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American journal

Patrick Corrigan, Georg Schomerus, Valery Shuman, Dana Kraus, Debbie Perlick, Autumn Harnish, Magdalena Kulesza, Kathleen Kane-Willis, Sang Qin, David Smelson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although advocates and providers identify stigma as a major factor in confounding the recovery of people with SUDs, research on addiction stigma is lacking, especially when compared to the substantive literature examining the stigma of mental illness. METHODS: A review of key studies from the stigma literature that yielded empirically supported concepts and methods from the mental health arena was contrasted with the much smaller and mostly descriptive findings from the addiction field...
October 25, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Laura W Wesseldijk, Iryna O Fedko, Meike Bartels, Michel G Nivard, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Dorret I Boomsma, Christel M Middeldorp
The assessment of children's psychopathology is often based on parental report. Earlier studies have suggested that rater bias can affect the estimates of genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences on differences between children. The availability of a large dataset of maternal as well as paternal ratings of psychopathology in 7-year old children enabled (i) the analysis of informant effects on these assessments, and (ii) to obtain more reliable estimates of the genetic and non-genetic effects...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Paul R Harmatz, Eugen Mengel, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Nicole Muschol, Christian J Hendriksz, Barbara K Burton, Elisabeth Jameson, Kenneth I Berger, Andrea Jester, Marsha Treadwell, Zlatko Sisic, Celeste Decker
Efficacy and safety of elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) were assessed in an open-label, phase 2, multi-national study in Morquio A patients aged ≥5 years unable to walk ≥30 meters in the 6-min walk test. Patients received elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week intravenously for 48 weeks. Efficacy measures were functional dexterity, pinch/grip strength, mobility in a modified timed 25-foot walk, pain, quality of life, respiratory function, and urine keratan sulfate (KS). Safety/tolerability was also assessed...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Yuri A Zarate, Jennifer L Fish
The SATB2-associated syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability with absent or limited speech development, craniofacial abnormalities, behavioral problems, dysmorphic features, and palatal and dental abnormalities. Alterations of the SATB2 gene can result from a variety of different mechanisms that include contiguous deletions, intragenic deletions and duplications, translocations with secondary gene disruption, and point mutations. The multisystemic nature of this syndrome demands a multisystemic approach and we propose evaluation and management guidelines...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
(no author information available yet)
The following highlights summarize research articles that are published in the current issue of The American Journal of Pathology.
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Zainab Khan, Jordan Milko, Munir Iqbal, Moness Masri, David R P Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the power of unpaired t tests in prospective, randomized controlled trials when these tests failed to detect a statistically significant difference and to determine the frequency of type II errors. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We examined all prospective, randomized controlled trials published between 2010 and 2012 in 4 major ophthalmology journals (Archives of Ophthalmology, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology, and American Journal of Ophthalmology)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Lorie Gage Richards
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) had a successful 2016. From September 2015 to September 2016, the number of manuscripts submitted remained steady at 255. Manuscripts were received from 30 non-U.S. countries, compared with 23 countries in 2015. AJOT continues to have the highest impact factor and to be the highest ranked of the occupational therapy journals listed in Journal Citation Reports. AJOT continues to focus on publishing research articles on aspects of occupational therapy among varied populations with diverse acute and chronic conditions...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Andrew R Marley, Hongmei Nan
Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Kelvin I Afrashtehfar, Elham Emami, Motahareh Ahmadi, Samer Abi-Nader, Faleh Tamimi
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: No knowledge synthesis exists concerning when to use a direct restoration versus a complete-coverage indirect restoration in posterior vital teeth. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the failure rate of conventional single-unit tooth-supported restorations in posterior permanent vital teeth as a function of remaining tooth structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four databases were searched electronically, and 8 selected journals were searched manually up to February 2015...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Gregory A Schmidt, Timothy D Girard, John P Kress, Peter E Morris, Daniel R Ouellette, Waleed Alhazzani, Suzanne M Burns, Scott K Epstein, Andres Esteban, Eddy Fan, Miquel Ferrer, Gilles L Fraser, Michelle Gong, Catherine Hough, Sangeeta Mehta, Rahul Nanchal, Sheena Patel, Amy J Pawlik, Curtis N Sessler, Thomas Strøm, William Schweickert, Kevin C Wilson, Jonathon D Truwit
BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A multi-disciplinary panel posed six clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcomes (PICO) format. A comprehensive literature search and evidence synthesis was performed for each question, which included appraising the certainty in the evidence (i...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Michele Carron
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIV, compared with standard medical therapy, improves survival and reduces complications in selected patients with ARF. NIV represents the first-line intervention for some forms of ARF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The use of NIV is also well supported for immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for infectious complications from endotracheal intubation...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Timothy S Church
The analysis plan and article in this issue of the Journal by Evenson et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(000):0000-0000) is well-conceived, thoughtfully conducted, and tightly written. The authors utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set to examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity level and mortality and found that meeting the 2013 federal Physical Activity Guidelines resulted in a 35% reduction in risk of mortality. The timing of these findings could not be better, given the ubiquitous nature of personal accelerometer devices...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Diane VonBehren, Molly M Killion, Carol Burke, Betsy Finkelmeier, Brigit Zamora
Three teams of perinatal expert nurses participated in planning and designing a new maternity unit, operationalizing the move to the new space, and evaluating care processes and workflows after the move. The hospitals involved were University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital, Prentice Women's Hospital of Northwestern Memorial Healthcare in Chicago, IL, and Florida Hospital Orlando, Florida Hospital for Women. Although each team discussed specific details and lessons learned, there is remarkable consistency among the experiences of these teams and with the discussion of the process by the team at Mercy Hospital St...
