Hardt, Paolo Bonanni, Susan King, Jose Ignacio Santos, Mostafa El-Hodhod, Gregory D Zimet, Scott Preiss
Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine...
November 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869955/progress-with-the-strategic-action-plan-for-tackling-chronic-non-communicable-diseases-in-brazil-2011-2015
#8
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Taís Porto Oliveira, Maria Aline Siqueira Santos, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade, Marta Maria Alves da Silva
OBJECTIVE: to describe the actions undertaken by the Strategic Action Plan for Tackling Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Brazil, from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: the actions were identified through sectorial and interministerial meetings, annual forums, as well as document reviews of publications and laws on government websites. RESULTS: the actions found were: national surveys and monitoring of mortality and risk factor reduction targets; encouragement of physical activity, adequate nutrition and health promotion through the creation of the Health Gym Program (Programa Academia da Saúde); the publication of legislation on tobacco-free environments; free of charge drugs for hypertension, diabetes, and asthma; organization of the emergency service network for cardiovascular diseases; and expanding access to diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients...
April 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866492/predictive-modelling-of-ross-river-virus-notifications-in-southeastern-australia
#9
Z Cutcher, E Williamson, S E Lynch, S Rowe, H J Clothier, S M Firestone
Ross River virus (RRV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to Australia. The disease, marked by arthritis, myalgia and rash, has a complex epidemiology involving several mosquito species and wildlife reservoirs. Outbreak years coincide with climatic conditions conducive to mosquito population growth. We developed regression models for human RRV notifications in the Mildura Local Government Area, Victoria, Australia with the objective of increasing understanding of the relationships in this complex system, providing trigger points for intervention and developing a forecast model...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848753/results-from-japan-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#10
Chiaki Tanaka, Shigeho Tanaka, Shigeru Inoue, Motohiko Miyachi, Koya Suzuki, John J Reilly
BACKGROUND: The Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth aims to consolidate existing evidence, encourage greater evidence-informed physical activity, and improve surveillance of physical activity. METHODS: The Japan report card followed the methodology of the Canadian and Scottish report cards, but was adapted to reflect the Japanese context. Nationally representative data were used to score each of the respective indicators. RESULTS: The 2016 Japan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth consists of Health Behaviors and Outcomes (7 indicators), and Influences on Health Behaviors (4 indicators)...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848751/results-from-ireland-north-and-south-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#11
Deirdre M Harrington, Marie Murphy, Angela Carlin, Tara Coppinger, Alan Donnelly, Kieran P Dowd, Teresa Keating, Niamh Murphy, Elaine Murtagh, Wesley O'Brien, Catherine Woods, Sarahjane Belton
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is a key performance indicator for policy documents in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Building on baseline grades set in 2014, Ireland's second Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth allows for continued surveillance of indicators related to PA in children and youth. METHODS: Data and information were extracted and collated for 10 indicators and graded using an international standardized grading system...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848745/global-matrix-2-0-report-card-grades-on-the-physical-activity-of-children-and-youth-comparing-38-countries
#12
Mark S Tremblay, Joel D Barnes, Silvia A González, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Vincent O Onywera, John J Reilly, Grant R Tomkinson
The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world's population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments), and all Report Cards were generated through a harmonized development process and a standardized grading framework (from A = excellent, to F = failing)...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848743/is-our-youth-cycling-to-health-results-from-the-netherlands-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#13
Marcella Burghard, Karlijn Knitel, Iris van Oost, Mark S Tremblay, Tim Takken
BACKGROUND: The Active Healthy Kids the Netherlands (AHKN) Report Card consolidates and translates research and assesses how the Netherlands is being responsible in providing physical activity (PA) opportunities for children and youth (<18 years). The primary aim of this article is to summarize the results of the 2016 AHKN Report Card. METHODS: Nine indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance report card development process, which includes a synthesis of the best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings, and expert consensus...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848730/results-from-poland-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#14
Pawel Zembura, Aleksandra Goldys, Hanna Nalecz
BACKGROUND: Poland's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of child and youth physical activity (PA) in Poland using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system. The main goal was to summarize and describe the current state of child and youth PA to increase awareness and surveillance. METHODS: The systematic methodology that underpins the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card was adapted and applied to the Polish report card...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847175/impact-of-a-maternal-immunization-program-against-pertussis-in-a-developing-country
#15
Carla Vizzotti, Maria V Juarez, Eduardo Bergel, Viviana Romanin, Gloria Califano, Sandra Sagradini, Carolina Rancaño, Analía Aquino, Romina Libster, Fernando P Polack, Juan Manzur
BACKGROUND: Pertussis disease is a growing concern for developing countries. In Argentina, rates of illness and death peaked in 2011. More than 50% of fatalities due to pertussis occurred in infants younger than two months of age, too young for vaccination. In 2012, the government offered immunization with a vaccine containing Tdap to all pregnant women after 20weeks of gestation with the intent of reducing morbidity and mortality in young infants. METHODS: Maternal acellular pertussis vaccine impact on reducing infant disease burden was estimated based on data from the Argentinean Health Surveillance System...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843824/diabetes-mellitus-and-the-aboriginal-diabetic-initiative-in-canada-an-update-review
#16
REVIEW
Lawrence Leung
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of major global health concern due to its increasing prevalence in both developing and developed counties, with a projection increase of 214% from the year 2000 to 2030. Among the Aboriginal population of Canada (which includes the First Nations, Inuit and Metis), diabetes mellitus contribute significantly to their higher morbidity and increased health disparity when compared to the non-Aboriginal Canadians. In view of this, the Federal Government of Canada had launched the Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative (ADI) in 1999 as part of the bigger Canadian Diabetes Strategy to provide a better framework for surveillance, public education and community-based management of diabetes...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833282/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-wound-isolates-in-plastic-surgery-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-centre
#17
Surendra B Patil, Amit Paramne, Shree Harsh
CONTEXT: Wound infection increases the hospital stay and adversely affects the recovery of patients. Culture and sensitivity of wound isolates help in proper diagnosis and management of these patients. AIM: To identify common bacteria causing wound infections and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur from October 2013 to October 2015...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829655/cuba-time-to-expand-health-in-all-policies
#18
Pastor Castell-Florit Serrate, Pedro Más-Bermejo
The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies (2010), lays out equity-based principles designed to guide policymakers on incorporating health and well-being components into the development, implementation and evaluation of policy and practice while moving towards shared governance at all levels-local, regional, national and international. Special emphasis is placed on cross-sector coordination to achieve policy goals, while improving health and well-being for all.[1] In Cuba's case, experience in disaster preparedness, particularly for hurricanes, has shown good cross-sector coordination...
October 2016: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818322/an-overview-of-herb-and-dietary-supplement-efficacy-safety-and-government-regulations-in-the-united-states-with-suggested-improvements-part-1-of-5-series
#19
REVIEW
Amy Christine Brown
This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (herbs; 20%), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs and zero deaths due to DS...
November 3, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817200/safe-application-of-regionalization-for-trade-in-poultry-and-poultry-products-during-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-usa
#20
David E Swayne, Rick E Hill, John Clifford
The 2014-15 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out program that cost USA government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all U.S.-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the U...
November 7, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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