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Agnieszka Wacławczyk, Lidia Postek-Stefańska, Daria Pietraszewska, Ewa Birkner, Jolanta Zalejska-Fiolka, Iwona Wysoczańska-Jankowicz
BACKGROUND: More than 35 substances released from composite fillings have been identified. Among these, basic monomers and the so-called co-monomers are most often reported. The substances released from polymer-based materials demonstrate allergenic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, embryotoxic, teratogenic, and estrogenic properties. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) monomers released from composite dental fillings to citrate-phosphate buffer with the pH of 4, 6, 8 after 24 h and 6 months from the polymerization...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Parva Nasimi, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Sayad Roohi
Here, we studied the protective effects of Satureja Khuzestanica essential oil (SKEO) as a potent anti-oxidant, against damage caused by chemotherapy with busulfan in testis and epididymal sperm of adult mice. The NMRI adult mice were assigned: G1: control, G2: was treated with busulfan (4 days, 3.2 mg/kg), G3: was treated with busulfan (4 days, 3.2 mg/kg) and SKEO (28 days, 225 mg/kg) at the same time, and G4: was pre-treated with SKEO (7 days, 225 mg/kg) and subsequently co-treated with busulfan (4 days, 3...
March 20, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Fernanda Dos Santos Cunha, Natalino da Costa Sousa, Rudã Fernandes Brandão Santos, Juliana Oliveira Meneses, Márcia Valéria Silva do Couto, Fabrício Tavares Cunha de Almeida, José Guedes de Sena Filho, Paulo César Falanghe Carneiro, Alexandre Nizio Maria, Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto
Deltamethrin is one of the most commonly used pyrethroids in the world, and it has a high toxic potential, mainly on aquatic organism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate LC50 values of deltamethrin on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fingerlings and to investigate genotoxic effects and histopathological responses. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of deltamethrin (0, 6.16 × 10-3 ; 6.44 × 10-2 ; 1.34 × 10-1 , and 1.93 × 10-1  mg L-1 ) for 96 h. In addition, a genotoxicity analysis was carried out on peripheral blood erythrocytes and histopathological changes were classified by the severity degree of damage and organ functioning...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S M Plummer, J Wright, R A Currie
An increased incidence of liver tumours in the long term rodent bioassay is not an uncommon finding, invariably as a result of a non-genotoxic mode of action. Non-genotoxic liver carcinogenesis has been found to involve activation of certain nuclear hormone receptors (NHR) including the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and more recently the induction of specific microRNAs (miRs), has also been demonstrated following CAR activation in studies up to 90 days (Koufaris et al...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Seyed Zachariah Moradi, Amin Nowroozi, Komail Sadrjavadi, Sajad Moradi, Kamran Mansouri, Leila Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen Shahlaei
It has been reported that the antiestrogen Tamoxifen induces liver tumors in rats and genotoxic effects in vitro through DNA interaction. So, it can be proposed that its structural analogue, Clomifene, also can bind to DNA. To test this hypothesis, the DNA binding properties of Clomifene have been studied by absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, cellular uptake, cell viability, cell proliferation and molecular modeling techniques. Evidences are provided that Clomifene could interact with DNA via minor groove interaction mode...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
David Kirkland, Paul Fowler
Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) is a trifunctional acrylate monomer which polymerizes rapidly when exposed to sources of free radicals. It is widely used as a reactive diluent and polymer building block in the formulation of overprint varnishes, inks and a variety of wood, plastic and metal coatings. TMPTA has been tested in a range of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests. There is no clear evidence of induction of gene mutations by TMPTA in bacteria or mammalian cells in vitro, but there is evidence of clastogenicity from induction of small colony tk mutants in the mouse lymphoma assay, and also induction of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Sumee Khanal, Priyanka Singh, Svetlana L Avlasevich, Dorothea K Torous, Jeffrey C Bemis, Stephen D Dertinger
Regulatory guidance documents stress the value of assessing multiple tissues and the most appropriate endpoints when evaluating chemicals for in vivo genotoxic potential. However, conducting several independent studies to consider multiple endpoints and/or tissue compartments is resource intensive. Furthermore, conventional approaches for scoring genotoxicity endpoints are slow, tedious, and less objective than what would be considered ideal. In an effort to address these issues with current practices, we attempted to i) employ flow cytometry-based methods to score liver micronuclei, blood micronuclei, and blood Pig-a gene mutation, and ii) integrate the endpoints into a common general toxicology study design-the rat 28-day repeat dose study...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Tetsuya Suzuki, Kyomu Matsumoto, Masamitsu Honma, Takehiko Nohmi
In regulatory genetic toxicology, it is an axiom that there is no threshold for genotoxicity of chemicals, such that genotoxic chemicals may impose carcinogenic risk on humans even at very low doses. This paradigm is counterintuitive, however, because humans possess a number of self-defense mechanisms that may suppress the genotoxicity at these low doses and therefore manifest a practical threshold. DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ) is a specialized Pol that plays an important role in DNA synthesis across DNA damage, thereby modulating cell survival and genotoxicity...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Priya Goswami, Subhabrata Paul, Ritesh Banerjee, Rita Kundu, Anita Mukherjee
Betulinic acid (BA) is a naturally occurring terpenoid found principally in the bark of birch trees as well as in numerous other plants. BA is reported to inhibit cancer progression and induce apoptosis in multiple tumor types. In the present study we have investigated the cytotoxicity and potential genotoxicity of BA in SiHa cells. The cell viability was measured by using MTT assay and the morphological changes, DNA damage, changes in cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were used for the assessment of apoptosis...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Alejandro D Bolzán, Martha S Bianchi
