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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766724/effect-of-high-frequency-subthalamic-neurostimulation-on-gait-and-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
C Schlenstedt, A Shalash, M Muthuraman, D Falk, K Witt, G Deuschl
The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the short- and long-term effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) on gait and freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease and to detect predictors of post-stimulation outcome. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted up to October 2015 using Medline Ovid databases for studies analyzing the effect of bilateral STN-DBS on FOG and/or gait. Sixteen studies with available data for the gait item (no. 29) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and six studies with the FOG item (no...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651150/investigating-motor-initiation-and-inhibition-deficits-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-freezing-of-gait-using-a-virtual-reality-paradigm
#2
Matthew J Georgiades, Moran Gilat, Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Courtney C Walton, Patrick G Bissett, James M Shine, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common, disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is associated with deficits in motor initiation and inhibition. Understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms has been limited by difficulties in eliciting and objectively characterizing such gait phenomena in the clinical setting. However, recent work suggests that virtual reality (VR) techniques might offer the potential to study motor control. This study utilized a VR paradigm to explore deficits in motor initiation and stopping performance, including stop failure in PD patients with (Freezers, 31) and without (Non-Freezers, 23) FOG, and healthy age-matched Controls (15)...
September 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649270/physiology-of-freezing-of-gait
#3
REVIEW
Anke H Snijders, Kaoru Takakusaki, Bettina Debu, Andres M Lozano, Vibhor Krishna, Alfonso Fasano, Tipu Z Aziz, Stella M Papa, Stewart A Factor, Mark Hallett
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and debilitating, but largely mysterious, symptom of Parkinson disease. In this review, we will discuss the cerebral substrate of FOG focusing on brain physiology and animal models. Walking is a combination of automatic movement processes, afferent information processing, and intentional adjustments. Thus, normal gait requires a delicate balance between various interacting neuronal systems. To further understand gait control and specifically FOG, we will discuss the basic physiology of gait, animal models of gait disturbance including FOG, alternative etiologies of FOG, and functional magnetic resonance studies investigating FOG...
November 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599588/freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-emerging-therapies
#4
Alberto Cucca, Milton C Biagioni, Jori E Fleisher, Shashank Agarwal, Andre Son, Pawan Kumar, Miroslaw Brys, Alessandro Di Rocco
Freezing of gait (FOG) is 'an episodic inability to generate effective stepping in the absence of any known cause other than parkinsonism or high level gait disorders'. FOG is one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease, especially in its more advanced stages. Early recognition is important as FOG is related to higher fall risk and poorer prognosis. Although specific treatments are still elusive, there have been recent advances in the development of new therapeutic approaches. The aim of this review is to present the latest knowledge regarding the phenomenology, pathogenesis, diagnostic assessment and conventional treatment of FOG in Parkinson's disease...
October 2016: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596958/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-for-the-study-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#5
Susanne K Hansen, Tina C Stummann, Helena Borland, Lis F Hasholt, Zeynep Tümer, Jørgen E Nielsen, Mikkel A Rasmussen, Troels T Nielsen, Justus C A Daechsel, Karina Fog, Poul Hyttel
The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines were established from two SCA3 patients. Dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed using an integration-free method and the resulting SCA3 iPSCs were differentiated into neurons. These neuronal lines harbored the disease causing mutation, expressed comparable levels of several neuronal markers and responded to the neurotransmitters, glutamate/glycine, GABA and acetylcholine...
August 16, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595545/experiences-and-concerns-of-patients-with-recurrent-attacks-of-acute-hepatic-porphyria-a-qualitative-study
#6
Hetanshi Naik, Mikayla Stoecker, Saskia C Sanderson, Manisha Balwani, Robert J Desnick
BACKGROUND: The acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs) are rare inborn errors of heme biosynthesis, characterized clinically by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks. Patients with recurrent attacks have a decreased quality of life (QoL); however, no interactive assessment of these patients' views has been reported. We conducted guided discussions regarding specific topics, to explore patients' disease experience and its impact on their lives. METHODS: Sixteen AHP patients experiencing acute attacks were recruited to moderator-led online focus groups...
