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Gut microbes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349441/association-between-sn-2-fatty-acid-profiles-of-breast-milk-and-development-of-the-infant-intestinal-microbiome
#1
Tiemin Jiang, Bin Liu, Jufang Li, Xueyan Dong, Man Lin, Minghui Zhang, Junying Zhao, Yaohua Dai, Lijun Chen
Increasing evidence shows that host diet and gut microbes are related. Previous studies have shown the effects of specific dietary fatty acids (FAs) on intestinal microbiota, but little is known about the effect of the stereospecifically numbered sn-2 position in triglycerides (TG) of human milk on the gut microbiome of infants. This study aimed at examining possible effects of sn-2 FAs of human milk on the gut microbial development of breastfeeding babies. Sn-2 FAs and intestinal microbiota were assessed by GC-MS and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#2
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339426/gut-microbial-glycerol-metabolism-as-an-endogenous-acrolein-source
#3
Jianbo Zhang, Shana Sturla, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Acrolein is a highly reactive electrophile causing toxic effects, such as DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, immune dysfunction, and membrane damage. This Opinion/Hypothesis provides an overview of endogenous and exogenous acrolein sources, acrolein's mode of action, and its metabolic fate. Recent reports underpin the finding that gut microbial glycerol metabolism leading to the formation of reuterin is an additional source of endogenous acrolein. Reuterin is an antimicrobial multicomponent system consisting of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, its dimer and hydrate, and also acrolein...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338807/genetic-diversity-of-blastocystis-in-non-primate-animals
#4
Emma L Betts, Eleni Gentekaki, Adele Thomasz, Vicki Breakell, Angus I Carpenter, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Blastocystis is an anaerobic protist, commonly inhabiting the intestinal tract of both humans and other animals. Blastocystis is extremely diverse comprising 17 genetically distinct subtypes in mammals and birds. Pathogenicity of this enteric microbe is currently disputed and knowledge regarding its distribution, diversity and zoonotic potential is fragmentary. Most research has focused on Blastocystis from primates, while sampling from other animals remains limited. Herein, we investigated the prevalence and distribution of Blastocystis in animals held within a conservation park in South East England...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338074/adaptive-immune-education-by-gut-microbiota-antigens
#5
REVIEW
Qing Zhao, Charles O Elson
Host-microbiota mutualism has been established during long-term co-evolution. A diverse and rich gut microbiota plays an essential role in the development and maturation of the host immune system. Education of the adaptive immune compartment by gut microbiota antigens is important in establishing immune balance. In particular, a critical time frame right after birth provides a "window of opportunity" for the development of lymphoid structures, differentiation and maturation of T and B cells, and most importantly, establishment of immune tolerance to gut commensals...
January 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338008/interactions-between-species-introduce-spurious-associations-in-microbiome-studies
#6
Rajita Menon, Vivek Ramanan, Kirill S Korolev
Microbiota contribute to many dimensions of host phenotype, including disease. To link specific microbes to specific phenotypes, microbiome-wide association studies compare microbial abundances between two groups of samples. Abundance differences, however, reflect not only direct associations with the phenotype, but also indirect effects due to microbial interactions. We found that microbial interactions could easily generate a large number of spurious associations that provide no mechanistic insight. Using techniques from statistical physics, we developed a method to remove indirect associations and applied it to the largest dataset on pediatric inflammatory bowel disease...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337705/how-does-metabolic-surgery-work-its-magic-new-evidence-for-gut-microbiota
#7
Bailey C E Peck, Randy J Seeley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic surgery is recommended for the treatment of type 2 diabetes for its potent ability to improve glycemic control. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery are still under investigation. We provide an updated review of recent studies into the molecular underpinnings of metabolic surgery, focusing in on what is known about the role of gut microbiota. Over the last 7 years several reports have been published on the topic, however the field is expanding rapidly...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335008/multi-omics-differentially-classify-disease-state-and-treatment-outcome-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#8
Gavin M Douglas, Richard Hansen, Casey M A Jones, Katherine A Dunn, André M Comeau, Joseph P Bielawski, Rachel Tayler, Emad M El-Omar, Richard K Russell, Georgina L Hold, Morgan G I Langille, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) has an unclear etiology, but there is growing evidence of a direct link with a dysbiotic microbiome. Many gut microbes have previously been associated with CD, but these have mainly been confounded with patients' ongoing treatments. Additionally, most analyses of CD patients' microbiomes have focused on microbes in stool samples, which yield different insights than profiling biopsy samples. RESULTS: We sequenced the 16S rRNA gene (16S) and carried out shotgun metagenomics (MGS) from the intestinal biopsies of 20 treatment-naïve CD and 20 control pediatric patients...
