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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335786/matching-safety-to-access-global-actors-and-pharmacogovernance-in-kenya-a-case-study
#1
Kathy Moscou, Jillian C Kohler
BACKGROUND: The Kenyan government has sought to address inadequacies in its National Pharmaceutical Policy and the Pharmacy and Poisons Board's (PPB) medicines governance by engaging with global actors (e.g. the World Health Organization). Policy actors have influenced the way pharmacovigilance is defined, how challenges are understood and which norms are requisite to address drug safety issues. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between specific modes of engagement among global (exogenous) and domestic actors at the national and sub-national level to identify the positive or negative effect on pharmacovigilance and pharmacogovernance in Kenya...
March 23, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330940/impact-of-subsidies-on-cancer-genetic-testing-uptake-in-singapore
#2
Shao-Tzu Li, Jeanette Yuen, Ke Zhou, Nur Diana Binte Ishak, Yanni Chen, Marie Met-Domestici, Sock Hoai Chan, Yee Pin Tan, John Carson Allen, Soon Thye Lim, Khee Chee Soo, Joanne Ngeow
PURPOSE: Previous reports cite high costs of clinical cancer genetic testing as main barriers to patient's willingness to test. We report findings of a pilot study that evaluates how different subsidy schemes impact genetic testing uptake and total cost of cancer management. METHODS: We included all patients who attended the Cancer Genetics Service at the National Cancer Centre Singapore (January 2014-May 2016). Two subsidy schemes, the blanket scheme (100% subsidy to all eligible patients), and the varied scheme (patients received 50%-100% subsidy dependent on financial status) were compared...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329936/-analysis-on-prevalence-of-physical-activity-time-1-hour-and-related-factors-in-students-aged-9-22-years-in-china-2014
#3
Z H Wang, Y H Dong, Y Song, Z P Yang, J Ma
Objective: To explore the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China. Methods: A total of 220 159 students (110 039 boys and 110 120 girls) aged 9-22 years who completed the questionnaire of physical activity and lifestyle behaviors were selected from " 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" for the current study. All the participants were divided into 2 groups, i.e. physical activity time <1 hour and physical activity time ≥1 hour according the suggestion of Central Government, stratified by age and gender...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327180/an-assessment-of-national-surveillance-systems-for-malaria-elimination-in-the-asia-pacific
#4
Chris Erwin G Mercado, Nattwut Ekapirat, Arjen M Dondorp, Richard J Maude
BACKGROUND: Heads of Government from Asia and the Pacific have committed to a malaria-free region by 2030. In 2015, the total number of confirmed cases reported to the World Health Organization by 22 Asia Pacific countries was 2,461,025. However, this was likely a gross underestimate due in part to incidence data not being available from the wide variety of known sources. There is a recognized need for an accurate picture of malaria over time and space to support the goal of elimination...
March 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321400/toward-elimination-of-dog-mediated-human-rabies-experiences-from-implementing-a-large-scale-demonstration-project-in-southern-tanzania
#5
Emmanuel Abraham Mpolya, Tiziana Lembo, Kennedy Lushasi, Rebecca Mancy, Eberhard M Mbunda, Selemani Makungu, Matthew Maziku, Lwitiko Sikana, Gurdeep Jaswant, Sunny Townsend, François-Xavier Meslin, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Chanasa Ngeleja, Joel Changalucha, Zacharia Mtema, Maganga Sambo, Geofrey Mchau, Kristyna Rysava, Alphoncina Nanai, Rudovick Kazwala, Sarah Cleaveland, Katie Hampson
A Rabies Elimination Demonstration Project was implemented in Tanzania from 2010 through to 2015, bringing together government ministries from the health and veterinary sectors, the World Health Organization, and national and international research institutions. Detailed data on mass dog vaccination campaigns, bite exposures, use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and human rabies deaths were collected throughout the project duration and project areas. Despite no previous experience in dog vaccination within the project areas, district veterinary officers were able to implement district-wide vaccination campaigns that, for most part, progressively increased the numbers of dogs vaccinated with each phase of the project...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315635/behaviors-of-consumers-physicians-and-pharmacists-in-response-to-adverse-events-associated-with-dietary-supplement-use
#6
Tsuyoshi Chiba, Yoko Sato, Etsuko Kobayashi, Kazuki Ide, Hiroshi Yamada, Keizo Umegaki
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dietary supplements has increased in Japan, and, as a consequence, the adverse events associated with dietary supplement use have become more prominent. Severe adverse events must be reported to the Japanese government via public health centers. However, the number of cases reported to the Japanese government is limited. To clarify this discrepancy, we conducted an internet questionnaire, and surveyed how consumers, physicians and pharmacists acted when they or their patients developed adverse events due to dietary supplement use...