November 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579212/5-ht2a-receptor-binding-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-alpha-synuclein-overexpressing-mice-a-postmortem-study
#7
Nadja Bredo Rasmussen, Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Tomasz Brudek, Per Plenge, Anders Bue Klein, Jenny E Westin, Karina Fog, Gitta Wörtwein, Susana Aznar
The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534783/-impact-of-treatments-to-improve-cognitive-function-and-quality-of-life-on-cancer-patients-with-carcinoma-of-the-testes
#8
L Vasiľková
BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is one of the most common and most treatable cancers in men aged 15-49 years. The high survival rates mean that it is essential to maintain quality of life and minimize adverse effects associated with treatment. Both malignant tumors and the modalities used to treatment them can have adverse effects from both a psychosocial and a neurocognitive function perspective. Recently, attention has focused on the negative impact of the disease and its treatment on the brain and on cognitive function, which can result in a form of neurocognitive dysfunction known as "chemo brain" or "chemo fog"...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272226/cognition-and-the-menopause-transition
#9
Pauline M Maki, Victor W Henderson
Complaints about forgetfulness, "brain fog," and difficulty concentrating are common in women transitioning through menopause. Women with these cognitive complaints often express concern about whether these problems are normal, related to menopause, or represent a symptom of Alzheimer disease or another serious cognitive disorder. In this Practice Pearl, we provide a brief summary of the scientific literature on the frequency of cognitive complaints in midlife women, the validity of complaints in relation to performance on standardized cognitive tests, and the influence of menopause on cognitive performance...
July 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230857/alterations-of-functional-and-structural-connectivity-of-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Min Wang, Siming Jiang, Yongsheng Yuan, Li Zhang, Jian Ding, Jianwei Wang, Jiejin Zhang, Kezhong Zhang, Jie Wang
This study assessed the patterns of functional and structural connectivity abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait (PD FOG+) compared with those without freezing (PD FOG-) and healthy controls (HCs). Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were obtained from 14 PD FOG+, 16 PD FOG- and 16HCs. Between-group difference in pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) functional connectivity (FC) was performed to assess FC dysfunction. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was applied to compare white matter (WM) impairment across the whole brain between groups...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179579/botulinum-toxin-treatment-of-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-as-reflected-in-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-leg-movement
#11
Miroslav Vastik, Pavel Hok, Petr Hlustik, Pavel Otruba, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kanovsky
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common disabling symptom of (in) Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanism of FOG is (in) not clearly understood. We investigated the clinical effect and changes of the activity of the sensorimotor system using repeated functional MRI (fMRI) before and after application of botulinum toxin in Parkinson's disease patients with FOG. METHODS: We investigated 20 patients with PD, 10 with FOG and 10 without FOG. PD patients with FOG were treated with intramuscular application of botulinum toxin type A into the tensor fasciae latae muscle bilaterally...
2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175696/spatiotemporal-characteristics-of-freezing-of-gait-in-patients-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#12
Seo Yeon Yoon, Sang Chul Lee, Yong Wook Kim
The objective of this study was to investigate spatiotemporal characteristics with gait variability in patients with freezing of gait (FOG) after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI).Eleven patients showing FOG after HIBI and 15 normal controls were consecutively enrolled. We performed gait analysis using a computerized gait system (VICON MX-T10 Motion Analysis System) and compared spatiotemporal characteristics and gait variability in both groups. Additionally, we performed correlation analysis to identify the gait parameters associated with severity of freezing, which we measured based on unified Parkinson disease Rating Scale subscore...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006858/freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-6-18-f-fluoro-l-m-tyrosine-uptake-in-the-locus-coeruleus
#13
Sayaka Asari Ono, Toshihiko Sato, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common disorder in Parkinson's disease (PD) and could be attributed to a reduction in brain noradrenaline. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity in the locus coeruleus (LC) and FOG in PD using high-resolution positron emission tomography with an AADC tracer, 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT). We assessed 40 patients with PD and 11 age-matched healthy individuals. PD was diagnosed based on the UK Brain Bank criteria by two movement disorder experts...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828213/clinical-heterogeneity-of-atypical-pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration-in-koreans
#14
Jae-Hyeok Lee, Jongkyu Park, Ho-Sung Ryu, Hyeyoung Park, Young Eun Kim, Jin Yong Hong, Sang Ook Nam, Young-Hee Sung, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jee-Young Lee, Myung Jun Lee, Tae-Hyoung Kim, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Sun Ju Chung, Seong Beom Koh, Phil Hyu Lee, Jin Whan Cho, Mee Young Park, Yun Joong Kim, Young H Sohn, Beom Seok Jeon, Myung Sik Lee
OBJECTIVE: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) represents a group of inherited movement disorders characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Recent advances have included the identification of new causative genes and highlighted the wide phenotypic variation between and within the specific NBIA subtypes. This study aimed to investigate the current status of NBIA in Korea. METHODS: We collected genetically confirmed NBIA patients from twelve nationwide referral hospitals and from a review of the literature...
