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government surveillance

D Peck, M Bruce
Brucellosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease that causes recurring febrile illness in humans, as well as reproductive failure and reduced milk production in livestock. The cost of brucellosis is equal to the sum of lost productivity of humans and animals, as well as private and public expenditures on brucellosis surveillance, prevention, control and treatment. In Albania, Brucella abortus and B. melitensis affect humans, cattle and small ruminants. In the United States, B. abortus affects cattle and wild ungulates in the Greater Yellowstone Area...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Jose G Rigau-Pérez
The history of the US Public Health Service (PHS) is usually presented in terms of diseases or discoveries; this article examines twenty years' activity in one location. When the United States invaded Puerto Rico in 1898, the Marine Hospital Service (now PHS) took responsibility for foreign quarantine, inspection of immigrants, and medical care for merchant seamen. Its officers evaluated the sanitary conditions of port cities, helped reorganize local disease surveillance and control, and investigated endemic diseases (e...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Lucky Sangal, Sudhir Joshi, Shalini Anandan, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Jaichand Johnson, Asish Satapathy, Pradeep Haldar, Ramesh Rayru, Srinath Ramamurthy, Asha Raghavan, Pankaj Bhatnagar
INTRODUCTION: As part of national program, laboratory supported vaccine preventable diseases surveillance was initiated in Kerala in 2015. Mechanisms have been strengthened for case investigation, reporting, and data management. Specimens collected and sent to state and reference laboratories for confirmation and molecular surveillance. The major objective of this study is to understand the epidemiological information generated through surveillance system and its utilization for action...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Maho Nagasawa, Kristine Germar, Bianca Blom, Hergen Spits
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as a key cell type involved in surveillance and maintenance of mucosal tissues. Mouse ILCs rely on the transcriptional regulator Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 2 (Id2) for their development. Here, we show that Id2 also drives development of human ILC because forced expression of Id2 in human thymic progenitors blocked T cell commitment, upregulated CD161 and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), and maintained CD127 expression, markers that are characteristic for human ILCs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Ibrahim Baffa Sule, Mohammed Yahaya, Abubakar Ahmed Aisha, Ahmed Datti Zainab, Bajoga Ummulkhulthum, Patrick Nguku
INTRODUCTION: Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. This analysis is aimed at highlighting the magnitude, pattern and trend of cholera outbreak that occurred in Kaduna State in 2014. METHODS: We obtained the 2014 cholera line-list from the Kaduna State Disease Surveillance and Notification officer (DSNO). We described the outbreaks in time, place and person using Epi-info 7 and Health Mapper...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Natalie Schellack, Deon Benjamin, Adrian Brink, Adriano Duse, Kim Faure, Debra Goff, Marc Mendelson, Johanna Meyer, Jacqui Miot, Olga Perovic, Troy Pople, Fatima Suleman, Moritza van Vuuren, Sabiha Essack
The Global Action Plan (GAP) on AMR calls for optimising the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health, in tandem with strengthening of the knowledge and evidence base through surveillance and research. However, there is a paucity of consumption data in African countries such as South Africa. Determining antimicrobial consumption data in low resource settings remains a challenge. This paper describes alternative mechanisms of assessing antimicrobial consumption data such as Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS), and contract data arising from tenders (an open Request for Proposal, RFP) as opposed to the international norms of daily defined doses per 100 patient days, or per 1000 of the population...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Shinichi Egawa, Tomomi Suda, Tracey Elizabeth Claire Jones-Konneh, Aya Murakami, Hiroyuki Sasaki
In the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE), successful medical and public health coordination by pre-assigned disaster medical coordinators saved many affected people, though the coordination itself had difficulties. This study aims to clarify the implementation and the challenges of disaster medical coordinators in Japan. We performed questionnaire surveillance in 2012 and 2014 to all prefectural government on assignment of disaster medical coordinators, their expected roles and supporting system. Out of all 47 prefectures, assignment or planning of disaster medical coordinators jumped up from four (8...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Benjamin Ochoo, James Valcour, Atanu Sarkar
Studying public perception on drinking water quality is crucial for managing of water resources, generation of water quality standards, and surveillance of the drinking-water quality. However, in policy discourse, the reliability of public perception concerning drinking water quality and associated health risks is questionable. Does the public perception of water quality equate with the actual water quality? We investigated public perceptions of water quality and the perceived health risks and associated with the actual quality of public water supplies in the same communities...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Research
Meghnath Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal, Raja Ram Pote-Shrestha, David A Groneberg, Ulrich Kuch
Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
Sophia Siu Chee Chan, Yee Tak Derek Cheung, David Chung Ngor Wong, Chao Qiang Jiang, Yao He, Li Yang, Bin Jiang, Lei Wu, Shou Yong Tan, Kar Keung Cheng, Tai-Hing Lam
INTRODUCTION: The Chinese government's implementation of the MPOWER policies and compliance with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requirements has been slow. We used the 'foot-in-the-door' approach to promote tobacco control advocacy through capacity building of healthcare leaders, and establishment of smoking cessation clinics in Guangzhou and Beijing (two of the largest cities in China). METHODS: This collaborative pilot project involved the University of Hong Kong and three major hospitals in Guangzhou and Beijing...
