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Genotoxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724172/favorable-effects-of-myo-inositol-selenomethionine-or-their-combination-on-the-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-of-peripheral-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-preliminary-in-vitro-studies
#1
S Benvenga, T Vicchio, F Di Bari, R Vita, P Fallahi, S M Ferrari, S Catania, C Costa, A Antonelli
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and control women, were protected from in vitro H2O2-induced oxidative stress after addition of antioxidants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PBMC, from 8 HT women and 3 healthy women (controls), were cultured in the presence of 200 µM H2O2 alone, with subsequent addition of myo-inositol (Myo) (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 µM), selenomethionine (SelMet) (0.25, 0.5, 1...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724165/cytogenotoxicity-of-inclusion-complexes-of-diazepam-with-2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin
#2
Jasmina Hadžiabdić, Nevenka Kopjar, Davor Želježić, Selma Špirtović-Halilović, Davorka Završnik
Background Diazepam, as one of the most frequent prescribed drug from 1,4-benzodiazepine group, has certain limitations in pharmaceutical technology due to its poor solubility in water. By forming inclusion complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, diazepam's biopharmaceutical properties can be greatly improved. Aim Aim of this research was to in vitro evaluate genotoxicity of prepared novel complexes of diazepam and their influence on proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods For identification of possible genotoxicity of diazepam inclusion complexes, cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has been chosen...
July 19, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723674/nanoparticles-and-female-reproductive-system-how-do-nanoparticles-affect-oogenesis-and-embryonic-development
#3
REVIEW
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723166/automated-3-d-printed-arrays-to-evaluate-genotoxic-chemistry-e-cigarettes-and-water-samples
#4
Karteek Kadimisetty, Spundana Malla, James F Rusling
A novel, automated, low cost, three-dimensional (3-D) printed microfluidic array was developed to detect DNA damage from metabolites of chemicals in environmental samples. The electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection platform incorporates layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled films of microsomal enzymes, DNA and an ECL-emitting ruthenium metallopolymer in ∼10 nm deep microwells. Liquid samples are introduced into the array, metabolized by the human enzymes, products react with DNA if possible, and DNA damage is detected by ECL with a camera...
May 26, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722656/corrupting-the-dna-damage-response-a-critical-role-for-rad52-in-tumor-cell-survival
#5
Rachel Lieberman, Ming You
The DNA damage response enables cells to survive, maintain genome integrity, and to safeguard the transmission of high-fidelity genetic information. Upon sensing DNA damage, cells respond by activating this multi-faceted DNA damage response leading to restoration of the cell, senescence, programmed cell death, or genomic instability if the cell survives without proper repair. However, unlike normal cells, cancer cells maintain a marked level of genomic instability. Because of this enhanced propensity to accumulate DNA damage, tumor cells rely on homologous recombination repair as a means of protection from the lethal effect of both spontaneous and therapy-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA...
July 15, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722143/breast-cancer-stem-cells-as-last-soldiers-eluding-therapeutic-burn-a-hard-nut-to-crack
#6
REVIEW
Pritish Nilendu, Ajay Kumar, Azad Kumar, Jayanta K Pal, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are found in many cancer types, including breast carcinoma. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are considered as seed of cancer formation and they are associated with metastasis and genotoxic drug resistance. Several studies highlighted the presence of BCSCs in tumor microenvironment and they are accentuated with several carcinoma events including metastasis and resistance to genotoxic drugs and they also rebound after genotoxic burn. Stemness properties of a small population of cells in carcinoma have provided clues regarding the role of tumor microenvironment in tumor pathophysiology...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721745/pesticide-genotoxicity-in-cotton-picking-women-in-pakistan-evaluated-using-comet-assay
#7
Tayyaba Ali, Muhammad Ismail, Farkhanda Asad, Asma Ashraf, Usman Waheed, Qaiser M Khan
To control agricultural pests and meet the increasing food demands, pesticides use has been increased substantially over time. Although pesticides are relatively specific to their targets, they can affect non-target organisms and are hazardous for the population around the application areas particularly to the individuals engaged in different types of agricultural activities. This situation is worse in developing and under-developed countries where personal protective equipment is merely used and regulatory guidelines are hardly practiced...
