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Nan Wang, Majid Kabiri Samani, Hu Li, Lan Dong, Zhongwei Zhang, Peng Su, Shujing Chen, Jie Chen, Shirong Huang, Guangjie Yuan, Xiangfan Xu, Baowen Li, Klaus Leifer, Lilei Ye, Johan Liu
Due to substantial phonon scattering induced by various structural defects, the in-plane thermal conductivity (K) of graphene films (GFs) is still inferior to the commercial pyrolytic graphite sheet (PGS). Here, the problem is solved by engineering the structures of GFs in the aspects of grain size, film alignment, and thickness, and interlayer binding energy. The maximum K of GFs reaches to 3200 W m-1 K-1 and outperforms PGS by 60%. The superior K of GFs is strongly related to its large and intact grains, which are over four times larger than the best PGS...
June 21, 2018: Small
Belinda Sheary
BACKGROUND: Concerns about topical steroid withdrawal (TSW) are leading some patients to cease long-term topical corticosteroid (TCS) therapy. Diagnostic criteria for this condition do not exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the demographics and outcomes in adult patients who believe they are experiencing TSW following discontinuation of chronic TCS overuse. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients in an Australian general practice presenting with this clinical scenario between January 2015 and February 2018...
June 19, 2018: Dermatitis
Sen Lin, Yi Min Xie, Qing Li, Xiaodong Huang, Zhe Zhang, Guowei Ma, Shiwei Zhou
Being one of the commonest deformation modes for soft matters, shell buckling is the primary reason for the growth and nastic movement of many plants, as well as the formation of complex natural morphology. On-demand regulation of buckling-induced deformation associated with wrinkling, ruffling, folding, creasing and delaminating has profound implications for diverse scopes, which can be seen in its broad applications in microfabrication, 4D printing, actuator and drug delivery. This paper reviews the recent remarkable developments in the shell buckling of soft matters to explain the most representative natural morphogenesis from the perspectives of theoretical analysis in continuum mechanics, finite element analysis, and experimental validations...
June 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Jérémie Aubineau, Abderrazak El Albani, Ernest Chi Fru, Murray Gingras, Yann Batonneau, Luis A Buatois, Claude Geffroy, Jérôme Labanowski, Claude Laforest, Laurent Lemée, Maria G Mángano, Alain Meunier, Anne-Catherine Pierson-Wickmann, Philippe Recourt, Armelle Riboulleau, Alain Trentesaux, Kurt O Konhauser
The 2.1-billion-year-old (Ga) Francevillian series in Gabon hosts some of the oldest reported macroscopic fossils of various sizes and shapes, stimulating new debates on the origin, evolution and organization of early complex life. Here, we document ten representative types of exceptionally well-preserved mat-related structures, comprising "elephant-skin" textures, putative macro-tufted microbial mats, domal buildups, flat pyritized structures, discoidal microbial colonies, horizontal mat growth patterns, wrinkle structures, "kinneyia" structures, linear patterns and nodule-like structures...
June 20, 2018: Geobiology
Jina Kim, Sujin Kang, HanJin Kwon, HoSang Moon, Min Chul Park
BACKGROUND: Human skin aging is caused by several factors, such as UV irradiation, stress, hormone, and pollution. Wrinkle formation and skin pigmentation are representative features of skin aging. Although EGF and arbutin are used as anti-wrinkle and skin whitening agents, respectively, they have adverse effects on skin. When more cosmeceutical ingredients are added to cosmetic product, adverse effects are also accumulated. For these reasons, multifunctional and safe cosmetic ingredients are in demand...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Estha J Schmidlin, Maryna Steyn, Tobias M R Houlton, Nanette Briers
Knowledge of facial ageing is important in forensic facial approximation and photo identification. Previous studies mostly investigated facial ageing in European faces, and this research therefore aims to provide data on patterns of facial ageing in an African sample. One hundred eighty-nine black South African males aged 20 years and older were photographed in anterior and lateral views. Facial images were captured in a consistent position by using a Canon EOS 1300D camera and 18- to 55-mm EFS lens. Thirty individuals per decade were included, with the 80+ age category being limited to only nine participants...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
P Rofouie, Z Wang, A D Rey
We present a model to investigate the formation of two-length scale surface patterns in biological and synthetic anisotropic soft matter materials through the high order interaction of anisotropic interfacial tension and capillarity at their free surfaces. The unique pattern-formation mechanism emerging from the presented model is based on the interaction between lower and higher order anchoring modes. Analytical and numerical solutions are used to shed light on why and how simple anisotropic anchoring generates two-lengthscale wrinkles whose amplitudes are given in terms of anchoring coefficients...
