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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914859/fine-and-ultrafine-atmospheric-particulate-matter-at-a-multi-influenced-urban-site-physicochemical-characterization-mutagenicity-and-cytotoxicity
#1
Yann Landkocz, Frédéric Ledoux, Véronique André, Fabrice Cazier, Paul Genevray, Dorothée Dewaele, Perrine J Martin, Capucine Lepers, Anthony Verdin, Lucie Courcot, Saâd Boushina, François Sichel, Maurizio Gualtieri, Pirouz Shirali, Dominique Courcot, Sylvain Billet
Particulate Matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major concerns for environment and health. Understanding the heterogeneity and complexity of fine and ultrafine PM is a fundamental issue notably for the assessment of PM toxicological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of a multi-influenced urban site PM, with or without the ultrafine fraction. For this purpose, PM2.5-0.3 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 μm) and PM2.5 were collected in Dunkerque, a French coastal industrial city and were extensively characterized for their physico-chemical properties, including inorganic and organic species...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913897/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-pro-oxidant-and-genotoxic-responses-following-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-the-antibiotic-oxytetracycline
#2
Sara Rodrigues, Sara C Antunes, Alberto T Correia, Bruno Nunes
Oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibacterial agent, is extensively used in aquaculture practices all over the world, but also in human and veterinary medicines. Because of its intensive use, low rates of absorption by treated animals, inadequate disposal, and low efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. This work aimed to assess the effects of this antibiotic in rainbow trout, following both acute and chronic exposures. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers, in gills and liver...
December 2, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913787/safety-assessment-of-polyquaternium-22-and-polyquarternium-39-as-used-in-cosmetics
#3
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Polyquaternium-22 and polyquaternium-39 are polymers that function as antistatic agents, film formers, and hair fixatives in cosmetic products. These ingredients are being used at concentrations up to 2% (polyquaternium-22, in a rinse-off product) and up to 3% (polyquaternium-39, in rinse-off and leave-on products). The unreacted monomer content of these ingredients was considered low and of no toxicological concern. Limited data showed no skin irritation/sensitization. Although these ingredients were nongenotoxic in bacterial assays, mammalian genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity data were not available...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913727/regulated-complex-assembly-safeguards-the-fidelity-of-sleeping-beauty-transposition
#4
Yongming Wang, Diana Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Enikö Éva Nagy, Christopher D Kaufman, Manvendra Singh, Steve Yant, Jichang Wang, Anna Dalda, Mark A Kay, Zoltán Ivics, Zsuzsanna Izsvák
The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912189/genotoxicity-assessment-of-pulp-and-paper-mill-effluent-before-and-after-bacterial-degradation-using-allium-cepa-test
#5
Izharul Haq, Sharad Kumar, Abhay Raj, Mohtashim Lohani, G N V Satyanarayana
A lignin peroxidases-producing Serratia liquefaciens was used for bioremediation of pulp and paper (P&P) mill effluent. The treatment led to reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, lignin and phenolic content by 84%, 72%, 61% and 95%, respectively. The effluent detoxification was studied by genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa L. (onion) root tip cells. Genotoxicity studies included measuring mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in root tip cells following treatment with 25, 50, 75 and 100% (v/v) of effluent...
