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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719334/precisely-tracking-childhood-death
#1
Tamer H Farag, Jeffrey P Koplan, Robert F Breiman, Shabir A Madhi, Penny M Heaton, Trevor Mundel, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat, Clara Menendez, Scott F Dowell
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695288/introduction-mhc-kir-and-governance-of-specificity
#2
REVIEW
Adrian Kelly, John Trowsdale
The MHC controls specificity, to ensure that appropriate immune responses are mounted to invading pathogens whilst maintaining tolerance to the host. It encodes molecules that act as sentinels, providing a snapshot of the health of the interior and exterior of the cell for immune surveillance. To maintain the ability to respond appropriately to any disease requires a delicate balance of expression and function, and many subtleties of the system have been described at the gene, individual and population level...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689708/the-growing-role-of-biologics-and-biosimilars-in-the-united-states-perspectives-from-the-apha-biologics-and-biosimilars-stakeholder-conference
#3
Judy Crespi-Lofton, Jann B Skelton
OBJECTIVES: The American Pharmacists Association (APhA) convened the Biologics and Biosimilars Stakeholder Conference on November 30, 2016, in Washington DC. The objectives of the Conference were to determine the key issues and challenges within the marketplace for biologics, follow-on biologics (FOBs), and biosimilars, identify potential roles and responsibilities of pharmacists regarding biologic and biosimilar medications, and identify actions or activities that pharmacists may take to optimize the safe and cost-effective use of biologics and biosimilars...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681814/resurgence-of-diphtheria-in-rural-areas-of-north-karnataka-india
#4
Mahantesh V Parande, Subarna Roy, B G Mantur, Aisha M Parande, Rupali S Shinde
BACKGROUND: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. OBJECTIVES: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680475/the-geography-of-pre-criminal-space-epidemiological-imaginations-of-radicalisation-risk-in-the-uk-prevent-strategy-2007-2017
#5
Charlotte Heath-Kelly
This paper explores geographical and epistemological shifts in the deployment of the UK Prevent strategy, 2007 - 2017. Counter-radicalisation policies of the Labour governments (2006 - 2010) focused heavily upon resilience-building activities in residential communities. They borrowed from historical models of crime prevention and public health to imagine radicalisation risk as an epidemiological concern in areas showing a 2% or higher demography of Muslims. However, this racialized and localised imagination of pre-criminal space was replaced, after the election of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition in 2010...
2017: Crit Stud Terror
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679420/risk-assessment-of-malaria-transmission-at-the-border-area-of-china-and-myanmar
#6
Benyun Shi, Jinxin Zheng, Hongjun Qiu, Guo-Jing Yang, Shang Xia, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: In order to achieve the goal of malaria elimination, the Chinese government launched the National Malaria Elimination Programme in 2010. However, as a result of increasing cross-border population movements, the risk of imported malaria cases still exists at the border areas of China, resulting in a potential threat of local transmission. The focus of this paper is to assess the Plasmodium vivax incidences in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, at the border areas of China and Myanmar...
July 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674316/vibrio-cholerae-o1-ogawa-strains-carrying-the-ctxb7-allele-caused-large-cholera-outbreak-during-2014-in-the-tribal-areas-of-odisha-india
#7
Bibhuti Bhusan Pal, Hemant Kumar Khuntia, Smruti Ranjan Nayak, Anima Mohanty, Bhagyalaxmi Biswal
The large outbreak of cholera reported during July to Sept, 2014 in Narla block of Kalahandi district was investigated to find out the causative organism. The rectal swabs collected from diarrhoea patients and environmental water samples were sub-cultured following standard techniques. The causative organism was V.cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor while DMAMA-PCR assay confirmed that all strains were ctxB7 of Haitian variants V.cholerae O1. The water samples were negative for V. cholerae .The V.cholerae O1 strains were sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, doxycycline, azithromycin,; but were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, furazolidone, neomycine, cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid and ampicilin...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654310/unique-infectious-strategy-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-is-governed-by-the-acid-destabilized-property-of-hemagglutinin
#8
Tomo Daidoji, Yohei Watanabe, Yasuha Arai, Junichi Kajikawa, Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus emerged in 1997 as a zoonotic disease in Hong Kong. It has since spread to Asia and Europe and is a serious threat to both the poultry industry and human health. For effective surveillance and possible prevention/control of HPAI H5N1 viruses, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanism underlying HPAI H5N1 pathogenesis. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza A viruses (IAVs) is one of the major determinants of host adaptation, transmissibility, and viral virulence...
July 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644057/the-implementation-of-medical-monitoring-programs-following-potentially-hazardous-exposures-a-medico-legal-perspective
#9
David Vearrier, Michael I Greenberg
CONTEXT: Clinical toxicologists may be called upon to determine the appropriateness of medical monitoring following documented or purported exposures to toxicants in the occupational, environmental, and medical settings. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database using the Ovid(®) search engine for the following terms cross-referenced to the MeSH database: ("occupational exposures" OR "environmental exposures") AND ("physiologic monitoring" OR "population surveillance")...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637576/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-in-australia-aura-surveillance-system-coordinating-national-data-on-antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-for-australia
#10
John D Turnidge, Kathy T Meleady
Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system.Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified...
