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distorted thinking

Elizabeth F Loftus
For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
Ladislav Valach, Konrad Michel, Richard A Young
It has been suggested that suicidal persons engage in distorted thinking. We propose that suicide can be understood as a distorted goal-directed action. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the specific distortions in the goal-directed processes of suicide as indicated in suicide narratives of 40 persons after a suicide attempt. The findings indicate action distortions such as the disconnect between the wish to die, the action of killing oneself, and the experience of being killed. Furthermore, we found a lack of long-term nonsuicidal pursuits, missing or incomplete action monitoring, and control and regulation processes...
November 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Golan Shahar
An integrative-psychodynamic theory of criticism in self and relationships is presented (Shahar, 2015). My theoretical starting point is the tension between Authenticity (A; our inherited potential, tantamount to Winnicott's True Self) and Self-Knowledge (SK; what we [think] we know about ourselves). Self-criticism, a formidable dimension of vulnerability to a wide array of psychopathologies, is construed as a distorted form of self-knowledge, reducing internal confusion at the expense of widening the gap between A and SK...
December 0: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Teena D Moody, Vivian W Shen, Nathan L Hutcheson, Jennifer R Henretty, Courtney L Sheen, Michael Strober, Jamie D Feusner
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) exhibit distorted perception and negative evaluations of their own appearance; however, little is known about how they perceive others' appearance, and whether or not the conditions share perceptual distortions. METHOD: Thirty participants with BDD, 22 with AN, now weight-restored, and 39 healthy comparison participants (HC) rated photographs of others' faces and bodies on attractiveness, how overweight or underweight they were, and how much photographs triggered thoughts of their own appearance...
February 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Katerina Rnic, David J A Dozois, Rod A Martin
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms...
August 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
Aitor Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Almudena López-López, Jose Luis González Gutiérrez, Daniel Pecos-Martín, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, Isabel María Alguacil-Diego, Tomás Gallego-Izquierdo, Josue Fernández-Carnero
BACKGROUND: Myofascial trigger point dry needling is frequently associated with postneedling soreness, which can generate patient dissatisfaction and reduced treatment adherence. Psychological factors may influence the perception of postneedling soreness and the effectiveness of postneedling soreness treatments. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present study were (a) to determine whether catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, pain anxiety and fear of pain are significant predictors of postneedling soreness over time and (b) to analyze if the relationships between psychological variables and postneedling soreness vary as a function of the postneedling soreness intervention, which included ischemic compression, placebo or control (without treatment)...
August 1, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Abel Lerma, Héctor Perez-Grovas, Luis Bermudez, María L Peralta-Pedrero, Rebeca Robles-García, Claudia Lerma
OBJECTIVES: Psychological treatment of depression in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has focused on severely depressed patients. We designed and tested a brief (5 weeks) cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) to reduce mild and moderate depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with ESRD. DESIGN: For the purpose of this study, a single-blind, randomized controlled design was used to compare patients with ESRD under haemodialysis treatment with and without the CBI...
July 20, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
M Steffens, B Becker, C Neumann, A M Kasparbauer, I Meyhöfer, B Weber, M A Mehta, R Hurlemann, U Ettinger
The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has been proposed to model symptoms of psychosis. Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are an established biomarker of schizophrenia. SPEM performance has been shown to be impaired in the schizophrenia spectrum and during ketamine administration in healthy volunteers. However, the neural mechanisms mediating SPEM impairments during ketamine administration are unknown. In a counter-balanced, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, 27 healthy participants received intravenous racemic ketamine (100 ng/mL target plasma concentration) on one of two assessment days and placebo (intravenous saline) on the other...
June 25, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Emily Blake, Keith S Dobson, Amanda R Sheptycki, Martin Drapeau
Cognitive errors (CEs) are evidenced to be related to depressive thinking in major depressive disorder (Beck Et Al., 1979; Dozois & Beck, 2008). Studies using self-report questionnaires demonstrate that CEs are more prevalent in individuals with depression than in non-depressed individuals (Gupta & Kar, 2008) and that CEs are related to depression severity (Miranda & Mennin, 2007). The study discussed in this paper aimed to describe CEs in depressed patients and examined the relationship between CEs and severity of depression...
