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Gut microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770190/effects-of-molecular-hydrogen-dissolved-alkaline-electrolyzed-water-on-intestinal-environment-in-mice
#1
Yasuki Higashimura, Yasunori Baba, Ryo Inoue, Tomohisa Takagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuko Hirai, Chihiro Ushiroda, Yoshinori Tanaka, Yuji Naito
Increasing evidence indicates that molecular hydrogen-dissolved alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) has various physiological activities such as antioxidative activity. Gut microbiota are deeply associated with our health through a symbiotic relationship. Recent reports have described that most gastrointestinal microbial species encode the genetic capacity to metabolize molecular hydrogen, meaning that molecular hydrogen might affect the gut microbial composition. Nevertheless, AEW effects on gut microbiota remain unknown...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769378/food-starch-structure-impacts-gut-microbiome-composition
#2
Frederick J Warren, Naoki M Fukuma, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine M Flanagan, Barbara A Williams, Allan T Lisle, Páraic Ó Cuív, Mark Morrison, Michael J Gidley
Starch is a major source of energy in the human diet and is consumed in diverse forms. Resistant starch (RS) escapes small intestinal digestion and is fermented in the colon by the resident microbiota, with beneficial impacts on colonic function and host health, but the impacts of the micro- and nanoscale structure of different physical forms of food starch on the broader microbial community have not been described previously. Here, we use a porcine in vitro fermentation model to establish that starch structure dramatically impacts microbiome composition, including the key amylolytic species, and markedly alters both digestion kinetics and fermentation outcomes...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765359/comparing-microbiome-sampling-methods-in-a-wild-mammal-fecal-and-intestinal-samples-record-different-signals-of-host-ecology-evolution
#3
Melissa R Ingala, Nancy B Simmons, Claudia Wultsch, Konstantinos Krampis, Kelly A Speer, Susan L Perkins
The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764946/comparative-genomics-reveals-the-core-gene-toolbox-for-the-fungus-insect-symbiosis
#4
Yan Wang, Matt Stata, Wei Wang, Jason E Stajich, Merlin M White, Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Modern genomics has shed light on many entomopathogenic fungi and expanded our knowledge widely; however, little is known about the genomic features of the insect-commensal fungi. Harpellales are obligate commensals living in the digestive tracts of disease-bearing insects (black flies, midges, and mosquitoes). In this study, we produced and annotated whole-genome sequences of nine Harpellales taxa and conducted the first comparative analyses to infer the genomic diversity within the members of the Harpellales...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763437/postnatal-colonization-with-human-infant-type-bifidobacterium-species-alters-behavior-of-adult-gnotobiotic-mice
#5
Berkley Luk, Surabi Veeraragavan, Melinda Engevik, Miriam Balderas, Angela Major, Jessica Runge, Ruth Ann Luna, James Versalovic
Accumulating studies have defined a role for the intestinal microbiota in modulation of host behavior. Research using gnotobiotic mice emphasizes that early microbial colonization with a complex microbiota (conventionalization) can rescue some of the behavioral abnormalities observed in mice that grow to adulthood completely devoid of bacteria (germ-free mice). However, the human infant and adult microbiomes vary greatly, and effects of the neonatal microbiome on neurodevelopment are currently not well understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762384/microbial-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gut-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#6
Anne Hall, James Versalovic
Human intestinal microbes participate actively at the interface of diet, nutrition, and overall health status. These biodiverse communities of microorganisms have a broader metabolic repertoire compared with their host, and they are able to synthesize and degrade substrates that would be otherwise unavailable. In recent years, we have recognized that healthy microbial communities are important for energy harvest and the regulation of body systems outside the digestive tract. Microbial dysbiosis, however, has been implicated in a number of human disorders, including obesity and inflammation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760467/the-oral-microbiome-bank-of-china
#7
Peng Xian, Zhou Xuedong, Xu Xin, Li Yuqing, Li Yan, Li Jiyao, Su Xiaoquan, Huang Shi, Xu Jian, Liao Ga