November 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911488/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-an-emerging-morbidity-in-the-thalassemia-syndromes-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Hassan M Moukhadder, Racha Halawi, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Ali T Taher
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassemia is on the rise. The 2 well recognized HCC risk factors in thalassemia are iron overload and chronic viral infection with hepatitis C. The carcinogenicity of iron is related to its induction of oxidative damage, which results in genotoxicity, and to immunologic dysregulation, which attenuates cancer immune surveillance. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections lead to necroinflammation, which can prompt progression to HCC, but an independent role of hepatitis B virus in hepatic carcinogenesis among patients with thalassemia has not been demonstrated...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908629/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-mucus-permeation-capacity-of-several-surface-modified-poly-anhydride-nanoparticles-designed-for-oral-drug-delivery
#7
T Iglesias, A López de Cerain, Juan Manuel Irache, N Martín-Arbella, M Wilcox, J Pearson, A Azqueta
The main concerns with drugs designed for oral administration are their inactivation or degradation in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, their poor solubility through the gastrointestinal mucus gel layer, the poor intestinal epithelium permeability that limits their absorption, and their toxicity. In this context, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are capable of protecting the drug from the harsh environment, reduce the drug's toxicity and, by virtue of surface modification, to enhance or reduce their mucus permeability and the bioadhesion to specific target cells...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908614/a-critical-discussion-on-diet-genomic-mutations-and-repair-mechanisms-in-colon-carcinogenesis
#8
Juliana Yumi Sakita, Bianca Gasparotto, Sergio Britto Garcia, Sergio Akira Uyemura, Vinicius Kannen
Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies and its etiology closely tied to dietary habits. Recent epidemiological data shows that colon cancer incidence is shifting to a much younger population. In this regard, some dietary components from a regular human meal might have various DNA-damaging compounds. Given that not every person endure cancer, the colonic malignancy develops throughout decades, and persistent DNA damage promotes cancer when induced at the proper intensity, a critical discussion of possible novel mechanisms by which carcinogens promote these tumors is urgently needed...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908383/the-insecticide-spinosad-induces-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-hek293-and-hepg2-cells
#9
Mingjun Yang, Guanggang Xiang, Diqiu Li, Yang Zhang, Wenping Xu, Liming Tao
Spinosad, a pesticide acting on the central nervous system of insects, is classified as a pesticide with reduced risk. However, spinosad-induced toxicological effects on non-target organisms must not be ignored. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and potential genotoxicity of spinosad in HEK293 and HepG2 cell lines. The results showed that spinosad caused a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability of HEK293 and HepG2 cells. Spinosad-induced p53 accumulation thereby upregulates the expression of Bax and downregulates the expression of Bcl-2...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908382/water-soluble-and-organic-extracts-of-airborne-particulate-matter-induce-micronuclei-in-human-lung-epithelial-a549-cells
#10
Isabel C Palacio, Silvia B M Barros, Deborah A Roubicek
The in vitro genotoxic effects of organic and water-soluble fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM10) with the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) test in human alveolar carcinoma cells A549 were investigated. Samples were collected in three different sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, and fifteen soluble metals and the sixteen EPÁs priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were chemically determined. PAHs prevailing were fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene. In the water-soluble extracts, highest concentration of metals was found for zinc, iron, and copper in all places of collection...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907204/homologous-recombination-and-translesion-dna-synthesis-play-critical-roles-on-tolerating-dna-damage-caused-by-trace-levels-of-hexavalent-chromium
#11
Xu Tian, Keyur Patel, John R Ridpath, Youjun Chen, Yi-Hui Zhou, Dayna Neo, Jean Clement, Minoru Takata, Shunichi Takeda, Julian Sale, Fred A Wright, James A Swenberg, Jun Nakamura
Contamination of potentially carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in the drinking water is a major public health concern worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the biological effects of a nanomoler amount of Cr(VI). Here, we investigated the genotoxic effects of Cr(VI) at nanomoler levels and their repair pathways. We found that DNA damage response analyzed based on differential toxicity of isogenic cells deficient in various DNA repair proteins is observed after a three-day incubation with K2CrO4 in REV1-deficient DT40 cells at 19...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905024/potential-anti-genotoxic-effect-of-sodium-butyrate-to-modulate-induction-of-dna-damage-by-tamoxifen-citrate-in-rat-bone-marrow-cells
#12
Haidan M El-Shorbagy
Sodium butyrate (SB) is one of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) that is recently evidenced to have a prooxidant activity and an ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. Since the majority of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients are treated with tamoxifen citrate (TC), which exerts well established oxidative and genotoxic effects, thus the basic objective of this study is to determine whether SB could ameliorate or curate tamoxifen citrate-induced oxidative DNA damage and genotoxic effect in vivo through up-regulation of some antioxidant enzymes...
