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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445959/brain-metastases-from-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recent-advances-and-future-avenues
#1
REVIEW
Shanshan Wang, Anqiang Wang, Jianzhen Lin, Yuan Xie, Liangcai Wu, Hanchun Huang, Jin Bian, Xiaobo Yang, Xueshuai Wan, Haitao Zhao, Jiefu Huang
The incidence of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (BMHCC) is becoming more frequent than that of the past as a result of prolonged survival of patients with HCC. Compared with brain metastases from other types of cancer, BMHCC tends to exhibit a high incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and poor liver function. Unfortunately, the prognosis is extremely poor for patients with BMHCC owing to the limited treatment selection. Currently, optimal treatment requires multidisciplinary approaches including surgery, whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445774/voxresnet-deep-voxelwise-residual-networks-for-brain-segmentation-from-3d-mr-images
#2
REVIEW
Hao Chen, Qi Dou, Lequan Yu, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng
Segmentation of key brain tissues from 3D medical images is of great significance for brain disease diagnosis, progression assessment and monitoring of neurologic conditions. While manual segmentation is time-consuming, laborious, and subjective, automated segmentation is quite challenging due to the complicated anatomical environment of brain and the large variations of brain tissues. We propose a novel voxelwise residual network (VoxResNet) with a set of effective training schemes to cope with this challenging problem...
April 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445707/comparing-sprint-and-endurance-training-on-anxiety-depression-and-its-relation-with-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-rats
#3
Hossein TaheriChadorneshin, Sadegh Cheragh-Birjandi, Saeed Ramezani, Seyed-Hosein Abtahi-Eivary
Although the response of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to low intensity exercise training, but the effect of intensive exercise training is not clear. Also, there is insufficient information about relationship between BDNF and depression and anxiety following intensive exercise. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of intensive endurance training (ET) and sprint interval training (SIT) on brain BDNF and its relationship with anxiety and depression in Albino Wistar rats...
April 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445595/ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-produces-a-chronic-striatal-hyperdopaminergic-state-that-is-worsened-by-methylphenidate-treatment
#4
Gerald J Nora, Rashed Harun, David F Fine, Daniel Hutchison, Adam C Grobart, Jason P Stezoski, Miranda Munoz, Patrick M Kochanek, Rehana K Leak, Tomas Drabek, Amy K Wagner
Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445312/early-progression-of-brain-atrophy-in-patients-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-case-reports
#5
Hiroshi Kataoka, Nobuhiro Sawa, Yasuyo Tonomura, Satoshi Ueno
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis responds to immunnotherapy, and approximately 80% of patients with this disorder fully recover or have only minor sequelae. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not show a specific abnormality, but some patients have progressive cerebral atrophy. The cerebral atrophy can become reversible after clinical improvement. METHODS: We describe 3 patients with diffuse cerebral atrophy (DCA) on serial brain MRI...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444235/right-hemisphere-structural-adaptation-and-changing-language-skills-years-after-left-hemisphere-stroke
#6
Thomas M H Hope, Alex P Leff, Susan Prejawa, Rachel Bruce, Zula Haigh, Louise Lim, Sue Ramsden, Marion Oberhuber, Philipp Ludersdorfer, Jenny Crinion, Mohamed L Seghier, Cathy J Price
Stroke survivors with acquired language deficits are commonly thought to reach a 'plateau' within a year of stroke onset, after which their residual language skills will remain stable. Nevertheless, there have been reports of patients who appear to recover over years. Here, we analysed longitudinal change in 28 left-hemisphere stroke patients, each more than a year post-stroke when first assessed-testing each patient's spoken object naming skills and acquiring structural brain scans twice. Some of the patients appeared to improve over time while others declined; both directions of change were associated with, and predictable given, structural adaptation in the intact right hemisphere of the brain...
April 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443683/redox-signaling-mediated-by-the-thioredoxin-and-glutathione-systems-in-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Xiaoyuan Ren, Lili Zou, Xu Zhang, Vasco Branco, Jun Wang, Cristina Carvalho, Arne Holmgren, Jun Lu
SIGNIFICANCE: The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems play important roles in maintaining the redox balance in the brain, a tissue that is prone to oxidative stress due to its high energy demand. These two disulfide reductase systems are active in various areas of the brain, and are considered to be the critical antioxidant systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Various neuronal disorders have been characterized to have imbalanced redox homeostasis. Recent Advances: In addition to their detrimental effects, recent studies have highlighted that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) act as critical signaling molecules by modifying thiols in proteins...