January 2016: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780720/understanding-the-human-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Anders Fytagoridis, Peter A Silburn, Terry J Coyne, Wesley Thevathasan
This paper presents the Brisbane experience of pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical outcomes along with studies of the mechanisms and neurophysiology of PPN in PD patients with severe freezing of gait (FoG) and postural imbalance (PI) are summarised and presented. Our results indicate that PPN DBS improves FoG and falls in the relatively uncommon group of PD patients who respond well to medication other than for continuing on time FoG and falls. Our studies indicate that bilateral DBS is more beneficial than unilateral DBS, and that the more caudal region of the PPN seems preferable for stimulation...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26776567/freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-altered-functional-brain-connectivity
#16
Abhishek Lenka, Rajini M Naduthota, Menka Jha, Rajanikant Panda, Arvind Prajapati, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, Jitender Saini, Ravi Yadav, Rose Dawn Bharath, Pramod Kumar Pal
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop several gait disturbances during the course of illness and Freezing of gait (FOG) is one of them. Several neuroimaging studies have been conducted to identify the neural correlates of FOG but results have not been uniform. Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is relatively less explored in PD patients with FOG. This study aims to compare the whole brain resting state connectivity of PD patients with and without FOG using rs-fMRI...
March 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26762801/dual-task-related-neural-connectivity-changes-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease
#17
G Vervoort, E Heremans, A Bengevoord, C Strouwen, E Nackaerts, W Vandenberghe, A Nieuwboer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dual-task (DT) gait impairment in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and specifically in those with freezing of gait (FOG), reflects attentional dependency of movement. This study aimed to elucidate resting-state brain connectivity alterations related to DT gait abnormalities in PD with and without FOG. METHODS: PD patients (n=73) and healthy age-matched controls (n=20) underwent DT gait analysis and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-MRI) while 'off' medication...
March 11, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26631477/nmda-receptors-containing-the-glun2d-subunit-control-neuronal-function-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#18
Sharon A Swanger, Katie M Vance, Jean-François Pare, Florence Sotty, Karina Fog, Yoland Smith, Stephen F Traynelis
The GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor is prominently expressed in the basal ganglia and associated brainstem nuclei, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus, striatum, and substantia nigra. However, little is known about how GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic activity in these regions. Using Western blotting of STN tissue punches, we demonstrated that GluN2D is expressed in the rat STN throughout development [age postnatal day 7 (P7)-P60] and in the adult (age P120). Immunoelectron microscopy of the adult rat brain showed that GluN2D is predominantly expressed in dendrites, unmyelinated axons, and axon terminals within the STN...
December 2, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26540287/sprouty2-and-4-hypomorphism-promotes-neuronal-survival-and-astrocytosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-kainic-acid-induced-neuronal-damage
#19
Sitthisak Thongrong, Barbara Hausott, Letizia Marvaldi, Alexandra S Agostinho, Luca Zangrandi, Johannes Burtscher, Barbara Fogli, Christoph Schwarzer, Lars Klimaschewski
Sprouty (Spry) proteins play a key role as negative feedback inhibitors of the Ras/Raf/MAPK/ERK pathway downstream of various receptor tyrosine kinases. Among the four Sprouty isoforms, Spry2 and Spry4 are expressed in the hippocampus. In this study, possible effects of Spry2 and Spry4 hypomorphism on neurodegeneration and seizure thresholds in a mouse model of epileptogenesis was analyzed. The Spry2/4 hypomorphs exhibited stronger ERK activation which was limited to the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and to the hilar region...
May 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537521/an-assessment-of-fatigue-in-patients-with-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome
#20
Shelby Wise, Amanda Ross, Abigail Brown, Meredyth Evans, Leonard Jason
Individuals with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome share many symptoms with those who have chronic fatigue syndrome; one of which is severe fatigue. Previous literature found that those with chronic fatigue syndrome experience many forms of fatigue. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome also experience multidimensional fatigue and whether these individuals can be clustered into subgroups based on the types of fatigue they endorse...
November 4, 2015: Journal of Health Psychology
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