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Genotoxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110405/cyanotoxins-producing-organisms-occurrence-toxicity-mechanism-of-action-and-human-health-toxicological-risk-evaluation
#1
REVIEW
Franca M Buratti, Maura Manganelli, Susanna Vichi, Mara Stefanelli, Simona Scardala, Emanuela Testai, Enzo Funari
Cyanobacteria were present on the earth 3.5 billion years ago; since then they have colonized almost all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They produce a high number of bioactive molecules, among which some are cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial growth at high densities, forming blooms, is increasing in extension and frequency, following anthropogenic activities and climate changes, giving rise to some concern for human health and animal life exposed to cyanotoxins. Numerous cases of lethal poisonings have been associated with cyanotoxins ingestion in wild animal and livestock...
January 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110013/dna-damage-and-translational-response-during-detoxification-from-copper-exposure-in-a-wild-population-of-chironomus-riparius
#2
Paola Bernabò, Matteo Gaglio, Francesco Bellamoli, Gabriella Viero, Valeria Lencioni
Copper is one of the predominant components of pesticides employed in agriculture and known to be highly toxic once it reaches aquatic organisms. The impact of sublethal concentrations of this metal on wild insects is not yet completely understood. Studies addressing alterations in different levels of gene expression are still lacking. We previously demonstrated that in a wild population of Chironomus riparius, HSP and CYP families of genes were up-regulated at the transcriptional level after copper exposure...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109826/biological-relevance-of-effects-following-chronic-administration-of-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-d4-in-fischer-344-rats
#3
Wolfgang Dekant, Anthony R Scialli, Kathy Plotzke, James E Klaunig
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is a cyclic siloxane primarily used as a monomer or intermediate in the production of silicone polymers resulting in potential exposure of workers, and potential low level inhalation or dermal exposure for consumers and the general public. Following a two-year inhalation toxicity study with D4 in rats, increases in uterine endometrial cystic hyperplasia and adenomas were observed at the highest concentration of D4 administered (700ppm). No other neoplasms were increased with D4 treatment...
January 18, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108664/an-investigation-of-the-genotoxicity-and-interference-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-commonly-used-in-vitro-mutagenicity-and-genotoxicity-assays
#4
Jiya M George, Millicent Magogotya, Melissa A Vetten, Antoinette V Buys, Mary Gulumian
The suitability of 4 in vitro assays, commonly used for mutagenicity and genotoxicity assessment, was investigated in relation to treatment with 14 nm citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Specifically, the Ames test was conducted without metabolic activation, where no mutagenic effects were observed. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Cytoviva dark-field image analysis showed that AuNPs did not enter the bacterial cells, thus confirming the unreliability of the Ames test for nanoparticle mutagenicity studies...
January 20, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108073/reference-control-data-obtained-from-an-in-vivo-comet-micronucleus-combination-assay-using-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Sawako Kasamoto, Shoji Masumori, Jin Tanaka, Maya Ueda, Masahito Fukumuro, Miho Nagai, Jyoji Yamate, Makoto Hayashi
According to the International Conference on Harmonization Guidance on Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals Intended for Human Use (ICH S2(R1)), a positive response in any in vitro assay necessitates additional in vivo test(s) (other tissue/endpoint) in addition to the erythrocyte micronucleus test when Option 1 of the test battery is selected. When Option 2 of the test battery is selected, a bacterial gene mutation test and two in vivo tests with different tissues/endpoint are required...
January 17, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107710/in-vivo-assesment-of-the-genotoxic-and-oxidative-stress-effects-of-particulate-matter-on-echinogammarus-veneris
#6
Melissa Marcoccia, Lucilla Ronci, Elvira De Matthaeis, Andrea Setini, Cinzia Perrino, Silvia Canepari
Seven types of atmospheric dusts (road dust, soil dust, brake dust, desert dust, pellet ash and coke and certified material NIST1648a - urban dust) have been tested for their genotoxicity on specimens of Echinogammarus veneris, a small aquatic amphipod. Experiments were carried out in vivo, by exposing the animals for 24 h to water containing 25 mg/L of dust. Each dust has been chemically analyzed for ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon and for the soluble and insoluble fractions of elements. Non-specific damages to DNA have been evaluated by the comet test, while oxidative damages have been estimated by coupling the comet test with formamido pyrimidine DNA glycosylase reaction...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107343/mutations-in-the-non-catalytic-subunit-dpb2-of-dna-polymerase-epsilon-affect-the-nrm1-branch-of-the-dna-replication-checkpoint
#7
Michał Dmowski, Justyna Rudzka, Judith L Campbell, Piotr Jonczyk, Iwona J Fijałkowska
To preserve genome integrity, the S-phase checkpoint senses damaged DNA or nucleotide depletion and when necessary, arrests replication progression and delays cell division. Previous studies, based on two pol2 mutants have suggested the involvement of DNA polymerase epsilon (Pol ε) in sensing DNA replication accuracy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we have studied the involvement of Pol ε in sensing proper progression of DNA replication, using a mutant in DPB2, the gene coding for a non-catalytic subunit of Pol ε...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104508/exposure-to-high-levels-of-fumarate-and-succinate-leads-to-apoptotic-cytotoxicity-and-altered-global-dna-methylation-profiles-in-vitro
#8
Johannes F Wentzel, Angélique Lewies, Abel J Bronkhorst, Etresia van Dyk, Lissinda H du Plessis, Piet J Pretorius
In the Krebs cycle, succinate is oxidized to fumarate by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), followed by the conversion of fumarate to malate by fumarate hydratase (FH). In cells with defective SDH and FH, the Krebs cycle is congested, respiration impaired and fumarate and succinate accumulates. Several studies have indicated that the accumulation of these substrates are associated with cytotoxicity and oncogenesis. High levels of succinate and fumarate induce hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A) hydroxylases, leading to the activation of oncogenic HIF pathways...