The human microbiome project (HMP) promoted further understanding of human oral microbes. However, research on the human oral microbiota has not made as much progress as research on the gut microbiota. Currently, the causal relationship between the oral microbiota and oral diseases remains unclear, and little is known about the link between the oral microbiota and human systemic diseases. To further understand the contribution of the oral microbiota in oral diseases and systemic diseases, a Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) was established in the US...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757343/dietary-fiber-intervention-on-gut-microbiota-composition-in-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Daniel So, Kevin Whelan, Megan Rossi, Mark Morrison, Gerald Holtmann, Jaimon T Kelly, Erin R Shanahan, Heidi M Staudacher, Katrina L Campbell
Background: Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756575/effects-of-stress-on-the-mucus-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut
#9
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756574/dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiome-composition-and-function
#10
Jianfei Zhao, Xiaoya Zhang, Hongbin Liu, Michael A Brown, Shiyan Qiao
Dietary protein and its metabolites, amino acids are essential nutrients for human and animals. Accumulated researches revealed that the gut microbiota mediate the crosstalk between protein metabolism and host immune response. Gut microbes are involved in the digestion, absorption, metabolism and transformation process of dietary protein in the gastrointestinal tract. Amino acids can be metabolized into numerous microbial metabolites, and these metabolites participate in various physiological functions related to host health and diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756135/microbial-small-molecules-weapons-of-plant-subversion
#11
REVIEW
Ioannis A Stringlis, Hao Zhang, Corné M J Pieterse, Melvin D Bolton, Ronnie de Jonge
Covering: up to 2018Plants live in close association with a myriad of microbes that are generally harmless. However, the minority of microbes that are pathogens can severely impact crop quality and yield, thereby endangering food security. By contrast, beneficial microbes provide plants with important services, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and protection against pests and diseases. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can modulate host immunity to efficiently colonize the nutrient-rich niches within and around the roots and aerial tissues of a plant, a phenomenon mirroring the establishment of commensal microbes in the human gut...
May 14, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754180/diversity-roles-and-biotechnological-applications-of-symbiotic-microorganisms-in-the-gut-of-termite
#12
REVIEW
Jing Zhou, Jiwei Duan, Mingkun Gao, Ying Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Kai Zhao
Termites are global pests and can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, and plantation forests. The symbiotic intestinal flora plays an important role in the digestion of cellulose and nitrogen in the life of termites. Termites and their symbiotic microbes in the gut form a synergistic system. These organism work together to digest lignocellulose to make the termites grow on nitrogen deficient food. In this paper, the diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in the gut of termites, including protozoan, spirochetes, actinomycetes, fungus and bacteria, and their role in the digestion of lignocellulose and also the biotechnological applications of these symbiotic microorganisms are discussed...
May 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753796/the-neuroendocrinology-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-a-behavioural-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Sofia Cussotto, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The human gut harbours trillions of symbiotic bacteria that play a key role in programming different aspects of host physiology in health and disease. These intestinal microbes are also key components of the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the CNS is closely interconnected with the endocrine system to regulate many physiological processes. An expanding body of evidence is supporting the notion that gut microbiota modifications and/or manipulations may also play a crucial role in the manifestation of specific behavioural responses regulated by neuroendocrine pathways...
May 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753695/the-microbiome-in-preterm-birth
#14
REVIEW
Derrick M Chu, Maxim Seferovic, Ryan M Pace, Kjersti M Aagaard
The microbiome is thought to play a role in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and thus may either contribute to or protect from preterm birth. Study of the human microbiome has been aided by metagenomic sequencing approaches, providing greater insight into the commensal bacteria that coexist in and on our bodies. The vaginal microbiome has been the most widely studied, though there have been recent efforts to explore the gut, cervical-vaginal, placental and oral microbiomes in the further search of etiologies of preterm birth...