August 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
Jessica A Belser, Adam Johnson, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Claudia Pappas, Melissa B Pearce, Wen-Pin Tzeng, M Jaber Hossain, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Li-Mei Chen, David E Wentworth, Jacqueline M Katz, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey
The development of influenza candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) for pre-pandemic vaccine production represents a critical step in pandemic preparedness. The multiple subtypes and clades of avian or swine origin influenza viruses circulating world-wide at any one time necessitates the continuous generation of CVVs to provide an advanced starting point should a novel zoonotic virus cross the species barrier and cause a pandemic. Furthermore, the evolution and diversity of novel influenza viruses that cause zoonotic infections requires ongoing monitoring and surveillance, and, when a lack of antigenic match between circulating viruses and available CVVs is identified, the production of new CVVs...
August 25, 2017: Virology
Brendan J Trewin, Jonathan M Darbro, Cassie C Jansen, Nancy A Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki, Tim P Hurst, Gregor J Devine
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a highly invasive mosquito whose global distribution has fluctuated dramatically over the last 100 years. In Australia the distribution of Ae. aegypti once spanned the eastern seaboard, for 3,000 km north to south. However, during the 1900s this distribution markedly reduced and the mosquito disappeared from its southern range. Numerous hypotheses have been proffered for this retraction, however quantitative evidence of the mechanisms driving the disappearance are lacking...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
M Goldberg, M Carton, A Doussin, A Fagot-Campagna, E Heyndrickx, M Lemaitre, J Nicolau, C Quantin
The French national health database (SNIIRAM) proved to be very useful for epidemiology, health economics, evaluation, surveillance or public health. However, it is a complex database requiring important resources and expertise for being used. The REDSIAM network has been set up for promoting the collaboration of teams working on the Sniiram. The main aim of REDSIAM is to develop and validate methods for analyzing the Sniiram database for research, surveillance, evaluation and public health purposes by sharing the knowledge and experience of specialized teams in the fields of diseases identification from the Sniiram data...
October 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Revati K Phalkey, Carsten Butsch, Kristine Belesova, Marieke Kroll, Frauke Kraas
BACKGROUND: Private practitioners are the preferred first point of care in a majority of low and middle-income countries and in this position, best placed for the surveillance of diseases. However their contribution to routine surveillance data is marginal. This systematic review aims to explore evidence with regards to the role, contribution, and involvement of private practitioners in routine disease data notification. We examined the factors that determine the inclusion of, and the participation thereof of private practitioners in disease surveillance activities...
August 25, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Jianhua Wang, Yuanyuan Deng, Yuting Ma
Improper use of pesticides among farmers has caused food safety issues which are serious threats to public health in China. A central question concerns how to motivate farmers to self-regulate their pesticide usage. The paper aims to identify the influence of an internal driving factor, i.e., perceived benefits, and an external driving factor, i.e., subjective norm, on farmers' safe pesticide behaviors, and whether the two factors are moderated by the exposure to information on government policies and the market, based on a sample of 971 farmers selected from 5 Chinese provinces...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maya M V X van den Ent, Apoorva Mallya, Hardeep Sandhu, Blanche-Philomene Anya, Nasir Yusuf, Marcelline Ntakibirora, Andreas Hasman, Kamal Fahmy, John Agbor, Melissa Corkum, Kyandindi Sumaili, Anisur Rahman Siddique, Jane Bammeke, Fiona Braka, Rija Andriamihantanirina, Antoine-Marie C Ziao, Clement Djumo, Moise Desire Yapi, Stephen Sosler, Rudolf Eggers
Nine polio areas of expertise were applied to broader immunization and mother, newborn and child health goals in ten focus countries of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan: policy & strategy development, planning, management and oversight (accountability framework), implementation & service delivery, monitoring, communications & community engagement, disease surveillance & data analysis, technical quality & capacity building, and partnerships. Although coverage improvements depend on multiple factors and increased coverage cannot be attributed to the use of polio assets alone, 6 out of the 10 focus countries improved coverage in three doses of diphtheria tetanus pertussis containing vaccine between 2013 and 2015...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Edson Borges, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Bianca Ferrarini Zanetti, Amanda Souza Setti, Rodrigo Rosa Provenza, Assumpto Iaconelli
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the requirement from the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), for assisted reproduction treatment patients to undergo laboratory tests for ZIKV detection, and if the public health authorities and government leaders' recommendations to women simply avoid pregnancy is prudent. METHODS: This study was performed in a university-affiliated in vitro fertilization center in Brazil. We present a critical discussion on the risk of microcephaly due to ZIKV infection and the prevalence of other harmful pathogens to vulnerable pregnant women and infants...
September 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Ian C Roberts-Thomson, Thomas Lung
The Asia-Pacific region contains more than half of the world's population and is markedly heterogeneous in relation to income levels and the provision of public and private health services. For low-income countries, the major health priorities are child and maternal health. In contrast, priorities for high-income countries include vascular disease, cancer, diabetes, dementia and mental health disorders as well as chronic inflammatory disorders such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Cost-effectiveness analyses are methods for assessing the gains in health relative to the costs of different health interventions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Anna Haydée Lanzillotti Jannuzzi, Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos
The backlog in processing patent applications in Brazil has persisted since the enactment of Law 9,279/1996, when the country resumed granting patents on drugs. The agencies responsible for granting such patents, namely the Brazilian National Patent and Trademark Office (INPI) and the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) cite technical and administrative reasons for the backlog. However, little research has focused on the economic impacts for health due to the inefficiency of the Brazilian patent system...
August 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Simon A Reid, Anna Rodney, Mike Kama, Peter S Hill
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis occur as a result of the often complex interactions that exist at the human-animal-environment interface. The most obvious consequence of this complexity is the need for the health sector to partner with institutions in other sectors of society such as agriculture, labour and local government. This multisectoral engagement is complicated by the different agendas and cultures of the various institutions and their ability to "see" their role and ant benefits in a collaborative response...
August 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
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