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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924143/fructooligosaccharide-fos-and-galactooligosaccharide-gos-increase-bifidobacterium-but-reduce-butyrate-producing-bacteria-with-adverse-glycemic-metabolism-in-healthy-young-population
#1
Feitong Liu, Pan Li, Muxuan Chen, Yuemei Luo, M Prabhakar, Huimin Zheng, Yan He, Qi Qi, Haoyu Long, Yi Zhang, Huafang Sheng, Hongwei Zhou
The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16 g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923468/immune-regulation-by-histamine-and-histamine-secreting-bacteria
#2
REVIEW
Weronika Barcik, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Cezmi A Akdis, Liam O'Mahony
Histamine is a biogenic amine with extensive effects on many immune cell types. Histamine and its four receptors (H1R-H4R) represent a complex system of immunoregulation with distinct effects dependent on receptor subtypes and their differential expression. In addition to mammalian cells, bacteria can also secrete histamine and the influence of microbiota-derived histamine on host immunological processes is only beginning to be described. However, it is clear that histamine-secreting microbes are present within the human gut microbiota and their levels are increased in asthma patients...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921469/microbial-factors-in-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancers
#3
Hong Sheng Ong, Howard Chi Ho Yim
The intestinal microbes form a symbiotic relationship with their human host to harvest energy for themselves and their host and to shape the immune system of their host. However, alteration of this relationship, which is named as a dysbiosis, has been associated with the development of different inflammatory diseases and cancers. It is found that metabolites, cellular components, and virulence factors derived from the gut microbiota interact with the host locally or systemically to modulate the dysbiosis and the development of these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921468/inflammasomes-in-the-gut-mucosal-homeostasis
#4
Xiaomin Yao, Guangxun Meng
Inflammasomes are critical checkpoints in inflammation. The activation of inflammasome can cause a series of inflammatory responses including maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and a specialized form of cell death called pyroptosis. Since its identification in the early 2000s, inflammasomes have been implicated to play multifaceted roles in varied pathological and physiological conditions, especially in the mucosal compartments including the gut. Maintaining gut mucosal homeostasis has always been a remarkable challenge for the host due to both the vast mucosal surface that is exposed to the outside and the enormous amount of local microbiota...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921400/gut-microbiota-and-il-17a-physiological-and-pathological-responses
#5
Banafsheh Douzandeh-Mobarrez, Ashraf Kariminik
IL-17A is a cytokine which is produced by several immune and non-immune cells. The cytokine plays dual roles from protection from microbes and protection from pro-inflammatory based diseases to induction of the pro-inflammatory based diseases. The main mechanisms which lead to the controversial roles of IL-17A are yet to be clarified. Gut microbiota (GM) are the resident probiotic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts which have been introduced as a plausible regulator of IL-17A production and functions. This review article describes the recent information regarding the roles played by GM in determination of IL-17A functions outcome...
September 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919341/metabolic-programming-of-the-epigenome-host-and-gut-microbial-metabolite-interactions-with-host-chromatin
#6
REVIEW
Kimberly A Krautkramer, Rashpal S Dhillon, John M Denu, Hannah V Carey
The mammalian gut microbiota has been linked to host developmental, immunologic, and metabolic outcomes. This collection of trillions of microbes inhabits the gut and produces a myriad of metabolites, which are measurable in host circulation and contribute to the pathogenesis of human diseases. The link between endogenous metabolite availability and chromatin regulation is a well-established and active area of investigation; however, whether microbial metabolites can elicit similar effects is less understood...
