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Alan L Pehrson, Christian S Pedersen, Kirstine Sloth Tølbøl, Connie Sanchez
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive impairments that may contribute to poor functional outcomes. Clinical data suggests that the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine attenuates some cognitive impairments in MDD patients, but the mechanistic basis for these improvements is unclear. One theory suggests that vortioxetine improves cognition by suppressing γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission, thereby increasing glutamatergic activation. Vortioxetine's effects on cognition, GABA and glutamate neurotransmission have been supported in separate experiments, but no empirical work has directly connected vortioxetine's cognitive effects to those on GABA and glutamate neurotransmission...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hilary Weingarden, Ashley M Shaw, Katharine A Phillips, Sabine Wilhelm
Shame is a distressing emotion experienced when individuals judge themselves in a broadly negative and critical manner. Clinical descriptions of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) emphasize the centrality of shame, yet research on shame in BDD remains scarce. This study is the largest investigation of shame in clinically diagnosed individuals with BDD, and it is the first to examine whether shame changes with treatment. Eighty-three adults with BDD were treated with 14 weeks of open-label escitalopram. Shame was measured using the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
David Edberg, Debra Hoppensteadt, Amanda Walborn, Jawed Fareed, James Sinacore, Angelos Halaris
Immune system activation and neuroinflammation appear to play a key role in the pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar depression (BDD). This study is the first to analyze blood levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP) in bipolar disorder patients treated with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (CBX). In this double-blind study, 47 consenting patients with BDD were randomized to receive either escitalopram (10 mg twice/day) + CBX (200 mg twice/day), or escitalopram (10 mg twice/day) + placebo (twice/day)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
George I Papakostas, Rebecca Z Nielsen, Marianne Dragheim, Brigitte Tonnoir
This study aimed to evaluate if efficacy and tolerability of switching to vortioxetine is independent of previous SSRI or SNRI treatment in patients who had been inadequately treated for their current major depressive episode. Patients from a double-blind, 12-week comparator study were randomized (1:1) to vortioxetine (10-20 mg/day) or agomelatine (25-50 mg/day). The pre-defined primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline to week 8 in MADRS total score analyzed by MMRM. An ANCOVA-LOCF was conducted as a sensitivity analysis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Sebastian V Nielsen, Martin Kellner, Per G Henriksen, Håkan Olsén, Steen H Hansen, Erik Baatrup
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are pharmaceuticals used to treat a range of psychological disorders. They are frequently found in surface waters in populated areas. In recent years, they have been shown to affect the behaviour of various aquatic organisms in a way that can have ecological effects. In this study, we exposed zebrafish of both sexes to nominally 0.00, 0.15 and 1.50 µg L-1 Escitalopram in flow-through tanks for three weeks. Subsequently, ten swimming behaviour parameters were quantified using high-resolution video tracking...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Redhouane Abdellaoui, Pierre Foulquié, Nathalie Texier, Carole Faviez, Anita Burgun, Stéphane Schück
BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence is a major impediment to the management of many health conditions. A better understanding of the factors underlying noncompliance to treatment may help health professionals to address it. Patients use peer-to-peer virtual communities and social media to share their experiences regarding their treatments and diseases. Using topic models makes it possible to model themes present in a collection of posts, thus to identify cases of noncompliance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to detect messages describing patients' noncompliant behaviors associated with a drug of interest...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Jasna Neumann, Olof Beck, Norbert Dahmen, Michael Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is being developed as a specimen for the determination of drug intake as an alternative to serum and plasma. It is generally considered as an attractive specimen due to the noninvasive nature of the sampling procedure and the relation to the free fraction of drug in the blood. These features are of particular value in drug treatment of psychiatric disorders. To establish OF for the purpose of monitoring drug therapy, the relationship between concentrations in OF and serum/plasma must be documented...
April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Manish K Jha, Shereen Wakhlu, Neha Dronamraju, Abu Minhajuddin, Tracy L Greer, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no valid clinical or biological markers to personalize the treatment of depression. Recent evidence suggests that body mass index (BMI) may guide the selection of antidepressant medications with different mechanisms of action. METHODS: Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants with BMI measurement (n = 662) were categorized as normal- or underweight (<25), overweight (25-<30), obese I (30-<35), and obese II+ (≥35)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Clinton G Lauritsen, Abigail L Chua, Stephanie J Nahas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Menopause is a life-changing event in numerous ways. Many women with migraine hold hope that the transition to the climacteric state will coincide with a cessation or improvement of migraine. This assumption is based mainly on common lay perceptions as well as assertions from many in the healthcare community. Unfortunately, evidence suggests this is far from the rule. Many women turn to a general practitioner or a headache specialist for prognosis and management. A natural instinct is to manipulate the offending agent, but in some cases, this approach backfires, or the concern for adverse events outweighs the desire for a therapeutic trial, and other strategies must be pursued...