June 18, 2018: Soft Matter
Michele Pascali, Davide Quarato, Francesco Carinci
The ideal perioral and lip rejuvenation technique provides the longest period of efficacy, lowest complication rate, and best aesthetic results. Genetics, intrinsic aging, sun exposure and repetitive muscle twitching of the orbicularis oris produce angular, radial, and vertical lines of the perioral lines and, for this reason, the needs of patients in the treatment of this anatomical area can range from simple lip enhancement to a broader and more comprehensive treatment with simultaneous correction of perioral wrinkles...
June 18, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Haosen H A Xu, X I A Yang
Fluid motions in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence are fractal, with their space-filling capacity slightly below regular three-dimensional objects, which is a consequence of the energy cascade. Besides the energy cascade, the other often encountered cascading process is the momentum cascade in wall-bounded flows. Despite the long-existing analogy between the two processes, many of the thoroughly investigated aspects of the energy cascade have so far received little attention in studies of the momentum counterpart, e...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Seon Joon Kim, Ohmin Kwon, Dae Woo Kim, Jihan Kim, Hee-Tae Jung
Controlling wrinkle nanostructures of two-dimensional materials is critical for optimizing the material properties and device performance. In this study, we demonstrated the in situ synthesis of large-area MoS2 wrinkles on graphene by chemical-vapor-deposition-assisted sulfurization, and investigated the influence of graphene thickness and grain structures on the feature dimensions of MoS2 wrinkle nanostructures. The height, width, and overall surface roughness of the MoS2 wrinkles diminish as the number of graphene layers increases, which was further verified by determining the binding energy of graphene layers by density functional theory calculations...
June 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Judith Wendt, Christoph Mueller, Sabine Rauscher, Ingrid Fae, Gottfried Fischer, Ichiro Okamoto
Importance: Recently, the red hair variants of MC1R were found to contribute differently to pigmentation phenotype in males and females. Objective: To investigate the role of these variants in melanoma risk in males and females separately because carriers of the red hair variants of MC1R are at increased risk of melanoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this hospital-based, case-control study, we evaluated the effect of MC1R and melanoma risk for males and females separately by performing multivariate logistic regression analyses...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Z Paul Lorenc, Lawrence M Bass, Rebecca Fitzgerald, David J Goldberg, Miles H Graivier
Paradigms in the treatment of aging have evolved to address volume loss as a central and primary hallmark of the aging face. The concept of "composite volumization" was recently proposed by Dr. Z. Paul Lorenc to describe the effect of Radiesse (Merz Aesthetics, Inc., Raleigh, NC), when placed on bone in the supraperiosteal plane, on all overlying tissues (skin, superficial and deep fat compartments, and muscle). The physiochemical properties of Radiesse make it especially well suited for efficient and effective volumization of areas especially prone to volume loss; the temple, zygomatic arch, anterior cheek, pyriform aperture, and prejowl sulcus...
April 6, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Hee Jin Jung, A Kyoung Lee, Yeo Jin Park, Sanggwon Lee, Dongwan Kang, Young Suk Jung, Hae Young Chung, Hyung Ryong Moon
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the primary cause of extrinsic skin aging, which results in skin hyperpigmentation and wrinkling. In this study, we investigated the whitening effect of (2 E ,5 E )-2,5-bis(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone (BHCP) on B16F10 melanoma and its anti-wrinkle activity on Hs27 fibroblasts cells. BHCP was found to potently inhibit tyrosinase, with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) values of 1.10 µM and 8.18 µM for monophenolase (l-tyrosine) and diphenolase (l-DOPA), and the enzyme kinetics study revealed that BHCP is a competitive-type tyrosinase inhibitor...
