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Émilie Petitclerc, Luc J Hébert, Jean Mathieu, Johanne Desrosiers, Cynthia Gagnon
INTRODUCTION: Lower limb strength has never been characterized separately for late-onset and adult Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) phenotypes. METHODS: The purpose was to: 1) describe and compare lower limb strength between the 2 DM1 phenotypes, and 2) compare the impairment profiles obtained from 2 assessment methods [manual (MMT) and quantitative (QMT) muscle testing], among 107 patients. RESULTS: Both MMT and QMT showed more pronounced weakness in the adult phenotype...
October 26, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Spyridon Chavlis, Panagiotis C Petrantonakis, Panayiota Poirazi
The hippocampus plays a key role in pattern separation, the process of transforming similar incoming information to highly dissimilar, non-overlapping representations. Sparse firing granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) have been proposed to undertake this computation, but little is known about which of their properties influence pattern separation. Dendritic atrophy has been reported in diseases associated with pattern separation deficits, suggesting a possible role for dendrites in this phenomenon...
October 26, 2016: Hippocampus
Paul C Cremer, Yuping Wu, Haitham M Ahmed, Lee M Pierson, Danielle M Brennan, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Clinton A Brawner, Jonathan K Ehrman, Steven J Keteyian, Roger S Blumenthal, Michael J Blaha, Leslie Cho
Importance: Risk assessment tools for exercise treadmill testing may have limited external validity. Cardiovascular mortality has decreased in recent decades, and women have been underrepresented in prior cohorts. Objectives: To determine whether exercise and clinical variables are associated with differential mortality outcomes in men and women and to assess whether sex-specific risk scores better estimate all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 59 877 patients seen at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF cohort) from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, and 49 278 patients seen at the Henry Ford Hospital (FIT cohort) from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2009...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Anders Fytagoridis, Mattias Åström, Jennifer Samuelsson, Patric Blomstedt
BACKGROUND: The caudal zona incerta (cZi) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) are an emerging deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for essential tremor (ET). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of tremor control in relation to the anatomical locations of stimulation fields in 50 patients with ET and DBS of the cZi. METHODS: A total of 240 contacts were evaluated separately with monopolar stimulation, and amplitudes were optimized for improvement of tremor and hand function...
October 27, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Antoine Lanot, Thierry Lobbedez, Clémence Bechade, Christian Verger, Emmanuel Fabre, Max Dratwa, Isabelle Vernier
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend the use of a prophylactic antibiotic before the peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter can be inserted. The main objective of this study was to assess whether this practice is associated with a lower risk of early peritonitis and to estimate the magnitude of the centre effect. METHODS: A retrospective, multi-centric study was conducted, in which data from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry was analysed. Patients were separated into 2 groups based on whether or not prophylactic antibiotics were used prior to catheter placement...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Maruška Budič, Blaž Cigić, Maja Šoštarič, Jerica Sabotič, Vladimir Meglič, Janko Kos, Marjetka Kidrič
Aminopeptidases, together with other proteases, execute and regulate the total and specifically limited protein breakdown involved in plant physiology, raising the possibility of their involvement in response to drought. We have identified, in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L., five aminopeptidases (E.C.3.4.11) whose levels of activity changed when three week old plants were subjected to drought. First, second and third trifoliate leaves were investigated separately. The aminopeptidases were first identified then isolated using ion exchange chromatography of leaf extracts...
October 13, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Caterina Gratton, Timothy O Laumann, Evan M Gordon, Babatunde Adeyemo, Steven E Petersen
Humans easily and flexibly complete a wide variety of tasks. To accomplish this feat, the brain appears to subtly adjust stable brain networks. Here, we investigate what regional factors underlie these modifications, asking whether networks are either altered at (1) regions activated by a given task or (2) hubs that interconnect different networks. We used fMRI "functional connectivity" (FC) to compare networks during rest and three distinct tasks requiring semantic judgments, mental rotation, and visual coherence...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Zhengrong Yang, Qingxian Zhou, Leo Mok, Anukriti Singh, Douglas J Swartz, Ina L Urbatsch, Christie G Brouillette
Structural changes in mouse P-glycoprotein (Pgp) induced by thermal unfolding were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy to gain insight into the solution conformation(s) of this ABC transporter that may not be apparent from current crystal structures. DSC of reconstituted Pgp showed two thermal unfolding transitions in the absence of MgATP, suggesting that each transition involved the cooperative unfolding of two or more interacting structural domains...
October 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
F Pelin Kinik, Cigdem Altintas, Volkan Balci, Burak Koyuturk, Alper Uzun, Seda Keskin
Experiments were combined with atomically-detailed simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to understand the effect of incorporation of an ionic liquid (IL), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), into a metal organic framework (MOF with a zeolitic imidazolate framework), ZIF-8, on the CO2 separation performance. The interactions between [BMIM][PF6] and ZIF-8 were examined in deep detail and their consequences on CO2/CH4, CO2/N2, and CH4/N2 separation have been elucidated by using experimental measurements complemented by DFT calculations and atomically-detailed simulations...