November 30, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904394/dose-dependent-protective-and-inductive-effects%C3%A2-of-xanthohumol-on-oxidative-dna-damage-in%C3%A2-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Daniel O Carvalho, Rui Oliveira, Björn Johansson, Luís F Guido
The effect of xanthohumol, a prenylflavonoid isolated from the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), on Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA oxidative damage and viability was evaluated. Yeast cultures under oxidative stress, induced by H2O2, displayed stronger growth in the presence of 5 mg/L of xanthohumol than cultures with only H2O2. Likewise, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay was significantly lower in cells co-incubated with xanthohumol and H2O2. Accordingly, fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein in cells treated with H2O2 and xanthohumol was considerably lower than in cells exclusively treated with H2O2, indicative of a reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism and consequent formation of oxidation products, as detected by mass spectrometry...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903633/an-e2-guided-e3-screen-identifies-the-rnf17-ube2u-pair-as-regulator-of-the-riddle-syndrome-protein-rnf168
#14
Yingying Guo, Liwei An, Hoi-Man Ng, Shirley M H Sy, Michael S Y Huen
Protein ubiquitination has emerged as pivotal regulatory reactions that promote cellular responses to DNA damage. With a goal to delineate the DNA damage signal transduction cascade, we systematically analysed the human E2 ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like conjugating enzymes for their ability to mobilise the DNA damage marker 53BP1 onto IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). RNAi-based screen identified UBE2U as a candidate regulator of chromatin responses at DSBs. Further mining of the UBE2U interactome uncovered its cognate E3 RNF17 as a novel factor that, via the Riddle syndrome protein RNF168, enforces DNA damage responses...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903423/cytotoxicity-of-trans-chalcone-and-licochalcone-a-against-breast-cancer-cells-is-due-to-apoptosis-induction-and-cell-cycle-arrest
#15
Luis Felipe Buso Bortolotto, Flávia Regina Barbosa, Gabriel Silva, Tamires Aparecida Bitencourt, Rene Oliveira Beleboni, Seung Joon Baek, Mozart Marins, Ana Lúcia Fachin
Chalcones are precursors of flavonoids that exhibit structural heterogeneity and potential antitumor activity. The objective of this study was to characterize the cytotoxicity of trans-chalcone and licochalcone A (LicoA(1)) against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and normal murine fibroblasts (3T3). Also the mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of these two compounds were studied. The alkaline comet assay revealed dose-dependent genotoxicity, which was more responsive against the tumor cell line, compared to the 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line...
November 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900878/synthesis-and-characterization-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-caesalpinia-pulcherrima-flower-extract-and-assessment-of-their-in-vitro-antimicrobial-antioxidant-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-activities
#16
Pooja Moteriya, Sumitra Chanda
Caesalpinia pulcherrima flower extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles was attempted in the present work including optimization of some procedure parameters. Characterization of synthesized silver nanoparticles was done by various spectral analyses. The size of synthesized silver nanoparticles was 12 nm and they were spherical in shape. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were further evaluated for antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activities; they showed good antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects...
November 30, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900567/clinical-potential-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-perspectives-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Dharmendra Kumar, Taruna Anand, Wilfried A Kues
The recent establishment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells promises the development of autologous cell therapies for degenerative diseases, without the ethical concerns associated with human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Initially, iPS cells were generated by retroviral transduction of somatic cells with core reprogramming genes. To avoid potential genotoxic effects associated with retroviral transfection, more recently, alternative non-viral gene transfer approaches were developed. Before a potential clinical application of iPS cell-derived therapies can be planned, it must be ensured that the reprogramming to pluripotency is not associated with genome mutagenesis or epigenetic aberrations...
November 29, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899918/mechanistic-basis-of-antimicrobial-actions-of-silver-nanoparticles
#18
REVIEW
Tikam Chand Dakal, Anu Kumar, Rita S Majumdar, Vinod Yadav
Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896817/lack-of-in-vivo-mutagenicity-of-1-2-dichloropropane-and-dichloromethane-in-the-livers-of-gpt-delta-rats-administered-singly-or-in-combination
#19
Tadashi Hirata, Young-Man Cho, Takeshi Toyoda, Jun-Ichi Akagi, Isamu Suzuki, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Kumiko Ogawa
1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and dichloromethane (DCM) are possible causative agents associated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma in employees working in printing plant in Osaka, Japan. However, few reports have demonstrated an association between these agents and cholangiocarcinoma in rodent carcinogenicity studies. Moreover, the combined effects of these compounds have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo mutagenicity of 1,2-DCP and DCM, alone or combined, in the livers of gpt delta rats...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895594/larval-exposure-to-chlorpyrifos-affects-nutritional-physiology-and-induces-genotoxicity-in-silkworm-philosamia-ricini-lepidoptera-saturniidae
#20
Moni K Kalita, Kishor Haloi, Dipali Devi
Chlorpyrifos is a most widely used organophosphate insecticide because of its cost effectiveness and degradable nature. However, this pesticide enters and contaminates the environment either by direct application, spray drifts or crop run off and shows adverse effect on the non-targeted organisms. Philosamia ricini (eri silkworm), one of the most exploited, domesticated and commercialized non mulberry silkworm is known for mass production of eri silk. The silkworm larvae get exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of food plants...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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