2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
Claudio Cobelli, Michele Schiavon, Chiara Dalla Man, Ananda Basu, Rita Basu
BACKGROUND: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be "delayed" with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. METHODS: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way...
August 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Beatrice A Popescu
This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas...
August 2015: Europe's journal of psychology
A K M Rezaul Karim, Taslima Begum
There is growing importance of the How I Think (HIT) questionnaire in clinical practice and cognitive research. Since the development of the HIT (Barriga and Gibbs, Aggress. Behav., 1996; 22: 333-343), a number of validation studies have been done in various cultures. The aim of the present study was to translate the instrument into Bangla and validate in Bangladeshi culture. A total of 200 adolescents participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the data from 191 participants (88 girls and 103 boys; who provided complete responses) identified a four-factor structure of the HIT with 27 items...
June 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Maria M Portuondo
This essay explores the history of several archives that house the early modern records of Spanish imperial science. The modern "archival turn" urges us to think critically about archives and to recognize in the history of these collections an embedded, often implicit, history that--unless properly recognized, acknowledged, and understood--can distort the histories we are trying to tell. This essay uses a curious episode in the history of science to illustrate how Spanish archives relate to each other and shape the collections they house...
March 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
Rom Y Schrift, Ran Kivetz, Oded Netzer
The notion that effort and hard work yield desired outcomes is ingrained in many cultures and affects our thinking and behavior. However, could valuing effort complicate our lives? In the present article, the authors demonstrate that individuals with a stronger tendency to link effort with positive outcomes end up complicating what should be easy decisions. People distort their preferences and the information they search and recall in a manner that intensifies the choice conflict and decisional effort they experience before finalizing their choice...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Manish Kumar, Vinod Kumar Sinha, Anwesha Mondal
BACKGROUND: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003). Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
James D Livingston
Outcomes research in forensic mental health (FMH) has concentrated on reoffending as the principal indicator of success. Defining success in one-dimensional, negative terms can create a distorted view of the diverse objectives of the FMH system. This qualitative study examined the complexity of success from the perspectives of people in the FMH system. Interviews were conducted with 18 forensic service users and 10 forensic service providers. Data were analyzed inductively using thematic analysis to identify predominant themes...
March 21, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Beth Gerhard-Burnham, Lee A Underwood, Kathryn Speck, Cyrus Williams, Carrie Merino, Yolanda Crump
Treatment for adolescents with sexually maladaptive behaviors is a continuing intervention that is changing and developing as greater understanding about this population of adolescents is obtained. The majority of treatment programs for adolescent sexually maladaptive behavior contain programming components that include cognitive distortions/thinking errors. Interviews including a conceptual mapping exercise were conducted with four adolescents adjudicated to a secure care program for sexual behaviors. All four boys completed an interview and a conceptual map of their perceived experiences as an adolescent with sexual maladaptive behaviors...
2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Gindo Tampubolon
BACKGROUND: Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite) before study completion...
2015: PloS One
Michèle D Birtel, Richard J Crisp
We propose that key concepts from clinical psychotherapy can inform science-based initiatives aimed at building tolerance and community cohesion. Commonalities in social and clinical psychology are identified regarding (1) distorted thinking (intergroup bias and cognitive bias), (2) stress and coping (at intergroup level and intrapersonal level), and (3) anxiety (intergroup anxiety and pathological anxiety). On this basis we introduce a new cognitive-behavioral model of social change. Mental imagery is the conceptual point of synthesis, and anxiety is at the core, through which new treatment-based approaches to reducing prejudice can be developed...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephen J Gray, David A Gallo
Belief in paranormal psychic phenomena is widespread in the United States, with over a third of the population believing in extrasensory perception (ESP). Why do some people believe, while others are skeptical? According to the cognitive differences hypothesis, individual differences in the way people process information about the world can contribute to the creation of psychic beliefs, such as differences in memory accuracy (e.g., selectively remembering a fortune teller's correct predictions) or analytical thinking (e...
February 2016: Memory & Cognition
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