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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815595/sigma-1-receptor-ligands-inhibit-catecholamine-secretion-from-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-due-to-block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#1
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Nolan D Hartley, Kyle J Horning, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) are the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and key mediators of the physiological stress response. Acetylcholine (ACh) released from preganglionic splanchnic nerves activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on chromaffin cells causing membrane depolarization, opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), and exocytosis of catecholamines and neuropeptides. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is expressed in ACCs and interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to control secretion...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808405/catha-edulis-forsk-khat-evaluation-of-its-antidepressant-like-activity
#2
Hassan Alfaifi, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Syam Mohan, Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha, Sohier M Syame, Lamiaa A Shaala, Rashad Alsanosy
BACKGROUND: Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is traditionally used for treating various disorders. Nevertheless there are no reports of any scientific assessment of its psychopharmacological properties. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of Khat ethanolic extract using established animal models of depression and stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety healthy male albino mice were used in this study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793999/association-of-qt-prolonging-medication-use-in-ckd-with-electrocardiographic-manifestations
#3
Soren Snitker, Rebecca M Doerfler, Elsayed Z Soliman, Rajat Deo, Wendy L St Peter, Susan Kramlik, Michael J Fischer, Sankar Navaneethan, Patrice Delafontaine, Bernard G Jaar, Akinlolu Ojo, Gail K Makos, Anne Slaven, Matthew R Weir, Min Zhan, Jeffrey C Fink
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several drugs used in CKD can prolong electrocardiographic conduction. We examined the use of electrocardiogram QT-prolonging medications in predialysis CKD and their association with QT duration. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In total, 3252 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants with at least one study electrocardiogram between 2003 and 2011 were included. QT-prolonging medications used in 100 or more visits (n=16,451 visits) along with diuretics and proton pump inhibitors, given their potential for electrolyte disturbances, were examined for QT interval prolongation...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791989/treatment-of-resistant-idiopathic-hiccups-with-pulse-radio-frequency-on-phrenic-nerve-and-gabapentin-a-case-report
#4
O Ozturk, E Yavuz, B Yazicioglu, B Uzuner
Hiccups affect life quality, career and family life when they become persistent. We present here a 54-year-old man who worked as a mason and a blacksmith with hiccups complaint for nearly one and a half years. In this period, he was admitted to emergency service ten times with fainting or almost fainting, cold sweating and hand stretching complaints. The patient expressed that he frequently threw up when he had hiccups and his social life was negatively affected. He reported that he was treated with baclofen, esomeprazole and hyoscine-n-butyl bromur without relief...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770276/a-comparative-study-of-qt-prolongation-with-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
#5
Ana Ojero-Senard, Justine Benevent, Emmanuelle Bondon-Guitton, Geneviève Durrieu, Leila Chebane, Melanie Araujo, Francois Montastruc, Jean-Louis Montastruc
BACKGROUND: QT interval prolongations were described with citalopram and escitalopram. However, the effects of the other serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) remained discussed. In order to identify a putative signal with other SRIs, the present study investigates the reports of QT interval prolongation with SRIs in two pharmacovigilance databases (PVDB). METHODS: Two kinds of investigations were performed: (1) a comparative study in VigiBase®, the WHO PVDB, where notifications of QT prolongation with six SRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline) were selected...
August 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763345/risk-of-hair-loss-with-different-antidepressants-a-comparative-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Mahyar Etminan, Mohit Sodhi, Ric M Procyshyn, Michael Guo, Bruce C Carleton
The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of hair loss with different antidepressants. A retrospective cohort study design using a large health claims database in the USA from 2006 to 2014 was utilized. A cohort of new user and mutually exclusive users of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, duloxetine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, and bupropion were followed to the first diagnosis of alopecia. The cohort was comprised of 1 025 140 new users of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, duloxetine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, and bupropion, with sertraline the most commonly prescribed (N=190 227) and fluvoxamine (N=3010) the least prescribed...
July 31, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759400/body-composition-in-adolescents-during-treatment-with-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
#7
Chadi A Calarge, James A Mills, Kathleen F Janz, Trudy L Burns, William H Coryell, Babette S Zemel
OBJECTIVES: To examine the independent contribution of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to changes in body composition in older adolescents. METHODS: Medically healthy 15- to 20-year-olds who were unmedicated or within 1 month of starting an SSRI were prospectively followed. Psychiatric functioning and medication treatment were assessed monthly. Body Mass Index (BMI) was measured every 4 months...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756181/effects-of-escitalopram-and-imipramine-on-cocaine-reward-and-drug-seeking-behaviors-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#8
Joanna Jastrzębska, Małgorzata Frankowska, Agata Suder, Karolina Wydra, Ewa Nowak, Małgorzata Filip, Edmund Przegaliński
Depression and substance-abuse (e.g., use of cocaine) are disorders with a high frequency of comorbidity. In the present study, we combined bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), an animal model of depression, with intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement in rats to investigate the effects of two antidepressant drugs, escitalopram (ESC) and imipramine (IMI), with the goal of determining whether these drugs altered cocaine-induced rewarding and seeking behaviors. Acutely administered ESC (2...