July 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718977/effect-of-simulated-gastrointestinal-digestion-and-fermentation-on-polyphenolic-content-and-bioactivity-of-brown-seaweed-phlorotannin-rich-extracts
#8
Giulia Corona, Maria Magdalena Coman, Yuxuan Guo, Sarah Hotchkiss, Chris Gill, Parveen Yaqoob, Jeremy P E Spencer, Ian Rowland
SCOPE: Unlike other classes of polyphenols, there is a lack of knowledge regarding brown seaweed phlorotannins and their bioactivity. We investigated the impact of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation on the bioactivity of a seaweed phlorotannin extract from Ascophyllum nodosum and its high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) fractions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The highest phlorotannin and total polyphenol (TP) concentration was observed in the HMW fraction...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718805/emerging-fusarium-and-alternaria-mycotoxins-occurrence-toxicity-and-toxicokinetics
#9
REVIEW
Sophie Fraeyman, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, Gunther Antonissen
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur...
July 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718371/changes-in-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-cell-cycle-regulation-and-the-relative-telomere-length-in-the-process-of-canceration-induced-by-omethoate
#10
Xiaoran Duan, Yongli Yang, Sihua Wang, Xiaolei Feng, Tuanwei Wang, Pengpeng Wang, Suxiang Liu, Lei Li, Wu Yao, Liuxin Cui, Wei Wang
Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs), with high efficiency, broad-spectrum and low residue, are widely used in China. Omethoate is a broad category of organophosphorous pesticides and is more domestically utilized which has chronic toxic effect on human health caused by long-term, low-dose exposure to Ops, recently its potential genotoxicity has attracted wide attention which can cause chromosomal DNA damage. Thus, the aim of this study is screen susceptible biomarkers and explore the mechanism of canceration induced by omethoate...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714748/no-adverse-lung-effects-of-7-and-28-day-inhalation-exposure-of-rats-to-emissions-from-petrodiesel-fuel-containing-20-rapeseed-methyl-esters-b20-with-and-without-particulate-filter-the-fuelhealth-project
#11
Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Johan Øvrevik, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Jacek Biedrzycki, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Gunnar Brunborg, Christine Instanes, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Oddvar Myhre
Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers...
July 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714573/assessment-of-the-dna-damaging-potential-of-environmental-chemicals-using-a-quantitative-high-throughput-screening-approach-to-measure-p53-activation
#12
Kristine L Witt, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Menghang Xia, Ruili Huang, Jinghua Zhao, Scott S Auerbach, Junguk Hur, Raymond R Tice
Genotoxicity potential is a critical component of any comprehensive toxicological profile. Compounds that induce DNA or chromosomal damage often activate p53, a transcription factor essential to cell cycle regulation. Thus, within the US Tox21 Program, we screened a library of ∼10,000 (∼8,300 unique) environmental compounds and drugs for activation of the p53-signaling pathway using a quantitative high-throughput screening assay employing HCT-116 cells (p53(+/+) ) containing a stably integrated β-lactamase reporter gene under control of the p53 response element (p53RE)...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714549/increased-level-of-dna-damage-in-some-organs-of-obese-zucker-rats-by-%C3%AE-h2ax-analysis
#13
Alessia Azzarà, Anna Chiaramonte, Erika Filomeni, Barbara Pinto, Stefano Mazzoni, Simona Piaggi, Maria Angela Guzzardi, Fabrizio Bruschi, Patricia Iozzo, Roberto Scarpato
In a recent study, we showed that lymphocytes of obese Italian children/adolescents displayed levels of double strand breaks (DSB), assayed as serine 139-phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), about eightfold higher than normal weight controls, and that 30% of this damage-generated micronuclei. These findings suggested that obese children could be at increased risk of obesity-mediated cancer later in life. We therefore aimed to assess the level of γ-H2AX in a genetic animal model of obesity (Zucker rat) to identify a genotoxic/carcinogenic risk in some organs...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714319/protective-effect-of-teucrium-polium-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#14
Fatma Rahmouni, Mongi Saoudi, Nahed Amri, Abdelfattah El-Feki, Tarek Rebai, Riadh Badraoui
This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Teucrium polium (TP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced spleen, erythrocyte's oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in rats. TP was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols (150 mg GAE/G of dry plant) and flavonoids (60 mg QE/g of quercetin dry plant). The CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg) treated rats exhibited significant reductions in serum vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE) and total antioxidant status (TAS). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were significantly high in the CCl4 group compared to controls...