September 1, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917668/gut-microbe-mediated-suppression-of-inflammation-associated-colon-carcinogenesis-by-luminal-histamine-production
#7
Chunxu Gao, Bhanu Priya Ganesh, Zhongcheng Shi, Rajesh Rasik Shah, Robert Fultz, Angela Major, Susan Venable, Monica Lugo, Kathleen Hoch, Xiaowei Chen, Anthony Haag, Timothy C Wang, James Versalovic
Microbiome-mediated suppression of carcinogenesis may open new avenues for identification of therapeutic targets and prevention strategies in oncology. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficiency has been shown to promote inflammation-associated colorectal cancer by accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells, indicating a potential antitumorigenic effect of histamine. Here, we demonstrate that administration of hdc(+)Lactobacillus reuteri in the gut resulted in luminal hdc gene expression and histamine production in the intestines of Hdc(-/-) mice...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916545/serologic-evidence-of-gut-driven-systemic-inflammation-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#8
Lampros Fotis, Nurmohammad Shaikh, Kevin W Baszis, Charles M Samson, Raffi Lev-Tzion, Anthony R French, Phillip I Tarr
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence links juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to nonhost factors such as gut microbes. We hypothesize that children with new-onset JIA have increased intestinal bacterial translocation and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: We studied systemic treatment-naive patients with JIA [polyarticular JIA, n = 22, oligoarticular JIA, n = 31, and spondyloarthropathies (SpA), n = 16], patients with established inflammatory bowel disease-related arthritis (IBD-RA, n = 11), and 34 healthy controls...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#9
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915922/recent-urbanization-in-china-is-correlated-with-a-westernized-microbiome-encoding-increased-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#10
Kathryn Winglee, Annie Green Howard, Wei Sha, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Jiawu Liu, Donghui Jin, Anthony A Fodor, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Urbanization is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, which all also show associations with the microbiome. While microbial community composition has been shown to vary across continents and in traditional versus Westernized societies, few studies have examined urban-rural differences in neighboring communities within a single country undergoing rapid urbanization. In this study, we compared the gut microbiome, plasma metabolome, dietary habits, and health biomarkers of rural and urban people from a single Chinese province...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912815/feasibility-of-metatranscriptome-analysis-from-infant-gut-microbiota-adaptation-to-solid-foods-results-in-increased-activity-of-firmicutes-at-six-months
#11
Floor Hugenholtz, Jarmo Ritari, Lotta Nylund, Mark Davids, Reetta Satokari, Willem M de Vos
Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910629/choline-theft-an-inside-job
#12
Marina Mora-Ortiz, Sandrine Paule Claus
Choline is a crucial methyl donor necessary for epigenetic regulation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Romano et al. (2017) demonstrate that choline-utilizing gut bacteria compete with their host for this essential resource, calling for a systematic consideration of gut microbial composition for personalized diet recommendations.
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904997/development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-linked-to-a-longitudinal-restructuring-of-the-gut-metagenome-in-mice
#13
Thomas Sharpton, Svetlana Lyalina, Julie Luong, Joey Pham, Emily M Deal, Courtney Armour, Christopher Gaulke, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Katherine S Pollard
The gut microbiome is linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) severity and altered in late-stage disease. However, it is unclear how gut microbial communities change over the course of IBD development, especially in regard to function. To investigate microbiome-mediated disease mechanisms and discover early biomarkers of IBD, we conducted a longitudinal metagenomic investigation in an established mouse model of IBD, where damped transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in T cells leads to peripheral immune activation, weight loss, and severe colitis...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904533/gut-microbial-influences-on-the-mammalian-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#14
REVIEW
Bailey C E Peck, Michael T Shanahan, Ajeet P Singh, Praveen Sethupathy
The mammalian intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) niche is comprised of diverse epithelial, immune, and stromal cells, which together respond to environmental changes within the lumen and exert coordinated regulation of IESC behavior. There is growing appreciation for the role of the gut microbiota in modulating intestinal proliferation and differentiation, as well as other aspects of intestinal physiology. In this review, we evaluate the diverse roles of known niche cells in responding to gut microbiota and supporting IESCs...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904372/butyrate-producing-bacteria-supplemented-in-vitro-to-crohn-s-disease-patient-microbiota-increased-butyrate-production-and-enhanced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity
#15
Annelies Geirnaert, Marta Calatayud, Charlotte Grootaert, Debby Laukens, Sarah Devriese, Guy Smagghe, Martine De Vos, Nico Boon, Tom Van de Wiele
The management of the dysbiosed gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is gaining more attention as a novel target to control this disease. Probiotic treatment with butyrate-producing bacteria has therapeutic potential since these bacteria are depleted in IBD patients and butyrate has beneficial effects on epithelial barrier function and overall gut health. However, studies assessing the effect of probiotic supplementation on microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions are rare. In this study, butyrate-producing bacteria (three mono-species and one multispecies mix) were supplemented to the fecal microbial communities of ten Crohn's disease (CD) patients in an in vitro system simulating the mucus- and lumen-associated microbiota...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904330/analysis-of-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Kehan Xu, Bo Jiang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota community structure, assess differences in intestinal bacterial types, and identify metagenomic biomarkers for disparate stages of colorectal cancer formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 individuals were recruited: 61 cases with non-tumor colon were regarded as the normal group, 47 cases with histology-substantiated colorectal adenomas were regarded as the adenoma group, and 52 cases with invasive adenocarcinomas were regarded as the cancer group...
