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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815990/trade-patterns-facilitating-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-dissemination-in-the-free-grazing-layer-duck-system-in-vietnam
#1
A Meyer, T X Dinh, T A Han, D V Do, T V Nhu, L T Pham, T T T Nguyen, S Newman, B Häsler, D U Pfeiffer, T Vergne
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam...
August 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813542/the-african-cholera-surveillance-network-africhol-consortium-meeting-10-11-june-2015-lom%C3%A3-togo
#2
Aline Munier, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Delphine Sauvageot, Raymond B Mhlanga, Léonard Heyerdahl, Johara Nadri, Richard Wood, Issaka Ouedraogo, Alexandre Blake, Laurent Akilimali Mukelenge, Jean-Claude B Anné, Abiba Banla Kere, Lucienne Dempouo, Sakoba Keita, José P M Langa, Issa Makumbi, Elibariki R Mwakapeje, Ian J Njeru, Olubunmi E Ojo, Isaac Phiri, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Bradford D Gessner, Martin Mengel
The fifth annual meeting of the African cholera surveillance network (Africhol) took place on 10-11 June 2015 in Lomé, Togo. Together with international partners, representatives from the 11 member countries -Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe- and an invited country (Malawi) shared their experience. The meeting featured three sessions: i) cholera surveillance, prevention and control in participating countries, ii) cholera surveillance methodology, such as cholera mapping, cost-effectiveness studies and the issue of overlapping epidemics from different diseases, iii) cholera laboratory diagnostics tools and capacity building...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803560/evidence-of-exposure-of-laughing-doves-spilopelia-senegalensis-to-west-nile-and-usutu-viruses-in-southern-tunisian-oases
#3
T Ayadi, A Hammouda, A Poux, T Boulinier, S Lecollinet, S Selmi
It has previously been suggested that southern Tunisian oases may be suitable areas for the circulation of flaviviruses. In order to anticipate and prevent possible epidemiological spread of flaviviruses in humans and domestic animals, the ecology of their transmission in the oasis system needs to be better understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of anti-flavivirus antibodies in the laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis), an abundant resident bird in Tunisian oases. Anti-flavivirus antibodies were detected in 17% of sampled doves...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800821/listeria-monocytogenes-incidence-changes-and-diversity-in-some-brazilian-dairy-industries-and-retail-products
#4
Virginie Oxaran, Sarah Hwa In Lee, Luíza Toubas Chaul, Carlos Humberto Corassin, Giovana Verginia Barancelli, Virgínia Farias Alves, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira, Lone Gram, Elaine Cristina Pereira De Martinis
Listeria monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease. In Brazil, despite very few reported cases of listeriosis, the pathogen has been repeatedly isolated from dairies. This has led the government to implement specific legislation to reduce the hazard. Here, we determined the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796738/measurement-bias-of-polyp-size-at-colonoscopy
#5
Shinichiro Sakata, Kerenaftali Klein, Andrew R L Stevenson, David G Hewett
BACKGROUND: The success of current and proposed strategies to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates are fundamentally based on measurement accuracy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the densities of colorectal polyps individually measured at colonoscopy and whether measurement bias is a systemic phenomenon among colonoscopists. DESIGN: A population-wide, observational study. SETTING: All hospitals of the government-funded health system in Brisbane, Australia...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783807/comparative-safety-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-pregnancy
#6
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Importance: Maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) started before conception may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but whether the risk differs by ART regimen is unknown. Objective: To compare the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal ART regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational birth outcomes surveillance study compared all live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 24 weeks in 8 geographically dispersed government hospitals throughout Botswana (approximately 45% of births nationwide)...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776247/the-burden-of-mental-disorders-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#7
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders are among the leading causes of nonfatal burden of disease globally. METHODS: We used the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study 2015 to examine the burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). We defined mental disorders according to criteria proposed in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV and the 10th International Classification of Diseases. RESULTS: Mental disorders contributed to 4...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774897/generating-a-city-s-first-report-on-bicyclist-safety-lessons-from-the-field
#8
Dahianna S Lopez, David Hemenway
BACKGROUND: For cities aiming to create a useful surveillance system for bicycle injuries, a common challenge is that city crash reporting is scattered, faulty or non-existent. We document some of the lessons we learnt in helping the city of Boston, Massachusetts, USA, do the following: (1) Create a prototype for a comprehensive police crash data set (2) Produce the city's first cyclist safety report, (3) Make crash data available to the public and (4) Generate policy recommendations for both specific roadside improvements and for sustainable changes to the police department's crash reporting database...