April 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443018/the-treatment-based-on-temporal-information-processing-reduces-speech-comprehension-deficits-in-aphasic-subjects
#8
Aneta Szymaszek, Tomasz Wolak, Elzbieta Szelag
Experimental studies have reported a close association between temporal information processing (TIP) and language comprehension. Brain-injured subjects with aphasia show disturbed TIP which was evidenced in elevated temporal order threshold (TOT) as compared to control subjects. The present study is aimed at improving auditory speech comprehension in aphasic subjects using a specific temporal treatment. Fourteen patients having deficits in both speech comprehension and TIP were tested. The Token Test, phoneme discrimination tests (PDT) and Voice-Onset-Time (VOT) Test were employed to assess speech comprehension...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442937/simultaneous-administration-of-fluoxetine-and-simvastatin-ameliorates-lipid-profile-improves-brain-level-of-neurotransmitters-and-increases-bioavailability-of-simvastatin
#9
Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari, Zabih Ullah, Aqeel Salman Al Masoudi, Ishtiaque Ahmad
Simvastatin (STT), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, is widely prescribed for dyslipidemia, whereas fluoxetine (FLX) is the first-choice drug for the treatment of depression and anxiety. A recent report suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can interact with the cytochrome P450 3A4 substrate, and another one suggests that STT enhances the antidepressant activity of FLX. However, the data are inconclusive. The present study was designed to explore the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of coadministration of STT and FLX in experimental animals...
2017: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442909/tat-functionalized-liposomes-for-the-treatment-of-meningitis-an-in-vitro-study
#10
Caterina Bartomeu Garcia, Di Shi, Thomas J Webster
Bacterial meningitis has become a global concern, because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It has been demonstrated that liposomes can enter bacteria, thus providing a possible treatment for numerous infections, including meningitis. Fusogenic liposomes are pH-sensitive with a high capacity to fuse with the bacteria membrane and promote intracellular drug release. Moreover, this ability can be improved by using cell-penetrating peptides (such as Tat47-57, which is a peptide derived from the Tat protein of HIV)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442406/anti-amnesic-effect-of-extract-and-alkaloid-fraction-from-aerial-parts-of-peganum-harmala-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficits-in-mice
#11
Wei Liu, Yudan Zhu, Yongli Wang, Shenglan Qi, Yuwen Wang, Chao Ma, Shuping Li, Bo Jiang, Xuemei Cheng, Zhengtao Wang, Zhenyu Xuan, Changhong Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aerial parts of Peganum harmala Linn (APP) is used as traditional medical herb for treatment of forgetfulness in Uighur medicine in China. But, the active ingredients and underlying mechanisms are unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to investigate the improvement effects of extract and alkaloid fraction from APP on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction and to elucidate their underlying mechanisms of action, and to support its folk use with scientific evidence, and lay a foundation for its further researches...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442359/emg-biofeedback-training-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-active-control-training
#12
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer, Ute Strehl, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at revealing neurophysiological effects induced by electromyography (EMG) based biofeedback, considered as a semi-active control condition in neurofeedback studies, in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. METHODS: 20 adult ADHD patients trained their muscle activity in the left and right supraspinatus muscle over the course of 30 EMG biofeedback sessions. Changes induced by the EMG feedback were evaluated at a clinical and neurophysiological level; additionally, the relation between changes in EEG activity recorded at the vertex over the training course and changes of symptom severity over the treatment course were assessed in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442348/upregulation-of-neurotrophins-by-s-47445-a-novel-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-ampa-receptors-in-aged-rats
#13
Francesca Calabrese, Elisa Savino, Elisabeth Mocaer, Sylvie Bretin, Giorgio Racagni, Marco A Riva
At molecular levels, it has been shown that aging is associated with alterations in neuroplastic mechanisms. In this study, it was examined if the altered expression of neurotrophins observed in aged rats could be corrected by a chronic treatment with S 47445 (1-3-10mg/kg, p.o.), a novel selective positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptors. Both the mRNA and the protein levels of the neurotrophins Bdnf, NT-3 and Ngf were specifically measured in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (ventral and dorsal) of aged rats...
