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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926915/cheetah-reunion-the-challenge-of-finding-your-friends-again
#1
Tatjana Y Hubel, Justine Shotton, Simon D Wilshin, Jane Horgan, Rebecca Klein, Rick McKenna, Alan M Wilson
Animals navigate their environment using a variety of senses and strategies. This multiplicity enables them to respond to different navigational requirements resulting from habitat, scale and purpose. One of the challenges social animals face is how to reunite after periods of separation. We explore a variety of possible mechanisms used to reunite the members of a cheetah coalition dispersed within a large area after prolonged separation. Using GPS data from three cheetahs reuniting after weeks of separation, we determined that 1) the likelihood of purely coincidental reunion is miniscule 2) the reunion occurred in an area not normally frequented 3) with very little time spent in the region in advance of the reunion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926848/constriction-by-dynamin-elasticity-versus-adhesion
#2
Zachary A McDargh, Pablo Vázquez-Montejo, Jemal Guven, Markus Deserno
Any cellular fission process is completed when the neck connecting almost-separate membrane compartments is severed. This crucial step is somehow accomplished by proteins from the dynamin family, which polymerize into helical spirals around such necks. Much research has been devoted to elucidating the specifics of that somehow, but despite no shortage of ideas, the question is not settled. Pictorially obvious notions of strangling or pushing are difficult to render in mechanically precise terms. Moreover, because dynamin is a GTPase, it is tempting to speculate that it has a motor activity that assists the necessary severing action, but again the underlying mechanics is not obvious...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#3
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926651/factors-underlying-the-temporal-increase-in-maternal-mortality-in-the-united-states
#4
K S Joseph, Sarka Lisonkova, Giulia M Muraca, Neda Razaz, Yasser Sabr, Azar Mehrabadi, Enrique F Schisterman
OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors underlying the recent increase in maternal mortality ratios (maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) in the United States. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with data on maternal deaths and live births in the United States from 1993 to 2014 obtained from the birth and death files of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Underlying causes of death were examined between 1999 and 2014 using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926644/cervical-cancer-screening-guideline-adherence-before-and-after-guideline-changes-in-pennsylvania-medicaid
#5
Natasha Parekh, Julie M Donohue, Aiju Men, Jennifer Corbelli, Marian Jarlenski
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in cervical cancer screening after the 2009 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' guideline change and to determine predictors associated with underscreening and overscreening among Medicaid-enrolled women. METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study of Pennsylvania Medicaid claims from 2007 to 2013. We evaluated guideline adherence of 18- to 64-year-old continuously enrolled women before and after the 2009 guideline change...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926623/clinician-perceptions-of-teamwork-in-the-emergency-department-does-nurse-and-medical-provider-workspace-placement-make-a-difference
#6
Amy L Weaver, Susan Hernandez, Daiwai M Olson
OBJECTIVE: This study was intended to determine whether positioning emergency department (ED) physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners at the same workstations as registered nurses (RNs) improved communication and teamwork. BACKGROUND: Historically in this organization, providers and staff had separate physical locations (workstations). Construction of a new ED provided the opportunity to redesign the physical layout and to study whether a new design improved the perception of communication and teamwork among medical providers...
January 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926595/impact-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-index-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-content-and-visceral-to-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-area-ratio-on-early-mortality-of-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#7
Yuhei Hamaguchi, Toshimi Kaido, Shinya Okumura, Atsushi Kobayashi, Hisaya Shirai, Shintaro Yagi, Naoko Kamo, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle depletion has been shown to be an independent risk factor for poor survival in various diseases. However, in surgery, the significance of other body components including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue remains unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study included 250 adult patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) between January 2008 and April 2015. Using preoperative plain CT imaging at the third lumbar vertebra level, skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity were evaluated by the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR), respectively...
