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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468026/psychiatry-and-religion-opponents-or-collaborators-the-power-of-spirituality-in-contemporary-psychiatry
#1
Miro Jakovljević
Religion and psychiatry have had complicated, sometimes neutral or friendly and cooperative, sometimes competitive and antagonistic relations over their long histories. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. Psychiatry has often ignored spiritual and religious dimension in health and illness while religions influenced the treatment of mental disorders directly by defining mental disorders as evil spirit possessions and prescribing exorcism as treatment...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429899/neurotransmitter-systems-neuroanatomical-pathology-and-cell-death-in-schizophrenia-update-and-perspectives
#2
Hazael Avila-Rojas, Hugo Sandoval-Zamora, Iván Pérez-Neri
Schizophrenia is a thought disorder characterized by delusional thinking which may be accompanied by hallucinations involving any sensory modality. Schizophrenia may be associated with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Also, it may be induced by drugs. In spite of the similarity in psychoses symptomatology, it is unknown if it involves the same underlying neurobiologic mechanisms in those cases. Schizophrenic patients exhibit not only neuroanatomical alterations, but also, distortion of several neurotransmitter systems...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395940/abstract-and-experiential-thinking-differentially-account-for-anomalous-perception-of-reality-in-people-with-or-without-schizophrenia
#3
J J Ricarte, F Del Rey, L Ros, J M Latorre, F Berna
repetitive thinking is often increased in various psychopathological conditions. However, evidence for its possible contribution to psychotic symptoms relies only on correlational analysis and has not been experimentally tested within the psychotic continuum. This research aims to examine whether repetitive thinking about a negative past experience using concrete versus abstract processing might modify the reporting of anomalous sensory experiences. 89 patients with schizophrenia and 89 matched controls were asked to reflect on their most negative Self-Defining Memory during a thirty-minute period...
April 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273519/long-live-the-king-beginnings-loom-larger-than-endings-of-past-and-recurrent-events
#4
Karl Halvor Teigen, Gisela Böhm, Susanne Bruckmüller, Peter Hegarty, Olivier Luminet
Events are temporal "figures", which can be defined as identifiable segments in time, bounded by beginnings and endings. But the functions and importance of these two boundaries differ. We argue that beginnings loom larger than endings by attracting more attention, being judged as more important and interesting, warranting more explanation, and having more causal power. This difference follows from a lay notion that additions (the introduction of something new) imply more change and demand more effort than do subtractions (returning to a previous state of affairs)...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253090/differential-patterns-in-mind-perception-in-subclinical-paranoia-relationships-to-self-reported-empathy
#5
Benjamin Buck, Neil Hester, David L Penn, Kurt Gray
INTRODUCTION: Although social cognition skills and biases are well-studied in paranoia, "mind perception" - perceiving the extent to which someone even possesses a thinking, feeling mind - is not. We sought to better characterise the profile of mind perception for individuals with paranoia. METHODS: We examined links between mind perception and paranoia in a large (n = 890) subclinical sample. Participants completed measures of paranoia, schizotypy, mind perception, and dispositional empathy...
March 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237834/looking-the-past-in-the-eye-distortion-in-memory-and-the-costs-and-benefits-of-recalling-from-an-observer-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Christopher Jude McCarroll
Jordi Fernández (2015) discusses the possible benefits of two types of allegedly distorted memories: observer memories and fabricated memories. Fernández argues that even when memory does not preserve the past, some memories can still provide an adaptive benefit for the subject. I explore Fernández's claims focussing on the case of observer perspective memories. For Fernández, observer perspectives are distorted memories because they do not preserve past experience. In contrast, I suggest that observer perspectives can accurately reflect past experience: observer perspectives are not necessarily distorted memories...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051936/eavesdropping-on-memory
#7
Elizabeth F Loftus
For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802251/suicide-as-a-distorted-goal-directed-process-wanting-to-die-killing-and-being-killed
#8
Ladislav Valach, Konrad Michel, Richard A Young
It has been suggested that suicidal persons engage in distorted thinking. We propose that suicide can be understood as a distorted goal-directed action. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the specific distortions in the goal-directed processes of suicide as indicated in suicide narratives of 40 persons after a suicide attempt. The findings indicate action distortions such as the disconnect between the wish to die, the action of killing oneself, and the experience of being killed. Furthermore, we found a lack of long-term nonsuicidal pursuits, missing or incomplete action monitoring, and control and regulation processes...
November 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603804/criticism-in-the-self-brain-relationships-and-social-structure-implications-for-psychodynamic-psychiatry
#9
Golan Shahar
An integrative-psychodynamic theory of criticism in self and relationships is presented (Shahar, 2015). My theoretical starting point is the tension between Authenticity (A; our inherited potential, tantamount to Winnicott's True Self) and Self-Knowledge (SK; what we [think] we know about ourselves). Self-criticism, a formidable dimension of vulnerability to a wide array of psychopathologies, is construed as a distorted form of self-knowledge, reducing internal confusion at the expense of widening the gap between A and SK...
December 0: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566987/appearance-evaluation-of-others-faces-and-bodies-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#10
Teena D Moody, Vivian W Shen, Nathan L Hutcheson, Jennifer R Henretty, Courtney L Sheen, Michael Strober, Jamie D Feusner
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) exhibit distorted perception and negative evaluations of their own appearance; however, little is known about how they perceive others' appearance, and whether or not the conditions share perceptual distortions. METHOD: Thirty participants with BDD, 22 with AN, now weight-restored, and 39 healthy comparison participants (HC) rated photographs of others' faces and bodies on attractiveness, how overweight or underweight they were, and how much photographs triggered thoughts of their own appearance...