January 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104478/toxicological-effects-of-the-waste-of-the-sugarcane-industry-used-as-agricultural-fertilizer-on-the-test-system-allium-cepa
#9
Leonardo Ramos Anacleto, Matheus Mantuanelli Roberto, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales
Sugarcane is cultivated in tropical countries for sugar and ethanol production. In Brazil, this culture is among the most profitable with a production of 658.7 million tons/harvest. Sugarcane filter cake (SCFC) is a waste rich in organic matter and micronutrients, but also contains toxic metals. As it has been used as fertilizer and there is not enough knowledge about its environmental impacts, this work assessed the genotoxicogenetic effects of raw SCFC and associations with soil and sugarcane bagasse (SCB), by Allium cepa tests...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103133/role-of-choline-in-the-modulation-of-degenerative-processes-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#10
Tania Merinas-Amo, Inmaculada Tasset-Cuevas, Antonio M Díaz-Carretero, Ángeles Alonso-Moraga, Fernando Calahorro
The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutraceutical potential of choline as an added value to its well-known brain nutrient role. Several toxicity, antitoxicity, genotoxicity, antigenotoxicity, and longevity endpoints were checked in the somatic mutation and recombination test in in vivo Drosophila animal model. Cytotoxicity in human leukemia-60 cell line (HL-60) promyelocytic and NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, proapoptotic DNA fragmentation, comet assay, methylation status, and macroautophagy (MA) activity were tested in in vitro assays...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102842/zika-virus-elicits-p53-activation-and-genotoxic-stress-in-human-neural-progenitors-similar-to-mutations-involved-in-severe-forms-of-genetic-microcephaly-and-p53
#11
Vincent El Ghouzzi, Federico T Bianchi, Ivan Molineris, Bryan C Mounce, Gaia E Berto, Malgorzata Rak, Sophie Lebon, Laetitia Aubry, Chiara Tocco, Marta Gai, Alessandra Ma Chiotto, Francesco Sgrò, Gianmarco Pallavicini, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Sandrine Passemard, Marco Vignuzzi, Pierre Gressens, Ferdinando Di Cunto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101901/cyto-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-exposed-to-a-mixture-of-ibuprofen-and-diclofenac
#12
Hariz Islas-Flores, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Esmeralda Michelle Sánchez-Ocampo, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Mariana Ortíz-Reynoso, Octavio Dublán-García
Thirty million people worldwide consume each day nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a heterogeneous group of pharmaceuticals used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies report high NSAID concentrations in wastewater treatment plant effluents, in surface, ground, and drinking water, and in sediments. NSAIDs are also known to induce toxicity on aquatic organisms. However, toxicity in natural ecosystems is not usually the result of exposure to a single substance but to a mixture of toxic agents, yet only a few studies have evaluated the toxicity of mixtures...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099491/death-of-monocytes-through-oxidative-burst-of-macrophages-and-neutrophils-killing-in-trans
#13
Viviane Ponath, Bernd Kaina
Monocytes and their descendants, macrophages, play a key role in the defence against pathogens. They also contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, a mechanism maintaining a balance in the monocyte/macrophage population must be postulated. Our previous studies have shown that monocytes are impaired in DNA repair, rendering them vulnerable to genotoxic stress while monocyte-derived macrophages are DNA repair competent and genotoxic stress-resistant. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that monocytes can be selectively killed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by activated macrophages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098859/dna-damage-response-defect-in-williams-beuren-syndrome
#14
David Guenat, Giuseppe Merla, Eric Deconinck, Christophe Borg, Pierre-Simon Rohrlich
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, no. OMIM 194050) is a rare multisystem genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23 and characterized by cardiovascular malformations, mental retardation, and a specific facial dysmorphism. Recently, we reported that a series of non‑Hodgkin's lymphoma occurs in children with WBS and thus hypothesized that a predisposition to cancer may be associated with this genetic disorder. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the role played by three genes hemizygously deleted in WBS (RFC2, GTF2I and BAZ1B) in DNA damage response pathways...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098804/gadd45a-regulates-olaquindox-induced-dna-damage-and-s-phase-arrest-in-human-hepatoma-g2-cells-via-jnk-p38-pathways