November 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Robert B Shaw, Kylie D Mallory, Jane Arkell, Kathleen A Martin Ginis
BACKGROUND: The internet is an important information source for people with disabilities. Unfortunately, little is known about the quality of online leisure time physical activity resources provided for people with physical disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of leisure time physical activity resources available online for people with physical disabilities. METHODS: A purposive internet search was conducted to locate Canadian-developed resources that promoted leisure time physical activity for people with physical disabilities...
September 13, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Anna Paprocka-Lipińska
Significant recovery of discussion about the need for the formulation of criteria of death was provoked due to the progress of medicine. Development of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy, introduction of new resuscitation techniques and devices, which are increasingly better able to maintain and sometimes even replace functions of the respiratory or cardiovascular system, which are essential for the survival meant that existing for centuries, socially accepted classical criteria of death, based on cessation of breath and circulation, are no longer sufficient...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Meghan K Cain, Zhiyong Zhang, Ke-Hai Yuan
Nonnormality of univariate data has been extensively examined previously (Blanca et al., Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 9(2), 78-84, 2013; Miceeri, Psychological Bulletin, 105(1), 156, 1989). However, less is known of the potential nonnormality of multivariate data although multivariate analysis is commonly used in psychological and educational research. Using univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis as measures of nonnormality, this study examined 1,567 univariate distriubtions and 254 multivariate distributions collected from authors of articles published in Psychological Science and the American Education Research Journal...
October 17, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Christine C Johnson, Grant H Garcia, Joseph N Liu, Jeffrey G Stepan, Ronak M Patel, Joshua S Dines
BACKGROUND: The quality of medical information on the Internet has come under scrutiny. This study investigates the quality, accuracy, and readability of online information regarding ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries. METHODS: Three search terms ("elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury," "tommy john injury," and "pitcher's elbow") were entered into 3 Internet search engines. Three independent reviewers evaluated the content and accuracy of the information with a set of predetermined scoring criteria...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Bryan R Haugen
Thyroid nodules are very common, and thyroid cancer is currently the fifth leading cancer diagnosis in women. The American Thyroid Association has led the development and revision of guidelines for the management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The most current revision was published in the January 2016 issue of the journal Thyroid. The current guidelines have 101 recommendations, with 8 figures and 17 tables that are hopefully helpful to those treating patients with thyroid nodules and cancer...
October 14, 2016: Cancer
Curtis H Weiss, Jerry A Krishnan, David H Au, Bruce G Bender, Shannon S Carson, Adithya Cattamanchi, Michelle M Cloutier, Colin R Cooke, Karen Erickson, Maureen George, Joe K Gerald, Lynn B Gerald, Christopher H Goss, Michael K Gould, Robert Hyzy, Jeremy M Kahn, Brian S Mittman, Erika M Mosesón, Richard A Mularski, Sairam Parthasarathy, Sanjay R Patel, Cynthia S Rand, Nancy S Redeker, Theodore F Reiss, Kristin A Riekert, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Judith A Tate, Kevin C Wilson, Carey C Thomson
BACKGROUND: Many advances in health care fail to reach patients. Implementation science is the study of novel approaches to mitigate this evidence-to-practice gap. METHODS: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) created a multidisciplinary ad hoc committee to develop a research statement on implementation science in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. The committee used an iterative consensus process to define implementation science and review the use of conceptual frameworks to guide implementation science for the pulmonary, critical care, and sleep community and to explore how professional medical societies such as the ATS can promote implementation science...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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