August 3, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768712/factors-influencing-the-reporting-of-adverse-medical-device-events-qualitative-interviews-with-physicians-about-higher-risk-implantable-devices
#9
Anna R Gagliardi, Ariel Ducey, Pascale Lehoux, Thomas Turgeon, Sue Ross, Patricia Trvovich, Anthony Easty, Chaim Bell, David Urbach
BACKGROUND: Postmarket surveillance of medical devices is reliant on physician reporting of adverse medical device events (AMDEs). Little is known about factors that influence whether and how physicians report AMDEs, an essential step in developing behaviour change interventions. This study explored factors that influence AMDE reporting. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with physicians who differed by specialties that implant cardiovascular and orthopaedic devices prone to AMDEs, geography and years in practice...
August 2, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768542/early-rigorous-control-interventions-can-largely-reduce-dengue-outbreak-magnitude-experience-from-chaozhou-china
#10
Tao Liu, Guanghu Zhu, Jianfeng He, Tie Song, Meng Zhang, Hualiang Lin, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Zhihao Li, Runsheng Xie, Haojie Zhong, Xiaocheng Wu, Wenbiao Hu, Yonghui Zhang, Wenjun Ma
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? METHODS: We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90...
August 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762882/acute-pesticide-related-illness-among-farmworkers-barriers-to-reporting-to-public-health-authorities
#11
Joanne Bonnar Prado, Prakash R Mulay, Edward J Kasner, Heidi K Bojes, Geoffrey M Calvert
Farmworkers are at high risk of acute occupational pesticide-related illness (AOPI) and AOPI surveillance is vital to preventing these illnesses. Data on such illnesses are collected and analyzed to identify high risk groups, high risk pesticides, and root causes. Interventions to address these risks and root causes include farmworker outreach, education, and regulation. Unfortunately, it is well known that AOPI is under-reported, meaning that the true burden of this condition remains unknown. This paper reviews the barriers to reporting of farmworker AOPI to public health authorities and provides some practical solutions...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758173/academic-and-government-partnerships-to-address-diabetes-in-the-usa-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Stella S Yi, Shadi Chamany, Lorna Thorpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multi-sector partnerships are broadly considered to be of value for diabetes prevention and management. The purpose of this article is to summarize academic and government collaborations focused on diabetes prevention and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Using a narrative review approach, we identified 17 articles describing 10 academic and government partnerships for diabetes management and surveillance. Challenges and gaps in the literature include complexity of diabetes management vis a vis current healthcare infrastructure; a paucity of racial/ethnic diversity in translational efforts; and the time/effort needed to maintain strong relationships across partner institutions...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756767/beyond-pilotitis-taking-digital-health-interventions-to-the-national-level-in-china-and-uganda
#13
REVIEW
Fei Huang, Sean Blaschke, Henry Lucas
BACKGROUND: Innovation theory has focused on the adoption of new products or services by individuals and their market-driven diffusion to the population at large. However, major health sector innovations typically emerge from negotiations between diverse stakeholders who compete to impose or at least prioritise their preferred version of that innovation. Thus, while many digital health interventions have succeeded in terms of adoption by a substantial number of providers and patients, they have generally failed to gain the level of acceptance required for their integration into national health systems that would promote sustainability and population-wide application...