July 16, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714172/a-study-of-dna-damage-in-buccal-cells-of-consumers-of-well-and-or-tap-water-using-the-comet-assay-assessment-of-occupational-exposure-to-genotoxicants
#15
Celia Vazquez Boucard, Larisa Lee-Cruz, Laurence Mercier, Martín Ramírez Orozco, Vania Serrano Pinto, Gerardo Anguiano, Linette Cazares, Daniel Díaz
Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712879/comet-assay-on-thawed-embryos-an-optimized-technique-to-evaluate-dna-damage-in-mouse-embryos
#16
L Rolland, B Courbiere, V Tassistro, A Sansoni, T Orsière, W Liu, C Di Giorgio, J Perrin
Our objective was to optimize the CA technique on mammal embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1000 frozen 2-cell embryos from B6CBA mice were used. Based on a literature review, and after checking post-thaw embryo viability, the main outcome measures included: 1) comparison of the embryo recovery rate between 2 CA protocols (2 agarose layers and 3 agarose layers); 2) comparison of DNA damage by the CA on embryos with (ZP+) and without (ZP-) zona pellucida; and 3) comparison of DNA damage in embryos exposed to 2 genotoxic agents (H2O2 and simulated sunlight irradiation (SSI))...
July 13, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712878/antidepressants-are-cytotoxic-to-rat-primary-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells-at-high-therapeutic-concentrations
#17
Ekramy Elmorsy, Ayat Al-Ghafari, Fahd M Almutairi, Amal Misbah Aggour, Wayne G Carter
Antidepressants are commonly employed for the treatment of major depressive disorders and other psychiatric conditions. We investigated the relatively acute cytotoxic effects of three commonly prescribed antidepressants: fluoxetine, sertraline, and clomipramine on rat primary blood brain barrier endothelial cells over a concentration range of 0.1-100μM. At therapeutic concentrations (0.1μM) no significant cytotoxicity was observed after 4, 24, or 48h. At high therapeutic to overdose concentrations (1-100μM), antidepressants reduced cell viability in proportion to their concentration and exposure duration...
July 13, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710765/immunofluorescence-analysis-of-%C3%AE-h2ax-foci-in-mammalian-fibroblasts-at-different-phases-of-the-cell-cycle
#18
Liudmila Solovjeva, Denis Firsanov, Nadezhda Pleskach, Maria Svetlova
H2AX phosphorylation at Ser139 (formation of γ-H2AX) is an indicator of double-strand breaks in DNA (DSBs) after the action of different genotoxic stresses, including ionizing radiation, environmental agents, and chemotherapy drugs. The sites of DSBs can be visualized as focal sites of γ-H2AX using antibodies and immunofluorescence microscopy. The microscopy technique is the most sensitive method of DSB detection in individual cells. It is useful for experimental research, radiation biodosimetry, and clinical practice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710764/twelve-gel-comet-assay-format-for-quick-examination-of-dna-damage-and-repair
#19
Sergey Shaposhnikov, Andrew Collins
The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive, versatile method for detecting DNA damage in eukaryotic cells. The traditional comet assay format has 1 or 2 gels on a microscope slide, 1 sample per slide, and there is a limit of 40 gels per experiment given the size of a typical electrophoresis tank. To increase throughput, we have designed and tested a system with 12 minigels on one slide, allowing analysis of up to 12 times more samples in one electrophoresis run. The novel comet assay format compares well with the traditional technology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710762/quantification-of-dna-damage-and-repair-in-mitochondrial-nuclear-and-bacterial-genomes-by-real-time-pcr
#20
Nadja Patenge
DNA damage caused by genotoxic insults is often used as an indicator of specific diseases, environmental challenges, and metabolic processes. To date, various different methods have been described to detect damaged DNA. Many techniques need high amounts of DNA for the analysis and/or require the exact determination of DNA template concentration. Here, we describe a rapid and quantitative method for the evaluation of the relative levels of damage in mitochondrial, nuclear, and bacterial DNA in comparison to untreated controls...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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