December 6, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926565/oncologic-outcomes-following-laparoscopic-versus-open-resection-of-pt4-colon-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Adina E Feinberg, Tyler R Chesney, Sergio A Acuna, Tarik Sammour, Fayez A Quereshy
BACKGROUND: Locally advanced colon cancer is considered a relative contraindication for laparoscopic resection, and clinical trials addressing the oncologic safety are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to synthesize the oncologic outcomes associated with laparoscopic versus conventional open surgery for locally advanced colon cancers. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Central, and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers independently screened the literature for controlled trials or observational studies comparing curative-intent laparoscopic and open surgery for colon cancer...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926453/quantifying-motivation-with-effort-based-decision-making-paradigms-in-health-and-disease
#9
T T-J Chong, V Bonnelle, M Husain
Motivation can be characterized as a series of cost-benefit valuations, in which we weigh the amount of effort we are willing to expend (the cost of an action) in return for particular rewards (its benefits). Human motivation has traditionally been measured with self-report and questionnaire-based tools, but an inherent limitation of these methods is that they are unable to provide a mechanistic explanation of the processes underlying motivated behavior. A major goal of current research is to quantify motivation objectively with effort-based decision-making paradigms, by drawing on a rich literature from nonhuman animals...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926440/fatigue-with-up-vs-downregulated-brain-arousal-should-not-be-confused
#10
U Hegerl, C Ulke
Fatigue is considered to be an important and frequent factor in motivation problems. However, this term lacks clinical and pathophysiological validity. Semantic precision has to be improved. Lack of drive and tiredness with increased sleepiness as observed in fatigue in the context of inflammatory and immunological processes (hypoaroused fatigue) has to be separated from inhibition of drive and tiredness with prolonged sleep onset latency as observed in major depression (hyperaroused fatigue). Subjective experiences as reported by patients, as well as clinical, behavioral, and neurobiological findings support the validity and importance of this distinction...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926437/involvement-of-opioid-signaling-in-food-preference-and-motivation-studies-in-laboratory-animals
#11
I Morales, L Font, P J Currie, R Pastor
Motivation is a complex neurobiological process that initiates, directs, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. Although distinct components of motivated behavior are difficult to investigate, appetitive and consummatory phases of motivation are experimentally separable. Different neurotransmitter systems, particularly the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, have been associated with food motivation. Over the last two decades, however, research focusing on the role of opioid signaling has been particularly growing in this area...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925837/a-comprehensive-multimorbidity-index-for-predicting-mortality-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#12
Hua Min, Sanja Avramovic, Janusz Wojtusiak, Rahul Khosla, Ross D Fletcher, Farrokh Alemi, Raya Elfadel Kheirbek
BACKGROUND: Accurate prediction of mortality for patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) is an important component of medical care. However, little is known about the role of multimorbidity in predicting end of life for high-risk and vulnerable patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to derive and validate a multimorbidity risk model in an attempt to predict all-cause mortality at 6 and 12 months posthospital discharge. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational, clinical cohort study...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925738/experimental-evidence-of-the-gardner-phase-in-a-granular-glass
#13
A Seguin, O Dauchot
Analyzing the dynamics of a vibrated bidimensional packing of bidisperse granular disks below jamming, we provide evidence of a Gardner phase deep into the glass phase. To do so, we perform several compression cycles within a given realization of the same glass and show that the particles select different average vibrational positions at each cycle, while the neighborhood structure remains unchanged. The separation between the cages obtained for different compression cycles plateaus with an increasing packing fraction, while the mean square displacement steadily decreases...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925716/incorporating-noise-quantitatively-in-the-phase-field-crystal-model-via-capillary-fluctuation-theory
#14
Gabriel Kocher, Nana Ofori-Opoku, Nikolas Provatas
A tacit assumption underlying most phase field models of nonequilibrium phase transformations is that of scale separation. Stochastic order parameter field theories utilize noise to separate atomic-scale fluctuations from the slowly varying fields that describe microstructure patterns. The mesoscale distribution of such stochastic variables is generally assumed to follow Gaussian statistics, with their magnitude following fluctuation-dissipation relations. However, there is still much debate about how atomic-scale fluctuations map onto the mesoscale upon coarse graining of microscopic theories...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925630/interface-stability-interface-fluctuations-and-the-gibbs-thomson-relationship-in-motility-induced-phase-separations
#15
Chiu Fan Lee
Minimal models of self-propelled particles with short-range volume exclusion interactions have been shown to exhibit the signatures of phase separation. Here I show that the observed interfacial stability and fluctuations in motility-induced phase separations (MIPS) can be explained by modeling the microscopic dynamics of the active particles in the interfacial region. In addition, I demonstrate the validity of the Gibbs-Thomson relationship in MIPS, which provides a functional relationship between the size of a condensed drop and its surrounding vapor concentration...