June 22, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632873/screening-for-obesity-and-intervention-for-weight-management-in-children-and-adolescents-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth A O'Connor, Corinne V Evans, Brittany U Burda, Emily S Walsh, Michelle Eder, Paula Lozano
Importance: Obesity is common in children and adolescents in the United States, is associated with negative health effects, and increases the likelihood of obesity in adulthood. Objective: To systematically review the benefits and harms of screening and treatment for obesity and overweight in children and adolescents to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials, and the Education Resources Information Center through January 22, 2016; references of relevant publications; government websites...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626500/mitophagy-transcriptome-mechanistic-insights-into-polyphenol-mediated-mitophagy
#12
REVIEW
Sijie Tan, Esther Wong
Mitochondria are important bioenergetic and signalling hubs critical for myriad cellular functions and homeostasis. Dysfunction in mitochondria is a central theme in aging and diseases. Mitophagy, a process whereby damaged mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy, plays a key homeostatic role in mitochondrial quality control. Upregulation of mitophagy has shown to mitigate superfluous mitochondrial accumulation and toxicity to safeguard mitochondrial fitness. Hence, mitophagy is a viable target to promote longevity and prevent age-related pathologies...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619165/the-use-of-animals-as-a-surveillance-tool-for-monitoring-environmental-health-hazards-human-health-hazards-and-bioterrorism
#13
REVIEW
Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo, Boon Huan Tan
This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619015/nontuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections-at-a-specialized-tuberculosis-treatment-centre-in-the-republic-of-korea
#14
Hee Jung Yoon, Hwa Young Choi, Moran Ki
BACKGROUND: The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections is increasing worldwide, however formal evaluations of the epidemiology of NTM infections are limited. Understanding the trends and true prevalence of NTM is a major priority for optimizing infection control programmes and resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and radiologic findings in NTM-infected patients at specialized Tuberculosis (Tb) treatment centre in South Korea, which is endemic to Tb, and find solutions to control NTM infections...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615026/engaging-the-private-sector-in-malaria-surveillance-a-review-of-strategies-and-recommendations-for-elimination-settings
#15
Adam Bennett, Anton L V Avanceña, Jennifer Wegbreit, Chris Cotter, Kathryn Roberts, Roly Gosling
BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, all malaria cases must be identified, documented and investigated. To facilitate complete and timely reporting of all malaria cases and effective case management and follow-up, engagement with private providers is essential, particularly in settings where the private sector is a major source of healthcare. However, research on the role and performance of the private sector in malaria diagnosis, case management and reporting in malaria elimination settings is limited...
June 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614925/-investigation-on-standard-application-of-industrial-dust-hazard-classification
#16
Y Lu, M Zhang, W H Chen
Objective: To investigate the application and effectiveness evaluation of the standard of GBZ/T 229.1-2010 in practice, and to explore the applicability, aiming to provide technical evidence for the revision of GBZ/T 229.1-2010. Methods: There were 2 questionnaire surveys carried out in the study, including general survey and specific survey. Databases were established and data were input with Excel 2010 and Epidata version 3.1 software. SPSS version 19.0 software was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607238/sri-lanka-takes-action-towards-a-target-of-zero-rabies-death-by-2020
#17
P A Lionel Harischandra, Amila Gunesekera, Navaratnasingam Janakan, Gyanendra Gongal, Bernadette Abela-Ridder
Rabies is a 100% vaccine-preventable and 100% fatal zoonotic, viral disease. It is usually spread to humans by saliva, through bites or scratches. Dogs are the source of the vast majority of human deaths from rabies. Political will and leadership have been the main drivers for success of the Sri Lankan effort to reduce the burden of disease attributable to rabies. Post-exposure prophylaxis, which is available in government health facilities, at no cost, to all bite patients, has been a main axis of the rabies-elimination strategy...
September 2016: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599616/a-survey-of-methods-used-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-in-veterinary-diagnostic-laboratories-in-the-united-states
#18
David A Dargatz, Matthew M Erdman, Beth Harris
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594945/participatory-evaluation-of-delivery-of-animal-health-care-services-by-community-animal-health-workers-in-karamoja-region-of-uganda
#19
James Bugeza, Clovice Kankya, James Muleme, Ann Akandinda, Joseph Sserugga, Noelina Nantima, Edward Okori, Terence Odoch
AIM: An evaluation exercise was carried out to assess the performance of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) in the delivery of animal health care services in Karamoja region, identify capacity gaps and recommend remedial measures. MATERIALS & METHODS: Participatory methods were used to design data collection tools. Questionnaires were administered to 204 CAHWs, 215 farmers and 7 District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to collect quantitative data. Seven DVOs and 1 Non Government Organization (NGO) representative were interviewed as key informants and one focus group discussion was conducted with a farmer group in Nakapiripirit to collect qualitative data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591192/perinatal-outcomes-and-congenital-heart-defect-prognosis-in-53313-non-selected-perinatal-infants
#20
Donghua Xie, Hua Wang, Zhiyu Liu, Junqun Fang, Tubao Yang, Shujin Zhou, Aihua Wang, Jiabi Qin, Lili Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate perinatal outcomes and congenital heart defect (CHD) prognosis in a non-selected population. METHODS: The population-based surveillance data used in this assessment of CHDs were based on birth defect surveillance data collected from 2010-2012 in Liuyang City, China. Infants living with CHDs were followed up for 5 years to determine their prognosis. Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, perinatal outcomes, and total and type-specific prognosis data were assessed using SPSS 18...
2017: PloS One
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