March 18, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302925/best-practices-to-prevent-transmission-and-control-outbreaks-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-childcare-facilities-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
J Hy Chan, C K Law, E Hamblion, H Fung, J Rudge
INTRODUCTION: Hand, foot, and mouth disease continues to cause seasonal epidemics in the Asia-Pacific Region. Since the current Enterovirus 71 vaccines do not provide cross-protection for all Enterovirus species that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, there is an urgent need to identify appropriate detection tools and best practice to prevent its transmission and to effectively control its outbreaks. This systematic review aimed to identify characteristics of outbreak and assess the impact and effectiveness of detection tools and public health preventive measures to interrupt transmission...
March 17, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300495/hospital-acquired-infections-in-paediatric-medical-wards-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#8
Kevin B Spicer, Jennifer Green, Barnesh Dhada
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) impact care and costs in hospitals across the globe. There are minimal data on HAIs in sub-Saharan Africa and data specific to paediatrics are especially limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of HAIs in the paediatric medical units at Grey's Hospital, a tertiary government hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: The Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) team collects data on all laboratory-confirmed infections, including from paediatric patients in two medical units (52 beds), the paediatric intensive/high-care unit (PICU, 8 beds) and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, 23 beds)...
March 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299154/assessment-of-malaria-reporting-and-epidemic-preparedness-systems-in-health-facilities-in-eldoret-west-district-uasin-gishu-county-kenya
#9
Ruth C Kirinyet, Arthur S Ng'etich, Ahmad Juma
The most important factor in reducing the impact of an epidemic is a timely response with implementation of effective control measures at the point of detection. This study sought to assess the malaria reporting and epidemic preparedness systems of health facilities in Eldoret West District, Kenya. A cross-sectional study design was adapted. A census technique was used to select all the forty five health facilities in the district comprising of government, mission and non-governmental facilities. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection and analysis done using Stata...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299152/ebola-viral-disease-in-west-africa-a-threat-to-global-health-economy-and-political-stability
#10
Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Ibrahim Mohammed, Yauba Saidu
The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283045/how-equitable-is-the-uptake-of-conditional-cash-transfers-for-maternity-care-in-india-evidence-from-the-janani-suraksha-yojana-scheme-in-odisha-and-jharkhand
#11
Nattawut Thongkong, Ellen van de Poel, Swati Sarbani Roy, Shibanand Rath, Tanja A J Houweling
BACKGROUND: In 2005, the Indian Government introduced the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) scheme - a conditional cash transfer program that incentivizes women to deliver in a health facility - in order to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Our study aimed to measure and explain socioeconomic inequality in the receipt of JSY benefits. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data on 3,682 births (in 2009-2010) from a demographic surveillance system in five districts in Jharkhand and Odisha state, India...
March 10, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278750/the-ethics-of-researching-intimate-partner-violence-in-global-health-a-case-study-from-global-health-research
#12
Jenevieve Mannell, Adrian Guta
There has been an increase in attention to intimate partner violence (IPV) as a health issue that contributes to the spread of HIV, physical and emotional stress, depression, substance use, serious injuries, and higher rates of mortality in low-income settings. This paper explores the ethical implications raised by research on IPV by global health scholars. Drawing on Hedgecoe's work on critical bioethics to analyse a qualitative study of IPV in Rwanda, this paper discusses the risks and benefits of conducting research on IPV as part of the global health agenda...