October 26, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
James M Holaska
The nucleus is separated from the cytosol by the nuclear envelope, which is a double lipid bilayer composed of the outer nuclear membrane and the inner nuclear membrane. The intermediate filament proteins lamin A, lamin B, and lamin C form a network underlying the inner nuclear membrane. This proteinaceous network provides the nucleus with its strength, rigidity, and elasticity. Positioned within the inner nuclear membrane are more than 150 inner nuclear membrane proteins, many of which interact directly with lamins and require lamins for their inner nuclear membrane localization...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Donna M Lake, Patricia E Allen, Myrna L Armstrong
Nursing continues to face professional workforce and diversity shortage problems. This article advocates for examining an untapped resource-the consideration of applicants for nursing leadership and educational positions in civilian health care organizations. This untapped resource is highly qualified, already retired (or going to be separated) military nurse officers (MNOs) who possess extensive health care knowledge, as well as distinctive ethnicity and gender composition. Clinical educators, as part of the organizational leadership, can play an important role in assisting the MNO civilian position assimilation because they come from a structured and unique cultural environment...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Giovani Cavalheiro Nogueira, Soraia Dornelles Schoeller, Flávia Regina de Souza Ramos, Maria Itayra Padilha, Laura Cavalcanti de Farias Brehmer, Ana Maria Fernandes Borges Marques
This is a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, establishing the epidemiological profile of people with physical disabilities resident in the municipality of Florianópolis, in the Southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, and analyzing it in relation to the public policies related to that population. The minimum sample was determined by a statistical calculation, considering the population of the municipality with disabilities, according to data from the 2010 Population Census. The data were collected using an electronic form installed in mobile devices and stored at an online provider...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
M F Achinelly, D P Eliceche, M N Belaich, P D Ghiringhelli
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) belonging to the Heterorhabditidae family are lethal parasites of soil-dwelling insects. Two species were reported in Argentina: Heterorhabditis argentinensis and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora characterized mainly by morphometric features. In this work a comparative and phylogenetic study between five Heterorhabditis populations from Argentina was conducted to analyze the variability between strains and to evaluate the taxonomic position of Heterorhabditis argentinensis. The PCA analyses of morphometric characters separated the larger juvenile, female and male H...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Coşku Kasnakoğlu
Some level of uncertainty is unavoidable in acquiring the mass, geometry parameters and stability derivatives of an aerial vehicle. In certain instances tiny perturbations of these could potentially cause considerable variations in flight characteristics. This research considers the impact of varying these parameters altogether. This is a generalization of examining the effects of particular parameters on selected modes present in existing literature. Conventional autopilot designs commonly assume that each flight channel is independent and develop single-input single-output (SISO) controllers for every one, that are utilized in parallel for actual flight...
2016: PloS One
Andrew D Haddow, Farooq Nasar, Hilda Guzman, Alongkot Ponlawat, Richard G Jarman, Robert B Tesh, Scott C Weaver
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) has extended its known geographic distribution to the New World and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. While substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for ZIKV, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, Spondweni virus (SPONV). Both ZIKV and SPONV have been known to circulate in Africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. Furthermore, the susceptibility of peridomestic mosquito species incriminated or suspected in the transmission of ZIKV to SPONV was unknown...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jean-Daniel Dubois, Vincent Cantin, Mathieu Piché, Martin Descarreaux
Despite an elusive pathophysiology, common characteristics are often observed in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). These include psychological symptoms, altered pain perception, altered pain modulation and altered muscle activation. These factors have been explored as possible determinants of disability, either separately or in cross-sectional studies, but were never assessed in a single longitudinal study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the relative contribution of psychological and neurophysiological factors to future disability in individuals with past LBP...
2016: PloS One
Christopher L Kirkland, Breandán A MacGabhann, Brian L Kirkland, J Stephen Daly
The Hellefjord Schist, a volcaniclastic psammite-pelite formation in the Caledonides of Arctic Norway contains discoidal impressions and apparent tube casts that share morphological and taphonomic similarities to Neoproterozoic stem-holdfast forms. U-Pb zircon geochronology on the host metasediment indicates it was deposited between 437 ± 2 and 439 ± 3 Ma, but also indicates that an inferred basal conglomerate to this formation must be part of an older stratigraphic element, as it is cross-cut by a 546 ± 4 Ma pegmatite...
2016: PloS One
Ljerka Lah, Daronja Trense, Harald Benke, Per Berggren, Þorvaldur Gunnlaugsson, Christina Lockyer, Ayaka Öztürk, Bayram Öztürk, Iwona Pawliczka, Anna Roos, Ursula Siebert, Krzysztof Skóra, Gísli Víkingsson, Ralph Tiedemann
The population structure of the highly mobile marine mammal, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), in the Atlantic shelf waters follows a pattern of significant isolation-by-distance. The population structure of harbor porpoises from the Baltic Sea, which is connected with the North Sea through a series of basins separated by shallow underwater ridges, however, is more complex. Here, we investigated the population differentiation of harbor porpoises in European Seas with a special focus on the Baltic Sea and adjacent waters, using a population genomics approach...
2016: PloS One
Elisa Terracciano, Ermanno Zorzoli, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Vaccinations and the controversy around them always go in parallel. We identified four categories blending in various amounts of truth and imagination: history, myths, shams and frauds. Over the years, they have alternated and sometimes transformed into one another. This sharp separation into categories is certainly academic and forced. In fact, the line between these aspects is not clear enough to allow a rigid and well-defined division. Our work starts from the category containing the most truthfulness: history, and goes on to analyze two categories that add fantasy to facts: myths and shams (or better, "old wives' tales")...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Samantha N Hood, Ivan Kassal
Although organic heterojunctions can separate charges with near-unity efficiency and on a sub-picosecond timescale, the full details of the charge-separation process remain unclear. In typical models, the Coulomb binding between the electron and the hole can exceed the thermal energy kT by an order of magnitude, suggesting that it is impossible for the charges to separate before recombining. Here, we consider the entropic contribution to charge separation in the presence of disorder and find that even modest amounts of disorder have a decisive effect, reducing the charge-separation barrier to about kT or eliminating it altogether...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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