#15
Daowen Li, Chongshan Dai, Xiayun Yang, Bin Li, Xilong Xiao, Shusheng Tang
Olaquindox, a quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivative, is widely used as a feed additive in many countries. The potential genotoxicity of olaquindox, hence, is of concern. However, the proper mechanism of toxicity was unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of growth arrest and DNA damage 45 alpha (GADD45a) on olaquindox-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. The results showed that olaquindox could induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage and S-phase arrest, where increases of GADD45a, cyclin A, Cdk 2, p21 and p53 protein expression, decrease of cyclin D1 and the activation of phosphorylation-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK), phosphorylation-p38 (p-p38) and phosphorylation-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK) were involved...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097454/in-vitro-cytogenetic-toxicity-of-bezafibrate-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#16
M Topaktas, N E Kafkas, S Sadighazadi, E S Istifli
Bezafibrate (BF) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist used as a lipid-lowering agent to treat both the familial or acquired combined forms of hyperlipidemia. BF is the only available fibrate drug that acts on all PPAR subtypes of α, β, and δ. Although there are studies that indicate a genotoxic potential associated with the use of fibrates, to our knowledge, the genotoxicity of BF in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has not been studied. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of BF was evaluated using chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy human subjects...
January 17, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097006/contribution-of-sigma-1-receptor-to-cytoprotective-effect-of-afobazole
#17
Mikhail V Voronin, Ilya A Kadnikov
Anxiolytic afobazole (5-Ethoxy-2-[2-(morpholino)-ethylthio]benzimidazole dihidrochloride) has pronounced ligand properties toward Sigma-1 receptor (σ1 receptor,SigmaR1) and MT 3 receptors. Our previous work demonstrated that afobazole possess cytoprotective effect in the in vitro model of menadione genotoxicity (Woods et al. 1997) through interaction with MT 3 receptor (Kadnikov et al. 2014). Present study utilized previously described models to address the contribution of SigmaR1 to cytoprotective action of afobazole...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095352/the-relationship-of-rel-proto-oncogene-to-pathobiology-and-chemoresistance-in-follicular-and-transformed-follicular-lymphoma
#18
Xiaozhou Hu, Esra Baytak, Jinnan Li, Burcu Akman, Kaan Okay, Genfu Hu, Anna Scuto, Wenyan Zhang, Can Küçük
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common type of indolent lymphoma that occasionally transforms to more aggressive B-cell lymphomas. These transformed follicular lymphomas (tFL) are often associated with chemoresistance whose mechanisms are currently unknown. REL, a proto-oncogene located on frequently amplified 2p16.1-p15 locus, promotes tumorigenesis in many cancer types through deregulation of the NF-κB pathway; however, its role in FL pathobiology or chemoresistance has not been addressed. Here, we evaluated REL gene copy number by q-PCR on FFPE FL tumor samples, and observed REL amplification in 30...
January 9, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094181/the-oxidative-induction-of-dna-lesions-in-cancer-cells-by-5-thio-d-glucose-and-6-thio-d-fructopyranose-and-their-genotoxic-effects-part-3
#19
Anna Czubatka-Bienkowska, Anna Macieja, Joanna Sarnik, Zbigniew J Witczak, Tomasz Poplawski
Thio-sugars have been described as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth but the detailed mechanism of action remains unknown. Herein we investigated the mechanism of their anticancer action in the HeLa cell line. We investigated two thio-sugars: 5-thio-d-glucose (FCP1) and 6-thio-β-d-fructopyranose (FCP2). We have observed that FCP1 as well as FCP2 clearly induced oxidative DNA lesions in cancer cells and increased the level of cellular ROS. A spin trap and antioxidants have decreased the level of DNA lesions induced by FCPs...
January 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093936/biological-activities-of-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-rosemary-extract-as-analyzed-in-microorganisms-and-cells
#20
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Daiane de Jesus, Leandro Wagner Figueira, Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Cristina Pacheco Soares, Samira Estves Afonso Camargo, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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