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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212943/effects-of-acute-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-manipulations-in-the-aci-paradigm-depend-on-the-basal-valence-of-cognitive-judgement-bias-in-rats
#1
Joanna Golebiowska, Rafal Rygula
Recent findings have revealed that pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic (DA) function by the administration of a DA precursor (dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; L-DOPA), but not the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, increases an optimism bias in humans. To test whether dopamine might play a similar role in non-human animals, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of acute injections of L-DOPA, the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol, and the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208023/transcriptomic-profiling-of-human-hippocampal-progenitor-cells-treated-with-antidepressants-and-its-application-in-drug-repositioning
#2
Timothy R Powell, Tytus Murphy, Sang H Lee, Jack Price, Sandrine Thuret, Gerome Breen
Current pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) are ineffective in a significant proportion of patients, and the identification of new antidepressant compounds has been difficult. 'Connectivity mapping' is a method that can be used to identify drugs that elicit similar downstream effects on mRNA levels when compared to current treatments, and thus may point towards possible repositioning opportunities. We investigated genome-wide transcriptomic changes to human hippocampal progenitor cells treated with therapeutically relevant concentrations of a tricyclic antidepressant (nortriptyline) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (escitalopram)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203815/determination-of-escitalopram-oxalate-and-l-methylfolate-in-tablet-by-spectrophotometric-and-reverse-phase-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-methods
#3
Seema Sheladia, Bhavesh Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202290/effect-of-psychotropic-drug-treatment-on-sterol-metabolism
#4
Željka Korade, Wei Liu, Emily B Warren, Kristan Armstrong, Ned A Porter, Christine Konradi
Cholesterol metabolism is vital for brain function. Previous work in cultured cells has shown that a number of psychotropic drugs inhibit the activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), an enzyme that catalyzes the final steps in cholesterol biosynthesis. This leads to the accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), a molecule that gives rise to oxysterols, vitamin D, and atypical neurosteroids. We examined levels of cholesterol and the cholesterol precursors desmosterol, lanosterol, 7DHC and its isomer 8-dehydrocholesterol (8DHC), in blood samples of 123 psychiatric patients on various antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs, and 85 healthy controls, to see if the observations in cell lines hold true for patients as well...
February 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197332/escitalopram-induced-amenorrhea-and-false-positive-urine-pregnancy-test
#5
Vithyalakshmi Selvaraj, Siv Hour, Palanikumar Gunasekar, Caron Gray, James F Smith
Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A 34-year-old female patient with major depressive disorder developed amenorrhea and had a false-positive urine pregnancy test after initiation of escitalopram treatment. To our knowledge, no published case report of amenorrhea and false-positive urine pregnancy tests in women taking escitalopram exists. This case report suggests that women of child-bearing age should be carefully monitored for amenorrhea while they are on an antidepressant treatment regimen...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196999/indian-psychiatric-society-multicentric-study-correlates-of-prescription-patterns-of-psychotropics-in-india
#6
Sandeep Grover, Ajit Avasthi, Vishal Sinha, Bhavesh Lakdawala, Manish Bathla, Sujata Sethi, D M Mathur, Puneet Kathuria, Sandip Shah, D Sai Baalasubramanian, Vivek Agarwal, Kamla Deka
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the clinical and sociodemographic correlates of prescription of psychotropics by psychiatrists. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of prescription patterns with various clinical and sociodemographic variables. METHODOLOGY: Data of prescription patterns, psychiatric diagnosis, sociodemographic variables, and comorbid physical illnesses were collected for 4480 patients, across 11 centers...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190661/the-novel-antipsychotic-drug-brexpiprazole-alone-and-in-combination-with-escitalopram-facilitates-prefrontal-glutamatergic-transmission-via-a-dopamine-d1-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#7
Carl Björkholm, Monica M Marcus, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Kent Jardemark, Torgny H Svensson
Brexpiprazole (Rexulti(®)), a novel D2/3 receptor (R) partial agonist, was recently approved as monotherapy for schizophrenia, demonstrating effectiveness against both positive and negative symptoms, and also approved as add-on treatment to antidepressant drugs, inducing a potent antidepressant effect with a faster onset compared to an antidepressant given alone. Moreover, brexpiprazole has demonstrated pro-cognitive effects in preclinical studies. To explore whether the observed effects may be mediated via modulation of prefrontal glutamatergic transmission, we investigated the effect of brexpiprazole, alone and in combination with the SSRI escitalopram, on prefrontal glutamatergic transmission using in vitro electrophysiological intracellular recordings of deep layer pyramidal cells of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
February 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187400/can-c-reactive-protein-inform-antidepressant-medication-selection-in-depressed-outpatients-findings-from-the-co-med-trial
#8
Manish K Jha, Abu Minhajuddin, Bharathi S Gadad, Tracy Greer, Bruce Grannemann, Abigail Soyombo, Taryn L Mayes, A John Rush, Madhukar H Trivedi
OBJECTIVE: Currently, no valid measures inform treatment selection for depressed patients. Whether C-reactive protein (CRP) in particular and two other acute phase reactants (inflammatory markers) could differentiate between patients responding to either of two treatments with different mechanisms of action was assessed. METHOD: Subjects included Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants randomly assigned to either escitalopram plus placebo (SSRI monotherapy, n=51) or bupropion plus escitalopram combination (bupropion-SSRI combination, n=55) with baseline plasma samples...
