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government surveillance

Terdsak Yano, Somphorn Phornwisetsirikun, Patipat Susumpow, Surasing Visrutaratna, Karoon Chanachai, Polawat Phetra, Warangkhana Chaisowwong, Pairat Trakarnsirinont, Phonpat Hemwan, Boontuan Kaewpinta, Charuk Singhapreecha, Khwanchai Kreausukon, Arisara Charoenpanyanet, Chongchit Sripun Robert, Lamar Robert, Pranee Rodtian, Suteerat Mahasing, Ekkachai Laiya, Sakulrat Pattamakaew, Taweesart Tankitiyanon, Chalutwan Sansamur, Lertrak Srikitjakarn
BACKGROUND: Aiming for early disease detection and prompt outbreak control, digital technology with a participatory One Health approach was used to create a novel disease surveillance system called Participatory One Health Disease Detection (PODD). PODD is a community-owned surveillance system that collects data from volunteer reporters; identifies disease outbreak automatically; and notifies the local governments (LGs), surrounding villages, and relevant authorities. This system provides a direct and immediate benefit to the communities by empowering them to protect themselves...
March 21, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Idowu Oluwabunmi Fagbamila, Marzia Mancin, Lisa Barco, Sati Samuel Ngulukun, Alexander Jambalang, Olawunmi Toyin Ajayi, Nancy Sati, Paulinus Emennaa, Paul Idoko Ankeli, Jakob Kwaga, Paul Ayuba Abdu, Junaidu Kabir, Jarlath Umoh, Antonia Ricci, Maryam Muhammad
BACKGROUND: In 2012/13, the Federal government of Nigeria approved the surveillance of salmonellae in commercial poultry farms with the aim of generating baseline data for the development of a control programme. That baseline provided an opportunity to investigate potential risk factors in commercial layer farms. METHODS: Five hundred and twenty-three farms were evaluated for the presence of Salmonella. Each farmer was interviewed through a structured questionnaire...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
H Morioka, M Nagao, S Yoshihara, H Ohge, K Kasahara, N Shigemoto, T Kajihara, M Mori, M Iguchi, Y Tomita, S Ichiyama, T Yagi
BACKGROUND: The Japanese government adopted a national action plan on antimicrobial resistance, which aims to reduce drug-resistant pathogens and antimicrobial use. A point-prevalence survey (PPS) is a useful surveillance method to gain information about hospital epidemiology; however, no multi-centre PPS has previously been performed in Japan. AIM: To investigate general information about hospital epidemiology, healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), and antimicrobial use in multiple Japanese university hospitals...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
T S Ravikumar, R Kanagarethinam, Divya Nair, Sitanshu S Kar
Background: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases are reported to be high in police force, which constitute a special occupational group. "Partners in Prevention" was a special surveillance activity carried out among the personnel of the Department of Police, Government of Puducherry by JIPMER, Puducherry. The present study reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors in this group. Materials and Methods: The design was cross-sectional analytical study covering 1618 policemen during 2013-15...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
A Sommanustweechai, V Tangcharoensathien, K Malathum, N Sumpradit, N Kiatying-Angsulee, N Janejai, S Jaroenpoj
BACKGROUND: Thailand has developed a national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance (NSP-AMR) and endorsed by the Cabinet in August 2016. This study reviewed the main contents of the NSP-AMR and the mandates of relevant implementing agencies and identified challenges and recommends actions to mitigate implementation gaps. METHODS: This study analysed the contents of NSP-AMR, reviewed institutional mandates and assessed the implementation gaps among agencies responsible for NSP-AMR...
March 7, 2018: Public Health
Juan Liang, Yi Mu, Xiaohong Li, Wen Tang, Yanping Wang, Zheng Liu, Xiaona Huang, Robert W Scherpbier, Sufang Guo, Mingrong Li, Li Dai, Kui Deng, Changfei Deng, Qi Li, Leni Kang, Jun Zhu, Carine Ronsmans
OBJECTIVE: To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS). PARTICIPANTS: 6 838 582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ≥1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016...