December 7, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925612/transthoracic-echocardiography-to-assess-aortic-regurgitation-after-tavr-a-comparison-with-periprocedural-transesophageal-echocardiography
#16
Alexandra Goncalves, Charles Nyman, David R Okada, Avinainder Singh, Jeffrey Swanson, Michael Cheezum, Michael Steigner, Marcelo Di Carli, Scott Solomon, Pinak B Shah, Deepak L Bhatt, Douglas Shook, Ron Blankstein
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare periprocedural transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with postprocedural transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for the diagnosis of aortic regurgitation (AR). METHODS AND RESULTS: TEE and TTE images of 163 transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) patients (mean age 81 ± 8 years; 56% men) were reviewed separately and blinded to each other as well as to all clinical data. The median time between TEE during TAVR (TEE/TAVR) and TTE was 4 days (IQR 2-10 days)...
December 8, 2016: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925582/remote-depth-based-lung-function-assessment
#17
Vahid Soleimani, Majid Mirmehdi, Dima Damen, James Dodd, Sion Hannuna, Charles Sharp, Massimo Camplani, Jason Viner
OBJECTIVE: We propose a remote, non-invasive approach to develop Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT) using a depth sensor. METHOD: After generating a point cloud from scene depth values, we construct a 3D model of the subject's chest. Then, by estimating the chest volume variation throughout a sequence, we generate volume-time and flow-time data for two prevalent spirometry tests: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Slow Vital Capacity (SVC). Tidal volume and main effort sections of volume-time data are analysed and calibrated separately to remove the effects of a subject's torso motion...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925493/the-effect-of-freeze-drying-on-the-nutrient-polyphenol-and-oxidant-levels-of-breast-milk
#18
Mariela Valentina Cortez, Elio Andrés Soria
OBJECTIVES: Human milk banks need to extend the suitability of milk for breastfeeding, and for this technological advances are required. Our aim was to establish the capacity of freeze-drying to conserve milk properties without further oxidative deterioration. METHODS: One hundred sixteen healthy women participated from the city of Cordoba (Argentina). Proteins, glucose, triglycerides, polyphenols, and markers (nitrites, superoxide anion, hydroperoxides, lipoperoxides, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase) were measured in their fresh milk...
December 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925389/the-long-term-immunological-effects-of-alloferon-and-its-analogues-in-the-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor
#19
Elżbieta Czarniewska, Arkadiusz Urbański, Szymon Chowański, Mariola Kuczer
The subject of this paper is a search for the long-term immunological effects of alloferon and 3 structural analogues of alloferon, which were earlier characterised by the highest pro-apoptotic activity in Tenebrio molitor. The differences in the actions of these peptides on immune response were observed. Alloferon increased nodulation and significantly phenoloxidase activity in the haemolymph of experimentally infected T. molitor. However, [Phe(p-NH2 )(1) ]- and [Phe(p-OMe)(1) ]-alloferon strongly inhibited cellular and humoral defense of the mealworm against Staphylococcus aureus infection...
December 7, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925343/transplantation-of-thy1-cells-accelerates-liver-regeneration-by-enhancing-the-growth-of-small-hepatocyte-like-progenitor-cells-via-il17rb-signaling
#20
Norihisa Ichinohe, Masayuki Ishii, Naoki Tanimizu, Junko Kon, Yusuke Yoshioka, Takahiro Ochiya, Toru Mizuguchi, Koichi Hirata, Toshihiro Mitaka
Small hepatocyte-like progenitor cells (SHPCs) transiently form clusters in rat livers treated with retrorsine (Ret)/70% partial hepatectomy (PH). When Thy1(+) cells isolated from d-galactosamine-treated rat livers were transplanted into the livers of Ret/PH-treated rats, the mass of the recipient liver transiently increased during the first 30 days after transplantation, suggesting that liver regeneration was enhanced. Here we addressed how Thy1(+) cell transplantation stimulates liver regeneration. We found that the number and size of SHPC clusters increased in the liver at 14 days after transplantation...
December 7, 2016: Stem Cells
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