June 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiao Wang, Chaolong Li, Yao Chi, Mingxing Piao, Jin Chu, Heng Zhang, Zhenghao Li, Wei Wei
Graphene nanowalls (GNWs) with different sizes (i.e., length and height) were grown directly on the surface of individual carbon fibers (CFs) using a radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique. The size was controlled by varying the deposition time. The GNW-modified CFs were embedded into epoxy resin matrix to prepare a series of carbon-fiber-reinforced composites (CFRCs). The results indicated that GNWs were remarkably effective in improving the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the carbon-fiber-reinforced composites...
June 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jinsung Kwak, Se-Yang Kim, Yongsu Jo, Na Yeon Kim, Sung Youb Kim, Zonghoon Lee, Soon-Yong Kwon
Graphene has recently attracted particular interest as a flexible barrier film preventing permeation of gases and moistures. However, it has been proved to be exceptionally challenging to develop large-scale graphene films with little oxygen and moisture permeation suitable for industrial uses, mainly due to the presence of nanometer-sized defects of obscure origins. Here, the origins of water permeable routes on graphene-coated Cu foils are investigated by observing the micrometer-sized rusts in the underlying Cu substrates, and a site-selective passivation method of the nanometer-sized routes is devised...
June 11, 2018: Advanced Materials
Oliver Genschow, Lara Bardi, Marcel Brass
Past research on action observation and imitation suggests that observing a movement activates a corresponding motor representation in the observer. However, recent research suggests that individuals may not only reflexively simulate the observed behavior but also simulate and engage in anticipated action without another person actually engaging in it. For example, it has been demonstrated that observing a triggering event (i.e., nose wrinkling) that potentially leads to the anticipation of an action (i.e., nose scratching) increases the likelihood that the observer will perform that action...
May 25, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Seunggyun In, Henry Park, Heejin Song, Jiho Park, Heesu Kim, Sung Bin Cho
BACKGROUND: Broadband light (BBL) devices irradiate photons of different wavelength to induce photothermal reactions on various aging-related chromophores. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate three BBL treatment settings for skin tightening in Asian patients. METHODS: A total of 27 patients underwent three sessions of BBL treatment via (1) an 800-nm cutoff filter using a static operation technique and a 695-nm cutoff filter using a constant motion technique (group 1, N = 9), (2) an 800-nm cutoff filter using a constant motion technique (group 2, N = 9), and (3) a 590-nm cutoff filter using a constant motion technique (group 3, N = 9)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Michael H Gold
INTRODUCTION: The potential of a dual wavelength picosecond laser, as a new modality for treating photoaged skin, was investigated in this clinical study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subjects with bilateral mild-to-moderate facial wrinkling received four picosecond laser treatments, at 3-8 weeks apart, with a double-pass of both 532-nm and 1064-nm split-beam handpieces. Blinded evaluation of clinical photography, by two independent physicians, using the Fitzpatrick Elastosis Scale, was performed at 12 weeks after the fourth treatment...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Yifan Yang, Hui-Hui Dai, Fan Xu, Michel Potier-Ferry
Instability patterns of rolling up a sleeve appear more intricate than the ones of walking over a rug on floor, both characterized as systems of uniaxially compressed soft film on stiff substrate. This can be explained by curvature effects. To investigate pattern transitions on a curved surface, we study a soft shell sliding on a rigid cylinder by experiments, computations and theoretical analyses. We reveal a novel postbuckling phenomenon involving multiple successive bifurcations: smooth-wrinkle-ridge-sagging transitions...
May 25, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Maria Caterina Giordano, Francesco Buatier de Mongeot
Pattern formation induced by wrinkling is a very common phenomenon exhibited in soft-matter substrates. In all these systems, wrinkles develop in the presence of compressively stressed thin films lying on compliant substrates. Here, the controlled growth of self-organized nanopatterns exploiting a wrinkling instability on a solid-state substrate is demonstrated. Soda-lime glasses are modified in the surface layers by a defocused ion beam, which triggers the formation of a compressively stressed surface layer deprived of alkali ions...
June 7, 2018: Advanced Materials
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