March 5, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Jens Christian König, Andrea Titieni, Martin Konrad
Hereditary cystic kidney diseases comprise a complex group of genetic disorders representing one of the most common causes of end-stage renal failure in childhood. The main representatives are autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta nephropathy. Within the last years, genetic efforts have brought tremendous progress for the molecular understanding of hereditary cystic kidney diseases identifying more than 70 genes. Yet, genetic heterogeneity, phenotypic variability, a lack of reliable genotype-phenotype correlations and the absence of disease-specific biomarkers remain major challenges for physicians treating children with cystic kidney diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lee L Schulz, Dermot J Hayes, Derald J Holtkamp, David A Swenson
Veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) play a significant role in the prevention and mitigation of endemic animal diseases and serve an important role in surveillance of, and the response to, outbreaks of transboundary and emerging animal diseases. They also allow for business continuity in livestock operations and help improve human health. Despite these critical societal roles, there is no academic literature on the economic impact of VDLs. We present a case study on the economic impact of the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISUVDL)...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Omotayo Bolu, Chimeremma Nnadi, Eunice Damisa, Fiona Braka, Anisur Siddique, W Roodly Archer, Philip Bammeke, Richard Banda, Jeffrey Higgins, Aboyowa Edukugo, Gatei Wa Nganda, Joseph C Forbi, Hongmei Liu, Saheed Gidado, Mohammed Soghaier, Richard Franka, Ndadilnasiya Waziri, Cara C Burns, John Vertefeuille, Eric Wiesen, Usman Adamu
Nearly three decades after the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free (1). Nigeria is one of three countries, including Pakistan and Afghanistan, where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. In September 2015, after >1 year without any reported WPV cases, Nigeria was removed from WHO's list of countries with endemic WPV transmission (2); however, during August and September 2016, four type 1 WPV (WPV1) cases were reported from Borno State, a state in northeastern Nigeria experiencing a violent insurgency (3)...
March 2, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Katie M Clow, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Curtis B Russell, Pascal Michel, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
The emergence of the vector Ixodes scapularis in Ontario, Canada poses a significant public health risk. Both passive and active surveillance approaches have been employed by public health professionals (i.e., government employees) to monitor for the range expansion of this tick. Field surveillance using drag sampling for questing ticks is a recognized and effective method to identify reproducing tick populations. The degree of effort (i.e., number of visits per site) can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, but increased effort conflicts with the cost to public health for field surveillance...
2018: PloS One
C J Phythian, B Jackson, R Bell, L Citer, R Barwell, P A Windsor
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of macroscopic Sarcocystis spp., Cysticercus ovis and Echinococcus granulosus recorded at routine postmortem inspection of Tasmanian slaughter sheep during 2007 to 2013. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine postmortem meat inspection data maintained on 352,325 Tasmanian adult slaughter sheep inspected across nine abattoirs in Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia as part of the National Sheep Health Monitoring Project (NSHMP)...
March 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Christine R Fisher, Daniel G Streicker, Matthias J Schnell
Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses, most often rabies virus. Despite control efforts, sporadic outbreaks in wildlife populations are largely unpredictable, underscoring our incomplete knowledge of what governs viral transmission and spread in reservoir hosts. Furthermore, the evolutionary history of rabies virus and related lyssaviruses remains largely unclear. Robust surveillance efforts combined with diagnostics and disease modelling are now providing insights into the epidemiology and evolution of rabies virus...
February 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Sameena Wani, Deepak Kaul
It is widely believed that selective packaging of nucleic acids, especially microRNAs, into exosomes secreted by the cancer cells not only ensures their growth and survival but also helps in the escape from immune surveillance. Keeping in view the fact that human cellular miR-2909 has emerged to regulate genes involved in oncogenesis and immunity, the present study was addressed to reveal the nature of miR-2909 expression within cancer cells of different tissue origin and its incorporation into exosomes secreted by these cells...