July 26, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749091/efficacy-of-ziprasidone-augmentation-of-escitalopram-for-cognitive-symptoms-of-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Nadia Iovieno, Richard C Shelton, Samuel R Petrie, Cristina Cusin, Maurizio Fava, George I Papakostas
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone for cognitive symptoms in adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing persistent symptoms after 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. METHODS: This post hoc analysis was conducted on a database derived from a previously published study. The parent study was a multicenter, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 3 academic medical centers in the United States from July 2008 to October 2013...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730460/impact-of-safety-warnings-on-domperidone-prescribing-in-ireland
#10
M Teeling, M J MacAvin, K Bennett
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the impact of the 2014 safety warnings on use of domperidone, on subsequent prescribing patterns in Ireland. METHODS: The Irish HSE-PCRS pharmacy claims database was used to identify the study cohort (aged 18+), prescribed domperidone from Jan 2014 to Oct 2015. Dosage was available for each claim; concomitant prescription with the following drug classes was identified and calculated as a percentage of the total number of claims: anti-arrhythmics, macrolide antimicrobials and the selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram and escitalopram...
July 20, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708853/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-venlafaxine-in-pregnancy-changes-in-drug-disposition
#11
Andreas Austgulen Westin, Malin Brekke, Espen Molden, Eirik Skogvoll, Olav Spigset
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy may cause changes in drug disposition. The clinical consequences may be profound and even counterintuitive; in some cases pregnant women may need more than twice their usual drug dose in order to maintain therapeutic drug levels. For antidepressants, evidence on drug disposition in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on serum levels of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and venlafaxine in a large and naturalistic patient material, in order to provide tentative dose recommendations for pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706455/escitalopram-a-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-inhibits-voltage-dependent-k-channels-in-coronary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
Han Sol Kim, Hongliang Li, Hye Won Kim, Sung Eun Shin, Mi Seon Seo, Jin Ryeol An, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Seok-Ho Hong, Il-Whan Choi, Grace Choi, Dae-Sung Lee, Won Sun Park
We investigated the inhibitory effect of escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channels in freshly separated from rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. The application of escitalopram rapidly inhibited vascular Kv channels. Kv currents were progressively inhibited by an increase in the concentrations of escitalopram, suggesting that escitalopram inhibited vascular Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 value and Hill coefficient for escitalopram-induced inhibition of Kv channels were 9...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705766/patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-exhibit-reduced-reward-size-coding-in-the-striatum
#13
Masahiro Takamura, Yasumasa Okamoto, Go Okada, Shigeru Toki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Naho Ichikawa, Asako Mori, Hideaki Minagawa, Yoshiyuki Takaishi, Yasutaka Fujii, Yoko Kaichi, Yuji Akiyama, Kazuo Awai, Shigeto Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). While recent evidence suggests that reduced motivation for reward may be a core feature of anhedonia, the abnormalities in modulatory neural responses to variable reward amounts in MDD patients remain unclear. We investigated whether MDD patients' ability to represent variable-sized monetary rewards in the striatum is disrupted. METHODS: Twelve MDD patients and 12 healthy volunteers completed an assessment of psychometric status and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task that involved the anticipation of financial reward (monetary incentive delay task)...
July 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703951/secondary-prevention-of-chronic-ptsd-by-early-and-short-term-administration-of-escitalopram-a-prospective-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#14
Joseph Zohar, Leah Fostick, Alzabeta Juven-Wetzler, Zeev Kaplan, Hadar Shalev, Gavriel Schreiber, Natalie Miroshnik, Arieh Y Shalev, Dan J Stein, Soraya Seedat, Sharain Suliman, Ehud Klein
OBJECTIVE: Prospective studies have not identified a viable pharmacologic strategy for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether preventive intervention via early and short-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), within 1 month of exposure to a traumatic event (before diagnosis of PTSD could be made), may reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-IV at 13 months' follow-up. METHODS: Over 25,000 screening calls to patients referred to an emergency department for a traumatic event performed between June 2006 and December 2008 yielded 353 participants who were recruited within the month following a traumatic event ...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698115/interleukin-17-selectively-predicts-better-outcomes-with-bupropion-ssri-combination-novel-t-cell-biomarker-for-antidepressant-medication-selection
#15
Manish K Jha, Abu Minhajuddin, Bharathi Gadad, Tracy L Greer, Taryn L Mayes, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is produced by highly inflammatory Th17 cells and has been implicated in pathophysiology of depression. IL-17 putatively disrupts the blood brain barrier and affects dopamine synthesis whereas dopamine has been shown to decrease Th17 cell-mediated immune response. Nevertheless, whether IL-17 can predict differential treatment outcome with antidepressants modulating dopaminergic transmission is unknown. METHODS: IL-17 and other T cell and non-T cell markers (Th1, Th2 and non-T cell markers) were measured with the Bioplex Pro™ human cytokine 27-plex kit in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants who provided baseline plasma and were treated with either bupropion plus escitalopram (bupropion-SSRI), escitalopram plus placebo (SSRI monotherapy), or venlafaxine plus mirtazapine (n=166)...