April 9, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752272/functional-profiling-and-crystal-structures-of-isothiocyanate-hydrolases-found-in-gut-associated-and-plant-pathogenic-bacteria
#15
Tijs J M van den Bosch, Kemin Tan, Andrzej Joachimiak, Cornelia U Welte
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are produced by cruciferous plants to protect them against herbivores and infection by microbes. These compounds are of particular interest due to their antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties. The breakdown of ITCs in nature is catalyzed by isothiocyanate hydrolase (ITCase), a novel family within the metallo-β-lactamase-fold superfamily of proteins. saxA genes that code for ITCases are particularly widespread in insect- and plant-associated bacteria. Enzymatic characterization of seven phylogenetically related but distinct ITCases exhibited similar activities on six selected ITCs, suggesting that phylogenetic diversity does not determine the substrate specificity of ITCases...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751492/aluminum-adjuvant-containing-vaccines-in-the-context-of-the-hygiene-hypothesis-a-risk-factor-for-eosinophilia-and-allergy-in-a-genetically-susceptible-subpopulation
#16
REVIEW
Todd D Terhune, Richard C Deth
There are similarities between the immune response following immunization with aluminum adjuvants and the immune response elicited by some helminthic parasites, including stimulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophilia. Immunization with aluminum adjuvants, as with helminth infection, induces a Th2 type cell mediated immune response, including eosinophilia, but does not induce an environment conducive to the induction of regulatory mechanisms. Helminths play a role in what is known as the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that decreased exposure to microbes during a critical time in early life has resulted in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and atopic disorders over the past few decades, especially in Western countries...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750384/effects-of-moderate-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-on-the-rat-and-human-gut-microbiome
#17
Kassi L Kosnicki, Jerrold C Penprase, Patricia Cintora, Pedro J Torres, Greg L Harris, Susan M Brasser, Scott T Kelley
Many alcohol-induced health complications are directly attributable to the toxicity of alcohol or its metabolites, but another potential health impact of alcohol may be on the microbial communities of the human gut. Clear distinctions between healthy and diseased-state gut microbiota have been observed in subjects with metabolic diseases, and recent studies suggest that chronic alcoholism is linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Here, we investigated the effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption on the gut microbiome in both rats and humans...
May 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750272/gut-microbial-diversity-is-associated-with-lower-arterial-stiffness-in-women
#18
Cristina Menni, Chihung Lin, Marina Cecelja, Massimo Mangino, Maria Luisa Matey-Hernandez, Louise Keehn, Robert P Mohney, Claire J Steves, Tim D Spector, Chang-Fu Kuo, Phil Chowienczyk, Ana M Valdes
Aims: The gut microbiome influences metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation and is therapeutically modifiable. Arterial stiffness is poorly correlated with most traditional risk factors. Our aim was to examine whether gut microbial composition is associated with arterial stiffness. Methods and results: We assessed the correlation between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and gut microbiome composition in 617 middle-aged women from the TwinsUK cohort with concurrent serum metabolomics data...
May 9, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746643/interactions-between-metabolically-active-bacteria-and-host-gene-expression-at-the-cecal-mucosa-in-pigs-of-diverging-feed-efficiency
#19
Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Elizabeth Magowan, Qendrim Zebeli
Little is known about the role of the gut mucosal microbiota and microbe-host signaling in the variation of pig's feed efficiency (FE). This study therefore aimed to investigate the FE-related differences in the metabolically active mucosal bacterial microbiota and expression of genes for innate immune response, barrier function, nutrient uptake, and incretins in the cecum of finishing pigs. Pigs (n = 72) were ranked for their residual feed intake (RFI; metric for FE) between days 42 and 91 postweaning and were stratified within litter and sex into high (HRFI; n = 8) and low RFI (LRFI; n = 8)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745332/interactions-of-dietary-fiber-with-nutritional-components-on-gut-microbial-composition-function-and-health-in-monogastrics
#20
A Seidu, Che Dongsheng, Qin Guixin, Jiang Hailong, Rui Han, Cornelius Tlotliso Sello
The relation between dietary fiber and wellbeing of human and other monogastrics has recently became a hot topic as showed in an increasing number of publication of the related research. The aim of this review is to describe through a logical approach the scientific suggestion linking possible benefits of dietary fiber on nutritional components and their effect on the gastrointestinal composition in relation to disease conditions in humans or animals. Dietary fiber plays a key role in influencing blood glucose or insulin concentrations, stool bulkiness, reduce the pH within the digestive tract, synthesize volatile fatty acids (VFA), reduce intestinal transit time, stimulate growth of intestinal microbes, and constructively enhance various blood parameters...
May 7, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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