February 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547253/cognitive-distortions-humor-styles-and-depression
#11
Katerina Rnic, David J A Dozois, Rod A Martin
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms...
August 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492276/the-role-of-psychological-factors-in-the-perception-of-postneedling-soreness-and-the-influence-of-postneedling-intervention
#12
Aitor Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Almudena López-López, Jose Luis González Gutiérrez, Daniel Pecos-Martín, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, Isabel María Alguacil-Diego, Tomás Gallego-Izquierdo, Josue Fernández-Carnero
BACKGROUND: Myofascial trigger point dry needling is frequently associated with postneedling soreness, which can generate patient dissatisfaction and reduced treatment adherence. Psychological factors may influence the perception of postneedling soreness and the effectiveness of postneedling soreness treatments. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present study were to determine whether catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, pain anxiety, and fear of pain are significant predictors of postneedling soreness over time; and to analyze whether the relationships between psychological variables and postneedling soreness vary as a function of the postneedling soreness intervention, which included ischemic compression, placebo or control (without treatment)...
April 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435635/brief-cognitive-behavioural-intervention-for-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-improves-quality-of-life-in-chronic-haemodialysis-patients
#13
Abel Lerma, Héctor Perez-Grovas, Luis Bermudez, María L Peralta-Pedrero, Rebeca Robles-García, Claudia Lerma
OBJECTIVES: Psychological treatment of depression in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has focused on severely depressed patients. We designed and tested a brief (5 weeks) cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) to reduce mild and moderate depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with ESRD. DESIGN: For the purpose of this study, a single-blind, randomized controlled design was used to compare patients with ESRD under haemodialysis treatment with and without the CBI...
March 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342447/effects-of-ketamine-on-brain-function-during-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements
#14
M Steffens, B Becker, C Neumann, A M Kasparbauer, I Meyhöfer, B Weber, M A Mehta, R Hurlemann, U Ettinger
The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has been proposed to model symptoms of psychosis. Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are an established biomarker of schizophrenia. SPEM performance has been shown to be impaired in the schizophrenia spectrum and during ketamine administration in healthy volunteers. However, the neural mechanisms mediating SPEM impairments during ketamine administration are unknown. In a counter-balanced, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, 27 healthy participants received intravenous racemic ketamine (100 ng/mL target plasma concentration) on one of two assessment days and placebo (intravenous saline) on the other...
June 25, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329407/the-relationship-between-depression-severity-and-cognitive-errors
#15
Emily Blake, Keith S Dobson, Amanda R Sheptycki, Martin Drapeau
Cognitive errors (CEs) are evidenced to be related to depressive thinking in major depressive disorder (Beck Et Al., 1979; Dozois & Beck, 2008). Studies using self-report questionnaires demonstrate that CEs are more prevalent in individuals with depression than in non-depressed individuals (Gupta & Kar, 2008) and that CEs are related to depression severity (Miranda & Mennin, 2007). The study discussed in this paper aimed to describe CEs in depressed patients and examined the relationship between CEs and severity of depression...
2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253751/interstitial-fluid-glucose-is-not-just-a-shifted-in-time-but-a-distorted-mirror-of-blood-glucose-insight-from-an-in-silico-study
#16
Claudio Cobelli, Michele Schiavon, Chiara Dalla Man, Ananda Basu, Rita Basu
BACKGROUND: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be "delayed" with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. METHODS: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way...
August 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247674/moral-dilemmas-and-existential-issues-encountered-both-in-psychotherapy-and-philosophical-counseling-practices
#17
Beatrice A Popescu
This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas...
August 2015: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208447/the-how-i-think-questionnaire-assessing-its-psychometric-properties-in-bangladeshi-culture
#18
A K M Rezaul Karim, Taslima Begum
There is growing importance of the How I Think (HIT) questionnaire in clinical practice and cognitive research. Since the development of the HIT (Barriga and Gibbs, Aggress. Behav., 1996; 22: 333-343), a number of validation studies have been done in various cultures. The aim of the present study was to translate the instrument into Bangla and validate in Bangladeshi culture. A total of 200 adolescents participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the data from 191 participants (88 girls and 103 boys; who provided complete responses) identified a four-factor structure of the HIT with 27 items...
June 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197415/finding-science-in-the-archives-of-the-spanish-monarchy
#19
Maria M Portuondo
This essay explores the history of several archives that house the early modern records of Spanish imperial science. The modern "archival turn" urges us to think critically about archives and to recognize in the history of these collections an embedded, often implicit, history that--unless properly recognized, acknowledged, and understood--can distort the histories we are trying to tell. This essay uses a curious episode in the history of science to illustrate how Spanish archives relate to each other and shape the collections they house...
March 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123577/complicating-decisions-the-work-ethic-heuristic-and-the-construction-of-effortful-decisions
#20
Rom Y Schrift, Ran Kivetz, Oded Netzer
The notion that effort and hard work yield desired outcomes is ingrained in many cultures and affects our thinking and behavior. However, could valuing effort complicate our lives? In the present article, the authors demonstrate that individuals with a stronger tendency to link effort with positive outcomes end up complicating what should be easy decisions. People distort their preferences and the information they search and recall in a manner that intensifies the choice conflict and decisional effort they experience before finalizing their choice...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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