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government surveillance

David C Classen, William Munier, Nancy Verzier, Noel Eldridge, David Hunt, Mark Metersky, Chesley Richards, Yun Wang, P Jeffrey Brady, Amy Helwig, James Battles
The explicit declaration in the landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine report "To Err Is Human" that, in the United States, 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year as a consequence of "medical errors" gave widespread validation to the magnitude of the patient safety problem and catalyzed a number of U.S. federal government programs to measure and improve the safety of the national healthcare system. After more than 10 years, one of those federal programs, the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS), has reached a level of maturity and stability that has made it useful for the consistent measurement of the safety of inpatient care...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Songyuan Tang, Weiming Tang, Kathrine Meyers, Polin Chan, Zhongdan Chen, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Despite global efforts to control HIV among key populations, new infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) individuals are still increasing. The increasing HIV epidemic among MSM/TG in China indicates that more effective services are urgently needed. However, policymakers and program managers must have a clear understanding of MSM/TG sexual health in China to improve service delivery. To meet this need, we undertook a scoping review to summarize HIV epidemiology and responses among MSM and TG individuals in China...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sumadhya Deepika Fernando, Priyani Dharmawardana, Geethanee Epasinghe, Niroshana Senanayake, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Risintha Premaratne, Rajitha Wickremasinghe
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka is currently in the prevention of re-introduction phase of malaria. The engagement of the private sector health care institutions in malaria surveillance is important. The purpose of the study was to determine the number of diagnostic tests carried out, the number of positive cases identified and the referral system for diagnosis in the private sector and to estimate the costs involved. METHODS: This prospective study of private sector laboratories within the Colombo District of Sri Lanka was carried out over a 6-month period in 2015...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
John Howard, Vladimir Murashov, Paul Schulte
Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Rafael Castillo
: Similar to the trend worldwide, hypertension (HTN) is also the single most attributable cause for mortality in South-East Asia (SEA). But while in developed regions, the prevalence of HTN appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, the rates in SEA continue to rise. Around a third of the adult population in SEA have elevated blood pressure (BP) with nearly 1.5 million deaths (9.4% of total deaths) attributable to HTN annually.In several countries in SEA, awareness level of HTN is less than 50% but in the more affluent countries in the region, awareness ranges from 56% to 70%...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Susmita Chatterjee, Manish Pant, Pradeep Haldar, Mahesh Kumar Aggarwal, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is one of the largest programmes in the world in terms of quantities of vaccines administered, number of beneficiaries, number of immunization sessions, and geographical extent and diversity of areas covered. Strategic planning for the Programme requires credible information on the cost of achieving the objectives and the financial resources needed at national, State, and district levels. We present here expenditures on immunization services in India in 2012 (baseline) and projected costs for five years (2013-2017)...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
A Coetzer, A H Kidane, M Bekele, A D Hundera, E G Pieracci, M L Shiferaw, R Wallace, L H Nel
The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool was developed through a joint effort of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC), to provide a standard mechanism for countries to assess their rabies situation and measure progress in eliminating the disease. Because the African continent has the highest per capita death rate from rabies, and Ethiopia is estimated to have the second largest number of rabies deaths of all African countries, Ethiopia undertook a self-assessment by means of the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Research
Louisa G Gordon, Robbie James, Haitham W Tuffaha, Anthony Lowe, John Yaxley
PURPOSE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to diagnose prostate cancer and direct all low-risk patients into active surveillance (AS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Markov cohort model was developed to assess three scenarios: 1) no mpMRI and current AS; 2) mpMRI and current AS; and 3) mpMRI and increased AS. Men were tracked from diagnosis to end-of-life. Estimates to populate the model were derived from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, epidemiological publications, and national cost reports...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
M-O Timsit, F Kleinclauss, M F Mamzer Bruneel, R Thuret
OBJECTIVES: To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database ( and Embase ( using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction...
October 6, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Aileen E O'Hearn, Matthew A Voorhees, David P Fetterer, Nadia Wauquier, Moinya R Coomber, James Bangura, Joseph N Fair, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans is endemic in West Africa. In Sierra Leone at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory, up to 70 % of acute patient samples suspected of Lassa fever test negative for Lassa virus infection. This large amount of acute undiagnosed febrile illness can be attributed in part to an array of hemorrhagic fever and arthropod-borne viruses causing disease that goes undetected and untreated...