Bleomycin (BLM) is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces verticillus. It has radiomimetic actions on DNA thus it has been widely used in clinical chemotherapy for the treatment of different types of cancer, including head and neck tumors, lymphomas, squamous-cell carcinomas and germ-cell tumors. Because of this, the study of BLM genotoxicity is of practical interest. This antibiotic is an S-independent clastogen and an agent that generates free radicals and induces single- and double-strand breaks in DNA...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Zacharenia Nikitaki, Marcela Holá, Mattia Donà, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Ioannis Michalopoulos, Karel J Angelis, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Anca Macovei, Alma Balestrazzi
Eukaryotic genome surveillance is dependent on the multiple, highly coordinated network functions of the DNA damage response (DDR). Highlighted conserved features of DDR in plants and animals represent a challenging opportunity to develop novel interdisciplinary investigations aimed at expanding the sets of DNA damage biomarkers currently available for radiation exposure monitoring (REM) in environmental and biomedical applications. In this review, common and divergent features of the most relevant DDR players in animals and plants are described, including the intriguing example of the plant and animal kingdom-specific master regulators SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response) and p53...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Amal Mohamed Kamal El Safty, Aisha Mohamed Samir, Mona Kamal Mekkawy, Marwa Mohamed Fouad
Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Serpil Könen-Adıgüzel, Serap Ergene
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are used in a wide range of applications because of their unique properties. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are one of the important ENPs, and they can cause negative health effects, such as genotoxicity, in humans and other living organisms. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic effects of short-term (3-24 h) CeO2 NPs exposure to cultured human blood lymphocytes. Three genotoxicity systems "cytokinesis-block micronucleus test, comet assay, and gamma H2AX test" were used to show the genotoxic potential of CeO2 NPs (particle size <25 nm, concentrations: 6, 12, and 18 µg/mL)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
P Reis, J Lourenço, F P Carvalho, J Oliveira, M Malta, S Mendo, R Pereira
The induction of RIBE (Radiation Induced Bystander Effect) is a non-target effect of low radiation doses that has already been verified at an inter-organismic level in fish and small mammals. Although the theoretical impact in the field of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is possible, there is a gap of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in invertebrate groups and following environmentally relevant exposures. To understand if RIBE should be considered for ERA of radionuclide-rich wastewaters, we exposed Daphnia magna (<24 h and 5d old) to a 2% diluted uranium mine effluent for 48 h, and to a matching dose of waterborne uranium (55...
March 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Mark E Hamilton, Niels C Bols, Bernard P Duncker
Rainbow trout cell cultures were exposed to three genotoxicants and examined for effects on γH2AX and p53 levels by western blotting and on cell viability using the indicator dyes Alamar Blue (AB) for energy metabolism and 5'-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM) for plasma membrane integrity. Bleomycin induced γH2AX and p53 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and had little cytotoxic effect. However, induction was first seen at 0.3 μM for γH2AX but not until 16.5 μM for p53. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) increased H2AX phosphorylation but diminished p53 levels as the dose was increased from 908 μM up to 2724 μM...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Shaohu Ouyang, Xiangang Hu, Qixing Zhou, Xiaokang Li, Xinyu Miao, Ruiren Zhou
Nanocolloids are widespread in natural water systems, but their characterization and ecological risks are largely unknown. Herein, tangential flow ultrafiltration (TFU) was used to separate and concentrate nanocolloids from surface waters. Unexpectedly, nanocolloids were present in high concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 7.2 mg/L in the surface waters of the Harihe River in Tianjin City, China. Most of the nanocolloids were 10-40 nm in size, contained various trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and exhibited fluorescence properties...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Maria Grazia Mascolo, Stefania Perdichizzi, Monica Vaccari, Francesca Rotondo, Cristina Zanzi, Sandro Grilli, Martin Paparella, Miriam N Jacobs, Annamaria Colacci
The development of alternative methods to animal testing is a priority in the context of regulatory toxicology. Carcinogenesis is a field where the demand for alternative methods is particularly high. The standard rodent carcinogenicity bioassay requires a large use of animals, high costs, prolonged duration, and shows several limitations, which can affect the comprehension of the human relevance of animal carcinogenesis. The Cell Transformation Assay has long been debated as a possible in vitro test to study carcinogenesis...
March 15, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Sandrine Charles, Stéphane Jomini, Valérie Fessard, Emilie Bigorgne-Vizade, Christophe Rousselle, Cécile Michel
A review of in vitro genotoxicity studies on titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) published between 2010 and 2016 was performed by France in the framework of the CLP Regulation 1272/2008/EC. Neither the few in vivo studies of low quality nor the larger number of acceptable in vitro studies available for genotoxicity allowed France to conclude on the genotoxicity of TiO2 -NPs. Based on this work, it was decided to compare the acceptable in vitro studies to understand the reasons for the diverging results observed, such as the materials tested or of the protocols used and their inherent interferences...
March 19, 2018: Nanotoxicology
István Pócsi, Gábor Király, Gáspár Bánfalvi
Fungal toxins are secondary metabolites, in which many of them were mycotoxins, affecting eukaryotic cells with a broad range of structural and functional variety contributing to the multitude of their classification. This refers to the harmful genotoxic (mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic) effects of mycotoxins on the one hand, and their cytocidic and antineoplastic properties on the other hand. This "double edged sword" effect could be utilized against the spread of tumors in older patients when the survival is much more important than the mutagenic side effects...
March 19, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Jia Ning, XinYue Cui, XiangNan Kong, YiFei Tang, Riana Wulandari, Lu Chen, Sebas Wesseling, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market were quantified and the combined estimated daily intake (EDI) was determined using dose additivity. The combined EDI values obtained assuming equal potency of all alkenylbenzenes detected in the PFS, TCM and herbal teas were 0...
March 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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