July 31, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753109/anticipation-and-response-pandemic-influenza-in-malawi-2009
#14
Evanson Z Sambala, Lenore Manderson
BACKGROUND: In 2006, Malawi developed a national influenza plan to mitigate, prevent and manage the burden of infection should an outbreak occur. In 2009, it translated its contingency plan to respond to the unfolding influenza pandemic. However, little is known of how Malawi translated its national influenza plan into response actions, or the success of these responses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how Malawi translated its preparedness plan and so broaden our understanding of the outcomes of the responses...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752803/designing-and-collecting-data-for-a-longitudinal-study-the-sleman-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-hdss
#15
Fatwa S T Dewi, Ifta Choiriyyah, Citra Indriyani, Abdul Wahab, Lutfan Lazuardi, Agung Nugroho, Susetyowati Susetyowati, Rosalia K Harisaputra, Risalia Santi, Septi K Lestari, Nawi Ng, Mohammad Hakimi, Hari K Josef, Adi Utarini
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the methodological considerations of developing an urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), in the Sleman District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. METHODS: 1) The Sleman District was selected because it is mostly an urban area. 2) The minimum sample size was calculated to measure infant mortality as the key variable and resulted in a sample of 4942 households. A two-stage cluster sampling procedure with probability proportionate to size was applied; first, 216 Censuses Blocks (CBs) were selected, and second, 25 households in each CB were selected...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738840/progress-towards-malaria-elimination-in-zimbabwe-with-special-reference-to-the-period-2003-2015
#16
Shadreck Sande, Moses Zimba, Joseph Mberikunashe, Andrew Tangwena, Anderson Chimusoro
BACKGROUND: An intensive effort to control malaria in Zimbabwe has produced dramatic reductions in the burden of the disease over the past 13 years. The successes have prompted the Zimbabwe's National Malaria Control Programme to commit to elimination of malaria. It is critical to analyse the changes in the morbidity trends based on surveillance data, and scrutinize reorientation to strategies for elimination. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of available Ministry of Health surveillance data and programme reports, mostly from 2003 to 2015...
July 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738203/early-detection-monitoring-for-aquatic-non-indigenous-species-optimizing-surveillance-incorporating-advanced-technologies-and%C3%A2-identifying-research-needs
#17
REVIEW
Anett S Trebitz, Joel C Hoffman, John A Darling, Erik M Pilgrim, John R Kelly, Emily A Brown, W Lindsay Chadderton, Scott P Egan, Erin K Grey, Syed A Hashsham, Katy E Klymus, Andrew R Mahon, Jeffrey L Ram, Martin T Schultz, Carol A Stepien, James C Schardt
Following decades of ecologic and economic impacts from a growing list of nonindigenous and invasive species, government and management entities are committing to systematic early- detection monitoring (EDM). This has reinvigorated investment in the science underpinning such monitoring, as well as the need to convey that science in practical terms to those tasked with EDM implementation. Using the context of nonindigenous species in the North American Great Lakes, this article summarizes the current scientific tools and knowledge - including limitations, research needs, and likely future developments - relevant to various aspects of planning and conducting comprehensive EDM...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727821/advances-in-using-internet-searches-to-track-dengue
#18
Shihao Yang, Samuel C Kou, Fred Lu, John S Brownstein, Nicholas Brooke, Mauricio Santillana
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that threatens over half of the world's population. Despite being endemic to more than 100 countries, government-led efforts and tools for timely identification and tracking of new infections are still lacking in many affected areas. Multiple methodologies that leverage the use of Internet-based data sources have been proposed as a way to complement dengue surveillance efforts. Among these, dengue-related Google search trends have been shown to correlate with dengue activity...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724017/food-risk-regulation-the-tensions-of-the-brazilian-health-surveillance-system
#19
Ana Virgínia Almeida Figueiredo, Elisabetta Recine, Renata Monteiro
This article addresses the dynamics of Brazilian food control practices, highlighting their special risk-related features and the types of intervention, as well as the recently adopted instruments to control risks related to the nutritional composition of food and their institutional repercussions. Food regulation in Brazil dates back to the First Republic. The practice has been remodeled over the years, due to both the increasing complexity of the risks and the introduction of new institutional operational mechanisms...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719334/precisely-tracking-childhood-death
#20
Tamer H Farag, Jeffrey P Koplan, Robert F Breiman, Shabir A Madhi, Penny M Heaton, Trevor Mundel, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat, Clara Menendez, Scott F Dowell
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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