February 21, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Martha Maria Pereira, Maria Cristina Schneider, Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, Federico Costa, Jackie Benschop, Rudy Hartskeerl, Julio Martinez, Michel Jancloes, Eric Bertherat
This report summarizes the presentations, discussions and the recommendations coming from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ International Workshop for Leptospirosis Research Based on Country Needs and the 5th Global Leptospirosis Environmental Action Network meeting, which was held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 10-12 November 2015. The event focused on health policy and worked to develop a road map as a consensus document to help guide decision-making by policymakers, funding bodies, and health care professionals...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Tarik Benidir, Karen Hersey, Antonio Finelli, Rob Hamilton, Anthony M Joshua, Girish Kulkarni, Alexandre Zlotta, Neil Fleshner
Several new compounds are now available for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Individual costs range between $40,000 and $93,000 with mean survival extensions from 2.4 to 4.8 months. Currently, it remains unclear how patients with prostate cancer (PCa) value the effect of these therapies in the setting of CRPC. OBJECTIVE: To assess patient understanding of core cancer concepts, opinions on the cost and overall benefit of CRPC drugs, whether out-of-pocket costs would change opinions and whether patients would ultimately opt out of CRPC drug treatment for an end-of-life (EOL) premium...
February 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
I R Lake, G C Barker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present a review of the likely consequences of climate change for foodborne pathogens and associated human illness in higher-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The relationships between climate and food are complex and hence the impacts of climate change uncertain. This makes it difficult to know which foodborne pathogens will be most affected, what the specific effects will be, and on what timescales changes might occur. Hence, a focus upon current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne pathogens is essential...
February 14, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Lisa C Lindesmith, Michael L Mallory, Kari Debbink, Eric F Donaldson, Paul D Brewer-Jensen, Excel W Swann, Timothy P Sheahan, Rachel L Graham, Martina Beltramello, Davide Corti, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Ralph S Baric
Extensive antigenic diversity within the GII.4 genotype of human norovirus is a major driver of pandemic emergence and a significant obstacle to development of cross-protective immunity after natural infection and vaccination. However, human and mouse monoclonal antibody studies indicate that, although rare, antibodies to conserved GII.4 blockade epitopes are generated. The mechanisms by which these epitopes evade immune surveillance are uncertain. Here, we developed a new approach for identifying conserved GII...
January 2018: MSphere
Prasad Thota, Anusha Thota, Bikash Medhi, Shabir Sidhu, Pramod Kumar, V Kalai Selvan, Gyanendra Nath Singh
Background: The National Coordination Centre-Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (NCC-PvPI), Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission works under the aegis of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. It promotes patient safety in India and also supports postmarketing surveillance programs. Currently, almost hundred thousand case reports are submitted to NCC-PvPI each year through its 250 ADR Monitoring Centers (AMCs) located across India, and India is the one of the top ten contributor countries under WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre since 2012 and start issuing drug safety alerts from March 2016...
January 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Po-Wei Chiu, Chih-Hao Lin, Chen-Long Wu, Pin-Hui Fang, Chien-Hsin Lu, Hsiang-Chin Hsu, Chih-Hsien Chi
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ambulance traffic accidents (ATAs) are the leading cause of occupation-related fatalities among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. We aim to use the Taiwan national surveillance system to analyze the characteristics of ATAs and to assist EMS directors in developing policies governing ambulance operations. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional and largely descriptive study was conducted using Taiwan national traffic accidents surveillance data from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2016...
February 7, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Olumide Ajibola, Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Olusola Akintoye Omisakin
INTRODUCTION: Following the significant reduction of Neisseria meningitidis A (NmA) in most parts of northern Nigeria, a new strain of Neisseria meningitidis C (NmC) emerged in 2013 causing outbreaks in the north and recently spreading to southern parts of the Nigeria. This study provides detailed epidemiological investigation in the last four years. METHODS: Analysis of confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis in Kebbi, Nigeria from 2014 to June 2017 detected through Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
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