October 3, 2016: Virology Journal
S Refaey, M Hassan, A Mansour, A Kandeel
The epidemiology, seasonality and risk factors for influenza virus infection remains poorly defined in countries such as Egypt. Between 1 January and 31 December 2013, we used surveillance data on patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory infection in three Egyptian government hospitals in Damanhour district to estimate the incidence rate of laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza. Samples were taken from 1727 of 1856 patients; of these, 19% were influenza virus positive. The overall incidence of influenza virus-associated SARI during the study period was estimated to be 44 cases per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 39-48)...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Lisa Henriksen, Kurt M Ribisl, Todd Rogers, Sarah Moreland-Russell, Dianne M Barker, Nikie Sarris Esquivel, Brett Loomis, Erin Crew, Todd Combs
OBJECTIVE: The Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (STARS) was designed to characterise the availability, placement, promotion and price of tobacco products, with items chosen for relevance to regulating the retail tobacco environment. This study describes the process to develop the STARS instrument and protocol employed by a collaboration of US government agencies, US state tobacco control programmes (TCPs), advocacy organisations, public health attorneys and researchers from the National Cancer Institute's State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative...
October 2016: Tobacco Control
Om Prakash Singh, Epco Hasker, Marleen Boelaert, Shyam Sundar
Visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem on the Indian subcontinent, causing high morbidity and mortality. The governments in the region launched a visceral leishmaniasis elimination initiative in 2005. We review knowledge gaps and research priorities. Key challenges include low coverage of health services for those most at risk, drug resistance, the absence of a vaccine, and the complex biology of the sandfly-human host transmission cycle. Vector control is an essential component, but innovation in this field is insufficient...
September 28, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Hans Reynders, Ann Colles, Bert Morrens, Maja Mampaey, Dries Coertjens, Gudrun Koppen, Greet Schoeters, Ilse Loots, Hana Chovanova, Wim Winderickx, Karen Van Campenhout
Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Philip L Russo, Sally M Havers, Allen C Cheng, Michael Richards, Nicholas Graves, Lisa Hall
BACKGROUND: There are many well-established national health care-associated infection surveillance programs (HAISPs). Although validation studies have described data quality, there is little research describing important characteristics of large HAISPs. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large HAISPs. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected leaders from national and state-based HAISPs...
September 21, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Santiago Ávila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Margarita Matías-Florentino, Karla A Romero-Mora, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Verónica S Quiroz-Morales, Helena Reyes-Gopar, Hezhao Ji, Paul Sandstrom, Jesús Casillas-Rodríguez, Juan Sierra-Madero, Eddie A León-Juárez, Marisol Valenzuela-Lara, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Patricia Uribe-Zuñiga, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
BACKGROUND: WHO has developed a global HIV-drug resistance surveillance strategy, including assessment of pretreatment HIV-drug resistance. We aimed to do a nationally representative survey of pretreatment HIV-drug resistance in Mexico using WHO-recommended methods. METHODS: Among 161 Ministry of Health antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in Mexico, the largest, including 90% of ART initiators within the Ministry of Health (66 in total), were eligible for the survey...
September 14, 2016: Lancet HIV
M J M Bonten
Antibiotic resistance is considered a major threat to healthcare. The Dutch government recently announced additional measures to contain this threat, one of these being the creation of regional care networks dedicated to control antibiotic resistance. Among the anticipated activities of these networks is quantifying the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in nursing homes, through regular point-prevalence surveillance studies. There is a broadly felt belief that nursing homes might be a 'mer à boire' of antibiotic resistance...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Rafael Castillo
: Similar to the trend worldwide, hypertension (HTN) is also the single most attributable cause for mortality in South-East Asia (SEA). But while in developed regions, the prevalence of HTN appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, the rates in SEA continue to rise. Around a third of the adult population in SEA have elevated blood pressure (BP) with nearly 1.5 million deaths (9.4% of total deaths) attributable to HTN annually.In several countries in SEA, awareness level of HTN is less than 50% but in the more affluent countries in the region, awareness ranges from 56% to 70%...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Angus Nnamdi Oli, Kelechi Christian Okoli, Nonye Treasure Ujam, Dave Ufuoma Adje, Ifeanyi Ezeobi
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) constitute a serious global public health challenge, causing great suffering to many people across the globe at any given time. This study ascertains the knowledge of health professionals on the challenge and their compliance with infection control measures. METHODS: Validated questionnaires were administered to 660 health professionals and supported with face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Jason Shahin, Elizabeth J Allen, Krishna Patel, Hannah Muskett, Sheila E Harvey, Jonathan Edgeworth, Christopher C Kibbler, Rosemary A Barnes, Sharmistha Biswas, Neil Soni, Kathryn M Rowan, David A Harrison
BACKGROUND: Given the predominance of invasive fungal disease (IFD) amongst the non-immunocompromised adult critically ill population, the potential benefit of antifungal prophylaxis and the lack of generalisable tools to identify high risk patients, the aim of the current study was to describe the epidemiology of IFD in UK critical care units, and to develop and validate a clinical risk prediction tool to identify non-neutropenic, critically ill adult patients at high risk of IFD who would benefit from antifungal prophylaxis...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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