September 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903182/molecular-estimation-of-alteration-in-intestinal-microbial-composition-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-patients
#17
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Imran Shair Mohammad, Hui Guo, Muhammad Shahzad, Yin Jian Hou, Chaofeng Ma, Zahid Naseem, Xiaokang Wu, Peijie Shi, Jiru Xu
The gut microbiota has a crucial effect on human health and physiology. Hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disorder manifested with environmental and genetic factors. However, it is hypothesized that intestinal microbes might play a vital role in the pathogenesis of HT. The aim of current was to investigate and characterize the gut microbial composition of HT patients both quantitatively and qualitatively. The fecal samples from 29 HT patients and 12 healthy individuals were collected...
September 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901784/impact-of-maillard-reaction-products-on-nutrition-and-health-current-knowledge-and-need-to-understand-their-fate-in-the-human-digestive-system
#18
Nesreen ALJahdali, Franck Carbonero
The Maillard Reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction which results in the linkage between the amino group of amino acids and the carbonyl group of reduced sugars. MR products (MRPs) are common components of processed foods, mainly as a result of heating, especially in the Western diet. MRPs are classified as into three stages: initial, intermediate, and final stages, indicative of increased complexity and size, incurring different flavor, aroma, and texture. MRPs presence is known to reduce the nutritional quality of foods, particularly by reducing protein digestibility...
September 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900218/sources-of-variation-in-the-gut-microbial-community-of-lycaeides-melissa-caterpillars
#19
Samridhi Chaturvedi, Alexandre Rego, Lauren K Lucas, Zachariah Gompert
Microbes can mediate insect-plant interactions and have been implicated in major evolutionary transitions to herbivory. Whether microbes also play a role in more modest host shifts or expansions in herbivorous insects is less clear. Here we evaluate the potential for gut microbial communities to constrain or facilitate host plant use in the Melissa blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa). We conducted a larval rearing experiment where caterpillars from two populations were fed plant tissue from two hosts. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to quantify the relative effects of sample type (frass versus whole caterpillar), diet (plant species), butterfly population and development (caterpillar age) on the composition and diversity of the caterpillar gut microbial communities, and secondly, to test for a relationship between microbial community and larval performance...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900131/partitioning-the-roles-of-cyp6g1-and-gut-microbes-in-the-metabolism-of-the-insecticide-imidacloprid-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Roberto Fusetto, Shane Denecke, Trent Perry, Richard A J O'Hair, Philip Batterham
Resistance to insecticides through enhanced metabolism is a worldwide problem. The Cyp6g1 gene of the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a paradigm for the study of metabolic resistance. Constitutive overexpression of this gene confers resistance to several classes of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (IMI). The metabolism of IMI in this species has been previously shown to yield oxidative and nitro-reduced metabolites. While levels of the oxidative metabolites are correlated with CYP6G1 expression, nitro-reduced metabolites are not, raising the question of how these metabolites are produced...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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