January 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179152/the-six-most-widely-used-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-decrease-androgens-and-increase-estrogens-in-the-h295r-cell-line
#9
Cecilie Hurup Hansen, Lizette Weber Larsen, Amalie Møller Sørensen, Bent Halling-Sørensen, Bjarne Styrishave
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used as first line of treatment in major depressive disorder (MDD) are known to exert negative effects on the endocrine system and fertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible endocrine disrupting effect of six SSRIs, fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram and its active enantiomer escitalopram, sertraline and fluvoxamine using the OECD standardized and validated human in vitro adrenocortical H295R cell assay. All the major steroids, including progestagens, corticoids, androgens and estrogens were analysed using a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
February 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178765/enantioselective-analysis-of-citalopram-and-demethylcitalopram-in-human-whole-blood-by-chiral-lc-ms-ms-and-application-in-forensic-cases
#10
Sys Stybe Johansen
Citalopram is one of the most frequently used antidepressants in Denmark. Citalopram is marketed as a racemic mixture (50:50) of S- and R-enantiomers as well as of the S-enantiomer alone, which is the active enantiomer named escitalopram that processes the inhibitory effects. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the measurement of citalopram and demethylcitalopram enantiomers in whole blood and is applied to forensic cases. Whole blood samples (0...
February 8, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159590/pharmacogenetics-of-antidepressant-response-a-polygenic-approach
#11
Judit García-González, Katherine E Tansey, Joanna Hauser, Neven Henigsberg, Wolfgang Maier, Ole Mors, Anna Placentino, Marcella Rietschel, Daniel Souery, Tina Žagar, Piotr M Czerski, Borut Jerman, Henriette N Buttenschøn, Thomas G Schulze, Astrid Zobel, Anne Farmer, Katherine J Aitchison, Ian Craig, Peter McGuffin, Michel Giupponi, Nader Perroud, Guido Bondolfi, David Evans, Michael O'Donovan, Tim J Peters, Jens R Wendland, Glyn Lewis, Shitij Kapur, Roy Perlis, Volker Arolt, Katharina Domschke, Gerome Breen, Charles Curtis, Lee Sang-Hyuk, Carol Kan, Stephen Newhouse, Hamel Patel, Bernhard T Baune, Rudolf Uher, Cathryn M Lewis, Chiara Fabbri
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a high personal and socio-economic burden and >60% of patients fail to achieve remission with the first antidepressant. The biological mechanisms behind antidepressant response are only partially known but genetic factors play a relevant role. A combined predictor across genetic variants may be useful to investigate this complex trait. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were used to estimate multi-allelic contribution to: 1) antidepressant efficacy; 2) its overlap with MDD and schizophrenia...
January 31, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123299/escitalopram-versus-paroxetine-controlled-release-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-randomized-trial
#12
Taro Kishi, Yuki Matsuda, Shinji Matsunaga, Masatsugu Moriwaki, Yoichiro Otake, Kaku Akamatsu, Tomo Okochi, Shigeki Hirano, Toshihiko Funahashi, Momoko Okuda, Hideaki Tabuse, Kiyoshi Fujita, Nakao Iwata
OBJECTIVE: There are no direct comparisons between escitalopram and paroxetine controlled release in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We conducted a 24-week, rater-masked, randomized trial of escitalopram (5-20 mg/day) versus paroxetine controlled release (12.5-50 mg/day) in patients with MDD (UMIN000011191). Patients with the diagnosis of moderate-to-severe MDD (a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAMD-17], with total score at baseline being ≥20) were recruited to participate in a parallel, randomized, controlled trial...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122876/multidimensional-prediction-of-treatment-response-to-antidepressants-with-cognitive-control-and-functional-mri
#13
Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, Runa Bhaumik, Catherine Dion, Jennifer R Gowins, Brian J Mickey, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker
Predicting treatment response for major depressive disorder can provide a tremendous benefit for our overstretched health care system by reducing number of treatments and time to remission, thereby decreasing morbidity. The present study used neural and performance predictors during a cognitive control task to predict treatment response (% change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale pre- to post-treatment). Forty-nine individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder were enrolled with intent to treat in the open-label study; 36 completed treatment, had useable data, and were included in most data analyses...