March 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Brooke R Staveland, Tali M Ball, Jerome Yesavage, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Leanne M Williams
Default mode network (DMN) dysfunction (particularly within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD); however, its contribution to treatment outcome has not been clearly established. Here we tested the role of DMN functional connectivity as a general and differential biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes in a large, unmedicated adult sample with MDD. Seventy-five MDD outpatients completed fMRI scans before and 8 weeks after randomization to escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine-XR...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Henriette N Buttenschøn, Betina Elfving, Marit Nielsen, Sune Skeldal, Mathias Kaas, Ole Mors, Simon Glerup
BACKGROUND: Studies of individual biomarkers for depression have shown insufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical use, and most likely combinations of biomarkers may provide a better signature. The sorting-related receptor with A-type repeats (SorLA) is a well-studied pathogenic factor for Alzheimer's. SorLA belongs to the Vps10p domain receptor family, which also encompasses sortilin and SorCS1-3. All family members have been implicated in neurological and mental disorders...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Rudolf A Werner, Ryohei Kobayashi, Mehrbod Som Javadi, Zoe Koeck, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Stefan Unterecker, Kenichi Nakajima, Constantin Lapa, Andreas Menke, Takahiro Higuchi
Background: 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) provides independent prognostic value for risk stratification among heart failure patients, but the use of concomitant medication should not impact its quantitative information. We aimed to evaluate the four most-prescribed antidepressants currently used as a first‑line treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their potential on altering mIBG imaging results. Methods: The inhibition effect of four different types of antidepressants (desipramine, escitalopram, venlafaxine and bupropion) for MDD treatment on131 I-mIBG uptake was assessed by in-vitro cell uptake assays using human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Faruk Uguz, Elif Subasi, Fadime Dalboy, Mehmet Ak
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic treatment with antidepressants for the prevention of postpartum exacerbation in depressive or anxiety symptoms. The study included data on 33 patients who were followed from pregnancy to the postpartum period at the Department of Psychiatry of a university Hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined by means of a structured clinical interview. The severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed by means of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), respectively...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Andrea Cipriani, Toshi A Furukawa, Georgia Salanti, Anna Chaimani, Lauren Z Atkinson, Yusuke Ogawa, Stefan Leucht, Henricus G Ruhe, Erick H Turner, Julian P T Higgins, Matthias Egger, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Hissei Imai, Kiyomi Shinohara, Aran Tajika, John P A Ioannidis, John R Geddes
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric disorders worldwide in adults. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are available; however, because of inadequate resources, antidepressants are used more frequently than psychological interventions. Prescription of these agents should be informed by the best available evidence. Therefore, we aimed to update and expand our previous work to compare and rank antidepressants for the acute treatment of adults with unipolar major depressive disorder...
February 20, 2018: Lancet
Hyungkun Yoon, Dong Jae Oh, Ho-Suk Suh, Kyoung-Uk Lee, Se-Won Lim, Jun-Yeob Lee, Jong-Chul Yang, Jae-Hon Lee, Juwon Ha, Bun-Hee Lee, Seung-Gul Kang, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Jihyun Moon, Seung-Min Bae, Youngdo Kwon, Hyun-Chung Kim, Kang Seob Oh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to provide clinical consensus and evidence regarding initial treatment strategies for the pharmacological treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Korea. METHODS: We prepared a questionnaire to derive a consensus from clinicians regarding their preference for the pharmacological treatment of SAD in Korea. Data regarding medication regimens and psychotropic drugs used during initial treatment, the doses used, and the pharmacological treatment duration were obtained...
February 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Dorte Glintborg, Magda Lambaa Altinok, Pernille Ravn, Kurt B Stage, Kurt Højlund, Marianne Andersen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status, and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo. METHODS: Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-weeks SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n=21) or placebo (n=21). Patients underwent clinical examination, fasting blood samples, adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH) test, 3 hours oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and filled in questionnaires regarding mental health and health related quality of life (HRQoL): WHO Well Being Index (WHO-5), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS questionnaire...
February 22, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Manoj Kumar, Ravisha Wadhwa, Priyanka Kothari, Ritu Trivedi, Divya Vohora
Evidence from several studies indicates that the long-term treatment of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is associated with a decrease in bone mass and increase the risk of fractures. The present work evaluated and compared the effect of treatment with two SSRIs viz. fluoxetine and escitalopram on bone biomarkers (P1NP and βCTX) in male Wistar rats. In addition, the effect of these drugs on bone microarchitecture of lumbar and tibia bones was carried out. Fluoxetine (8.2mg/kg) treatment for 40 days significantly reduced (P< 0...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Harinder Singh, Nathan Wray, Jeffrey M Schappi, Mark M Rasenick
Current antidepressant therapies meet with variable therapeutic success and there is increasing interest in therapeutic approaches not based on monoamine signaling. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which also deacetylates α-tubulin shows altered expression in mood disorders and HDAC6 knockout mice mimic traditional antidepressant treatments. Nonetheless, a mechanistic understanding for HDAC6 inhibitors in the treatment of depression remains elusive. Previously, we have shown that sustained treatment of rats or glioma cells with several antidepressants translocates Gαs from lipid rafts toward increased association with adenylyl cyclase (AC)...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Randeep Kaur, V R Sinha
Pruritus is a concomitant symptom of various underlying disorders viz. dermatological, systemic and psychiatric disorders that provoke the person to scratch the skin. Many natural as well as, antipruritic therapies are usually practiced in the treatment of pruritus including general preventive measures, topical therapies such as cooling agents, antihistamines, anesthetics, capsaicin, corticosteroids, immunomodulators and; systemic therapies including administration of antihistamines, opioid antagonists/agonists, antiepileptic drugs/neuroleptics (e...
February 15, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Raju Bandu, Hyun Jeong Lee, Hyeong Min Lee, Tae Hyon Ha, Heon-Jeong Lee, Se Joo Kim, Kyooseob Ha, Kwang Pyo Kim
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method revealed the plasma metabolite profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients treated with escitalopram (ECTP) (n=7). Depression severity was assessed according to the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17). Metabolic profiles were derived from MDD subject blood samples collected after ECTP treatment. Blood plasma was separated and processed in order to effectively extract metabolites, which were then analyzed using LC-MS. We identified 19 metabolites and elucidated their structures using LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with elemental compositions derived from accurate mass measurements...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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