April 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442330/symptomatic-carotid-artery-disease-revascularization
#14
REVIEW
Piero Montorsi, Stefano Galli, Paolo M Ravagnani, Marco Roffi
Patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease should be managed by a multidisciplinary team including neurologists, vascular surgeons and interventionalists. Duplex ultrasound is the most widely used diagnostic modality to assess carotid disease, followed by additional imaging tests (CT- or MR-angiography) to confirm the severity of the stenosis, detect brain lesions, and assess intracranial circulation as well as the supra-aortic anatomy. Although overall randomized trial results favored (CEA) over carotid artery stenting (CAS) in symptomatic patients, this was likely related to the insufficient expertise of the endovascular specialists in several of the trials...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442274/sex-differences-in-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-older-humans
#15
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Jennifer C Davis, Ryan S Falck, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Exercise is a non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. Sex of participants and exercise type are two possible factors contributing to this variation. To better understand this, we conducted a concurrent systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitively healthy older adults. Executive functions, episodic memory, visuospatial function, word fluency, processing speed and global cognitive function were examined for exercise- and sex-dependent effects...
April 22, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441965/evaluation-of-a-dna-a%C3%AE-42-vaccine-in-adult-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-antibody-kinetics-and-immune-profile-after-intradermal-immunization-with-full-length-dna-a%C3%AE-42-trimer
#16
Doris Lambracht-Washington, Min Fu, Pat Frost, Roger N Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Aggregated amyloid-β peptide 1-42 (Aβ42), derived from the cellular amyloid precursor protein, is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although active immunization against Aβ42 peptide was successful in AD mouse models and led to removal of plaques and improved memory, a similar clinical trial in humans (Aβ42 peptide immunization with QS-21 adjuvant) was stopped in phase II, when 6% of the treated patients developed encephalitis. Currently ongoing passive immunizations with the injection of preformed monoclonal antibodies against different epitopes within the Aβ1-42 peptide, which do not lead to activation of the immune system, have shown some effects in slowing AD pathology...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441824/-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features-of-acute-encephalopathy-after-status-epilepticus-in-dravet-syndrome
#17
X J Tian, Y H Zhang, A J Liu, X L Yang, Q Zeng, Z X Yang, J T Ye, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
Objective: To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of acute encephalopathy (AE) after status epilepticus (SE) of patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). Method: The clinical data of DS patients who had AE (coma ≥24 h) after SE were retrospectively collected from February 2005 to August 2016 in Peking University First Hospital and SCN1A gene tests were performed.The clinical and neuroimaging features were summarized. Result: Twenty-two patients (9 males and 13 females) with AE were collected among 412 DS patients during follow-up...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441420/mapping-of-the-brain-hemodynamic-responses-to-sensorimotor-stimulation-in-a-rodent-model-a-bold-fmri-study
#18
Salem Boussida, Amidou S Traoré, Franck Durif
Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI) during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441325/the-effects-of-taekwondo-training-on-peripheral-neuroplasticity-related-growth-factors-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-and-cognitive-functions-in-healthy-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So, Hee-Tae Roh
Although regular Taekwondo (TKD) training has been reported to be effective for improving cognitive function in children, the mechanism underlying this improvement remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in neuroplasticity-related growth factors in the blood, assess cerebral blood flow velocity, and verify the resulting changes in children's cognitive function after TKD training. Thirty healthy elementary school students were randomly assigned to control (n = 15) and TKD (n = 15) groups...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440972/a-comparison-between-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-frozen-section-and-permanent-section-analyses-in-central-nervous-system
#20
Razie Amraei, Afshin Moradi, Hanieh Zham, Mahsa Ahadi, Maryam Baikpour, Azadeh Rakhshan
Objective: Using diagnostic pathological methods during surgery is a valuable means of determining the appropriate management for patients. Application of Frozen Section in CNS surgeries might face challenges due to friability of brain tissue and its relative inaccessibility. Various studies have evaluated the diagnostic acuity of frozen section compared to gold standard but results have been quite inconsistent. We conducted the present study to evaluate the accuracy of cryostat in diagnosing central nervous system tumors compared to the Gold Standard method...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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