January 15, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333111/diet-gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer-prevention-a-review-of-potential-mechanisms-and-promising-targets-for-future-research
#9
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330424/metagenomic-and-metabolomic-analyses-unveil-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#10
Xiao Cui, Lei Ye, Jing Li, Ling Jin, Wenjie Wang, Shuangyue Li, Minghui Bao, Shouling Wu, Lifeng Li, Bin Geng, Xin Zhou, Jian Zhang, Jun Cai
Previous studies suggested a possible gut microbiota dysbiosis in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, direct evidence was lacking. In this study, we investigated the composition and metabolic patterns of gut microbiota in CHF patients to provide direct evidence and comprehensive understanding of gut microbiota dysbiosis in CHF. We enrolled 53 CHF patients and 41 controls. Metagenomic analyses of faecal samples and metabolomic analyses of faecal and plasma samples were then performed. We found that the composition of gut microbiota in CHF was significantly different from controls...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#11
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324977/maternal-metabolic-immune-and-microbial-systems-in-late-pregnancy-vary-with-malnutrition-in-mice
#12
Kristin L Connor, Christel Chehoud, Adam Altrichter, Luisa Chan, Todd Z DeSantis, Stephen J Lye
Malnutrition is a global threat to pregnancy health and impacts offspring development. Establishing an optimal pregnancy environment requires the coordination of maternal metabolic and immune pathways, which converge at the gut. Diet, metabolic and immune dysfunctions have been associated with gut dysbiosis in the non-pregnant individual. In pregnancy, these states are associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and offspring development. However, the impact of malnutrition on maternal gut microbes, and their relationships with maternal metabolic and immune status, has been largely underexplored...
January 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324833/evidence-for-pmat-and-oct-like-biogenic-amine-transporters-in-a-probiotic-strain-of-lactobacillus-implications-for-interkingdom-communication-within-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#13
Mark Lyte, David R Brown
The ability of prokaryotic microbes to produce and respond to neurochemicals that are more often associated with eukaryotic systems is increasingly recognized through the concept of microbial endocrinology. Most studies have described the phenomena of neurochemical production by bacteria, but there remains an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which microbe- or host-derived neuroactive substances can be recognized by bacteria. Based on the evolutionary origins of eukaryotic solute carrier transporters, we hypothesized that bacteria may possess an analogous uptake function for neuroactive biogenic amines...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324232/insect-gut-microbiota-accessories-to-the-bite
#14
Serap Aksoy
The Leishmania parasite is transmitted via the bite of a sand fly. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Dey et al. (2018) report that sand fly gut microbiota are also transferred to the bite site, promoting neutrophil recruitment and parasite dissemination to distal organs.
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321884/gut-microbiota-composition-is-associated-with-environmental-landscape-in-honey-bees
#15
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Falk Hildebrand, Hasan Al Toufalilia, Nicholas J Balfour, Peer Bork, Philipp Engel, Francis Lw Ratnieks, William Oh Hughes
There is growing recognition that the gut microbial community regulates a wide variety of important functions in its animal hosts, including host health. However, the complex interactions between gut microbes and environment are still unclear. Honey bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators that host a core gut microbial community that is thought to be constant across populations. Here, we examined whether the composition of the gut microbial community of honey bees is affected by the environmental landscape the bees are exposed to...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321101/bioremediation-and-detoxification-of-industrial-wastes-by-earthworms-vermicompost-as-powerful-crop-nutrient-in-sustainable-agriculture
#16
REVIEW
Sartaj Ahmad Bhat, Sharanpreet Singh, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar, Bhawana, Adarsh Pal Vig
Vermicompost is the final product of the vermicomposting process involving the collective action of earthworms and microbes. During this process, the waste is converted into useful manure by reducing the harmful effects of waste. Toxicity of industrial wastes is evaluated by plant bioassays viz. Allium cepa and Vicia faba test. These bioassays are sensitive and cost-effective for the monitoring of environmental contamination. The valorization potential of earthworms and their ability to detoxify heavy metals in industrial wastes is because of their strong metabolic system and involvement of earthworm gut microbes and chloragocyte cells...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318023/microbiome-and-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Milena Sokolowska, Remo Frei, Nonhlanhla Lunjani, Cezmi A Akdis, Liam O'Mahony
The mucosal immune system is in constant communication with the vast diversity of microbes present on body surfaces. The discovery of novel molecular mechanisms, which mediate host-microbe communication, have highlighted the important roles played by microbes in influencing mucosal immune responses. Dendritic cells, epithelial cells, ILCs, T regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, NKT cells and B cells can all be influenced by the microbiome. Many of the mechanisms being described are bacterial strain- or metabolite-specific...
2018: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313897/influence-of-fruit-and-invertebrate-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-wild-white-faced-capuchins-cebus-capucinus
#19
Elizabeth K Mallott, Katherine R Amato, Paul A Garber, Ripan S Malhi
OBJECTIVES: Invertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311123/the-gut-microbiome-and-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Javier Ochoa-Repáraz, Trevor O Kirby, Lloyd H Kasper
The microbiome can be defined as the sum of the microbial and host's genome. Recent information regarding this complex organ suggests that in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS), the composition of the gut microbiome can be altered, giving rise to both the effector and regulatory phases of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Experimental findings during the past decade in animal models of MS have provided clear evidence for the significant role of gut microbes in both the effector and regulatory phase of this condition...
January 8, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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