July 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689006/interactions-between-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-statins-on-depression-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Sung-Wan Kim, Hee-Ju Kang, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Il-Seon Shin, Young Joon Hong, Young-Keun Ahn, Myung Ho Jeong, Michael Berk, Jin-Sang Yoon, Jae-Min Kim
OBJECTIVE: Pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with the development of depression and statins exert anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. The present study aimed to investigate associations between interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 and depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and potential interactions between statin use and pro-inflammatory cytokines on depression in this population. METHODS: We used pooled datasets from 1-year follow-up data from a 24-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (RCT) of escitalopram for treatment of depressive disorder and data from a naturalistic, prospective, observational cohort study in patients with ACS...
July 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688279/synthesis-of-novel-5-aroylhydrazinocarbonyl-escitalopram-as-cholinesterase-inhibitors
#17
Mehr-Un Nisa, Munawar A Munawar, Amber Iqbal, Asrar Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf, Qurra-Tul-Ann A Gardener, Misbahul A Khan
A novel series of 5-(aroylhydrazinocarbonyl)escitalopram (58-84) have been designed, synthesized and tested for their inhibitory potential against cholinesterases. 3-Chlorobenzoyl- (71) was found to be the most potent compound of this series having IC50 1.80 ± 0.11 μM for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. For the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition, 2-bromobenzoyl- (76) was the most active compound of the series with IC50 2.11 ± 0.31 μM. Structure-activity relationship illustrated that mild electron donating groups enhanced enzyme inhibition while electron withdrawing groups reduced the inhibition except o-NO2...
June 30, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685616/cerebral-serotonin-release-correlates-with-11-c-az10419369-pet-measures-of-5-ht1b-receptor-binding-in-the-pig-brain
#18
Louise M Jørgensen, Pia Weikop, Claus Svarer, Ling Feng, Sune H Keller, Gitte M Knudsen
Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively capture temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We here evaluate the 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist PET radioligand, [(11)C]AZ10419369, for its sensitivity to detect changes in endogenous cerebral serotonin levels, as induced by different pharmacological challenges. To enable a direct translation of PET imaging data to changes in brain serotonin levels, we compared the [(11)C]AZ10419369 PET signal in the pig brain to simultaneous measurements of extracellular serotonin levels with microdialysis after various acute interventions (saline, escitalopram, fenfluramine)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673858/investigate-the-control-release-effect-of-ion-pair-in-the-development-of-escitalopram-transdermal-patch-using-ft-ir-spectroscopy-molecular-modeling-and-thermal-analysis
#19
Wei Wang, Tian Song, Xiaocao Wan, Chao Liu, Hanqing Zhao, Liang Fang
The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release drug-in-adhesive patch containing escitalopram (ESP) using ion-pair technique. Special attention was paid on the mechanism of how counter ion controlled the release of ESP. Five organic acids were chosen as the counter ions. Formulation factors including adhesive matrix, drug loading and permeation enhancers were investigated through in vitro experiments using rat skin and the optimized patch was evaluated using in vivo pharmacokinetic study. Drug-counter ion-PSA interactions were characterized by FT-IR, molecular modeling and DSC at molecular level...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666060/ssris-associated-with-decreased-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-population-based-case-control-study
#20
Hsiang-Lin Chan, Wei-Che Chiu, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Kuo-You Huang, Tsu-Nai Wang, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Charles Tzu-Chi Lee, Bor-Show Tzang
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cancer-related cause of mortality worldwide. Antidepressants, especially selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used worldwide. Available evidence investigating the association between SSRIs use and HCC risk is limited. OBJECTIVE: he present study aimed to investigate if the effect of all kinds of SSRIs on HCC was the same or not using population-based study. METHODS: The nationwide population-based study herein using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database included a total of 59,859 cases with HCC and 285,124 matched controls...
June 30, 2017: Psycho-oncology
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