February 20, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275576/the-unique-molecular-and-cellular-microenvironment-of-ovarian-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Worzfeld, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Magdalena Huber, Till Adhikary, Uwe Wagner, Silke Reinartz, Rolf Müller
The reciprocal interplay of cancer cells and host cells is an indispensable prerequisite for tumor growth and progression. Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, in particular tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and T cells, as well as cancer-associated fibroblasts enter into a malicious liaison with tumor cells to create a tumor-promoting and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Ovarian cancer, the most lethal of all gynecological malignancies, is characterized by a unique TME that enables specific and efficient metastatic routes, impairs immune surveillance, and mediates therapy resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265562/addressing-the-disconnect-between-the-estimated-reported-and-true-rabies-data-the-development-of-a-regional-african-rabies-bulletin
#14
Terence P Scott, Andre Coetzer, Anna S Fahrion, Louis H Nel
It is evident that rabies continues to be a neglected tropical disease; however, a recent global drive aims to eliminate canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Global efforts have been vested into creating and developing resources for countries to take ownership of and overcome the challenges that rabies poses. The disconnect between the numbers of rabies cases reported and the numbers estimated by prediction models is clear: the key to understanding the epidemiology and true burden of rabies lies within accurate and timely data; poor and discrepant data undermine its true burden and negate the advocacy efforts needed to curb this lethal disease...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257079/-looking-over-the-backyard-fence-householders-and-mosquito-control
#15
Samir Mainali, Ram Sharan Lamichhane, Kim Clark, Shelley Beatty, Maria Fatouros, Peter Neville, Jacques Oosthuizen
(1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia's developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256359/measles-epidemic-in-brazil-in-the-post-elimination-period-coordinated-response-and-containment-strategies
#16
Daniele Rocha Queiroz Lemos, Aidée Ramirez Franco, Maria Lúcia Feitosa de Sá Roriz, Ana Karine Borges Carneiro, Márcio Henrique de Oliveira Garcia, Fábia Lidiana de Souza, Regina Duron Andino, Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti
The measles virus circulation was halted in Brazil in 2001 and the country has a routine vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella higher than 95%. In Ceará, the last confirmed case was in 1999. This article describes the strategies adopted and the effectiveness of surveillance and control measures implemented during a measles epidemic in the post-elimination period. The epidemic started in December 2013 and lasted 20 months, reaching 38 cities and 1,052 confirmed cases. The D8 genotype was identified...
February 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253229/response-to-a-large-polio-outbreak-in-a-setting-of-conflict-middle-east-2013-2015
#17
Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Michael J Ryan, Philip Smith, Abdirahman Mahamud, Noha Farag, Salah Haithami, Magdi Sharaf, Jaume C Jorba, Derek Ehrhardt
As the world advances toward the eradication of polio, outbreaks of wild poliovirus (WPV) in polio-free regions pose a substantial risk to the timeline for global eradication. Countries and regions experiencing active conflict, chronic insecurity, and large-scale displacement of persons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks because of the disruption of health care and immunization services (1). A polio outbreak occurred in the Middle East, beginning in Syria in 2013 with subsequent spread to Iraq (2). The outbreak occurred 2 years after the onset of the Syrian civil war, resulted in 38 cases, and was the first time WPV was detected in Syria in approximately a decade (3,4)...
March 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252380/changes-in-indicators-of-child-and-youth-physical-activity-in-canada-2005-2016
#18
Joel D Barnes, Mark S Tremblay
Physical activity trend analysis enables the monitoring and surveillance of physical activity indicators and the identification of areas that should be targeted for intervention and promotion, which is particularly important at present because so few school-aged children and youth in Canada adhere to the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Youth. In this commentary, we demonstrate through a descriptive temporal trend analysis of grade changes in the ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth that there have been positive changes in several indicators of physical activity support (family, school, community and environment, government, non-government) in Canada over the last 12 years...
March 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250536/adapting-nepal-s-polio-eradication-programme
#19
Krishna P Paudel, Lee M Hampton, Santosh Gurung, Rajendra Bohara, Indra K Rai, Sameer Anaokar, Rachel D Swift, Stephen Cochi
PROBLEM: Many countries have weak disease surveillance and immunization systems. The elimination of polio creates an opportunity to use staff and assets from the polio eradication programme to control other vaccine-preventable diseases and improve disease surveillance and immunization systems. APPROACH: In 2003, the active surveillance system of Nepal's polio eradication programme began to report on measles and neonatal tetanus cases. Japanese encephalitis and rubella cases were added to the surveillance system in 2004...
March 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250341/china-is-closely-monitoring-an-increase-in-infection-with-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus
#20
Qi Tang, Meiying Shao, Lingzhong Xu
The fifth outbreak of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus has struck far and wide in China. The number of cases of infection with the avian influenza A (H7N9) suddenly increased in 2013-2014, but the number of cases reported this winter has exceeded the number reported in all previous seasons. Given this situation, the National Health and Family Planning Commission issued updated Chinese guidelines (2017 version) on diagnosis and treatment of infection with the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus on January 24, 2017...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Trends
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