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117844/default-mode-network-deactivation-during-emotion-processing-predicts-early-antidepressant-response
#14
M Spies, C Kraus, N Geissberger, B Auer, M Klöbl, M Tik, I-L Stürkat, A Hahn, M Woletz, D M Pfabigan, S Kasper, C Lamm, C Windischberger, R Lanzenberger
Several previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated the predictive value of brain activity during emotion processing for antidepressant response, with a focus on clinical outcome after 6-8 weeks. However, longitudinal studies emphasize the paramount importance of early symptom improvement for the course of disease in major depressive disorder (MDD). We therefore aimed to assess whether neural activity during the emotion discrimination task (EDT) predicts early antidepressant effects, and how these predictive measures relate to more sustained response...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116499/lack-of-relationship-between-plasma-levels-of-escitalopram-and-qtc-interval-length
#15
Mar Carceller-Sindreu, Javier de Diego-Adeliño, Maria J Portella, Xavier Garcia-Moll, Maria Figueras, Aina Fernandez-Vidal, Josep M Queraltó, Dolors Puigdemont, Enric Álvarez
Despite safety concerns raised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), evidence supporting QT-lengthening effects of escitalopram is far to be conclusive. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between escitalopram plasma levels (Escit-PL) and corrected QT-interval length (QTc-length) in 91 outpatients recruited from a hospital setting. Fifteen patients had an abnormally prolonged QTc-interval, and 3 had QTc-intervals ≥500 ms. No correlation between Escit-PL and QTc-length was found (r = 0.08; p = 0.45)...
January 23, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111036/an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-15-antipsychotics-and-two-metabolites-in-hair-and-its-application-to-rat-hair
#16
Juhyun Sim, Eunmi Kim, Wonkyung Yang, Sanghee Woo, Sangwhan In
In recent years, the inappropriate use of antipsychotics by young Korean men has become a social problem. As military service exemptions are given for mental illness, some men pose as mental health patients to avoid military service. In order to verify the authenticity of mental illnesses, we developed simultaneous analytical methods for the detection of 15 antipsychotics and 2 of their metabolites in hair using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The target drugs were modafinil, atomoxetine, aripiprazole, benztropine, buspirone, duloxetine, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, escitalopram, paliperidone, ziprasidone, lamotrigine, clonazepam, levetiracetam, and metabolites of oxcarbazepine and clonazepam...
January 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107887/associations-between-positive-emotional-well-being-and-stress-induced-myocardial-ischemia-well-being-scores-predict-exercise-induced-ischemia
#17
Jacob P Feigal, Stephen H Boyle, Zainab Samad, Eric J Velazquez, Jennifer L Wilson, Richard C Becker, Redford B Williams, Cynthia M Kuhn, Thomas L Ortel, Joseph G Rogers, Christopher M O'Connor, Wei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms have been associated with myocardial ischemia induced by mental (MSIMI) and exercise (ESIMI) stress in clinically stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients, but the association between positive emotions and inducible ischemia is less well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between ratings of well-being and stress-induced ischemia. METHODS: Subjects were adult patients with documented IHD underwent mental and exercise stress testing for the Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) trial...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104722/paradoxical-insomnia-in-a-patient-taking-zopiclone
#18
Adam Abba-Aji, Prajjita Bardoloi
We present a case of a man aged 20 years who was diagnosed with a major depressive disorder and was started on escitalopram and zopiclone. The patient had a significant response to escitalopram except that he developed severe insomnia which dramatically resolved following discontinuation of zopiclone. The patient was recommenced on low dose of zopiclone and unfortunately redeveloped moderate insomnia. The patient was thoroughly investigated and zopiclone was determined to have paradoxically caused the insomnia...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096677/long-term-bicycle-riding-ameliorates-the-depression-of-the-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis-by-affecting-the-levels-of-interleukin-6-and-interleukin-18
#19
Chunhui Zhao, Hui Ma, Lei Yang, Yong Xiao
PURPOSE: Hemodialysis patients with depression have a higher risk of death and hospitalization. Although there is pharmacological management for the depression of hemodialysis patients, the adverse effect of the drug limits the use. The nonpharmacological way, bicycle riding, may be an effective way for the therapy of the depression in hemodialysis patients. However, the underlying mechanism of this relationship is still not fully explained, while interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) are associated with depression and exercise...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074989/-antidepressants-agents-in-breast-cancer-patients-using-tamoxifen-review-of-basic-and-clinical-evidence
#20
María Elisa Irarrázaval O, Leonardo Gaete G
Tamoxifen (Tmf), is a standard of care for women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Endoxifen is a Tmf metabolite generated by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Antidepressive agents (AD) are often prescribed to women with breast cancer not only for depression, but also for anxiety and hot flashes. Some AD are substrates or inhibitors of the Tmf metabolic pathway. Therefore there may be interactions when Tmf and AD are prescribed simultaneously. Oncologic protection afforded by Tmf may become less effective or null when AD are indicated, especially in poor metabolizing patients...
October 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
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