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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923963/mistiming-of-thought-and-perception-predicts-delusionality
#1
Adam Bear, Rebecca G Fortgang, Michael V Bronstein, Tyrone D Cannon
The timing of thoughts and perceptions plays an essential role in belief formation. Just as people can experience in-the-moment perceptual illusions, however, they can also be deceived about how events unfold in time. Here, we consider how a particular type of temporal distortion, in which the apparent future influences "earlier" events in conscious awareness, might affect people's most fundamental beliefs about themselves and the world. Making use of a task that has been shown to elicit such reversals in the temporal experience of prediction and observation, we find that people who are more prone to think that they predicted an event that they actually already observed are also more likely to report holding delusion-like beliefs...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918714/is-there-a-dark-side-to-mindfulness-relation-of-mindfulness-to-criminogenic-cognitions
#2
June P Tangney, Ashley E Dobbins, Jeffrey B Stuewig, Shannon W Schrader
In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions have been modified for use with inmate populations, but how this might relate to specific criminogenic cognitions has not been examined empirically. Theoretically, characteristics of mindfulness should be incompatible with distorted patterns of criminal thinking, but is this in fact the case? Among both 259 male jail inmates and 516 undergraduates, mindfulness was inversely related to the Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) through a latent variable of emotion regulation...
October 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747933/i-think-i-m-going-to-be-sick-an-eight-year-old-boy-with-emetophobia-and-secondary-food-restriction
#3
Sarabpreet Dosanjh, William Fleisher, Diana Sam
We present a case of an eight-year-old boy with a specific phobia of vomiting who developed subsequent food restriction and weight loss. Our case report includes a review of treatment modalities for specific phobias including cognitive behavioural and exposure therapy in young children and the importance of parental involvement in the treatment process. After an initial assessment and diagnosis of this boy with emetophobia, treatment took place over ten subsequent visits, one hour each in duration. His treatment included a cognitive approach utilizing exposure therapy to re-introduce foods to his diet, working through a fear hierarchy, addressing cognitive distortions/misconceptions and psychoeducational supports...
July 2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698825/the-earth-is-flat-p%C3%A2-%C3%A2-0-05-significance-thresholds-and-the-crisis-of-unreplicable-research
#4
Valentin Amrhein, Fränzi Korner-Nievergelt, Tobias Roth
The widespread use of 'statistical significance' as a license for making a claim of a scientific finding leads to considerable distortion of the scientific process (according to the American Statistical Association). We review why degrading p-values into 'significant' and 'nonsignificant' contributes to making studies irreproducible, or to making them seem irreproducible. A major problem is that we tend to take small p-values at face value, but mistrust results with larger p-values. In either case, p-values tell little about reliability of research, because they are hardly replicable even if an alternative hypothesis is true...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690608/phylogenetic-tracings-of-proteome-size-support-the-gradual-accretion-of-protein-structural-domains-and-the-early-origin-of-viruses-from-primordial-cells
#5
Arshan Nasir, Kyung Mo Kim, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
Untangling the origin and evolution of viruses remains a challenging proposition. We recently studied the global distribution of protein domain structures in thousands of completely sequenced viral and cellular proteomes with comparative genomics, phylogenomics, and multidimensional scaling methods. A tree of life describing the evolution of proteomes revealed viruses emerging from the base of the tree as a fourth supergroup of life. A tree of domains indicated an early origin of modern viral lineages from ancient cells that co-existed with the cellular ancestors...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580021/a-cognitive-distortions-and-deficits-model-of-suicide-ideation
#6
Laura L Fazakas-DeHoog, Katerina Rnic, David J A Dozois
Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and future) and deficits (problem solving deficits, problem solving avoidance, and cognitive rigidity). To test the integrity of this model, a sample of 397 undergraduate students completed measures of deficits, distortions, and current suicide ideation...
May 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534181/assessing-decision-making-capacity-for-do-not-resuscitate-requests-in-depressed-patients-how-to-apply-the-communication-and-appreciation-criteria
#7
Benjamin D Brody, Ellen C Meltzer, Diana Feldman, Julie B Penzner, Janna S Gordon-Elliot
The Patient Self Determination Act (PSDA) of 1991 brought much needed attention to the importance of advance care planning and surrogate decision-making. The purpose of this law is to ensure that a patient's preferences for medical care are recognized and promoted, even if the patient loses decision-making capacity (DMC). In general, patients are presumed to have DMC. A patient's DMC may come under question when distortions in thinking and understanding due to illness, delirium, depression or other psychiatric symptoms are identified or suspected...
May 22, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468026/psychiatry-and-religion-opponents-or-collaborators-the-power-of-spirituality-in-contemporary-psychiatry
#8
Miro Jakovljević
Religion and psychiatry have had complicated, sometimes neutral or friendly and cooperative, sometimes competitive and antagonistic relations over their long histories. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. Psychiatry has often ignored spiritual and religious dimension in health and illness while religions influenced the treatment of mental disorders directly by defining mental disorders as evil spirit possessions and prescribing exorcism as treatment...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429899/neurotransmitter-systems-neuroanatomical-pathology-and-cell-death-in-schizophrenia-update-and-perspectives
#9
Hazael Avila-Rojas, Hugo Sandoval-Zamora, Iván Pérez-Neri
Schizophrenia is a thought disorder characterized by delusional thinking which may be accompanied by hallucinations involving any sensory modality. Schizophrenia may be associated with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Also, it may be induced by drugs. In spite of the similarity in psychoses symptomatology, it is unknown if it involves the same underlying neurobiologic mechanisms in those cases. Schizophrenic patients exhibit not only neuroanatomical alterations, but also, distortion of several neurotransmitter systems...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395940/abstract-and-experiential-thinking-differentially-account-for-anomalous-perception-of-reality-in-people-with-or-without-schizophrenia
#10
J J Ricarte, F Del Rey, L Ros, J M Latorre, F Berna
repetitive thinking is often increased in various psychopathological conditions. However, evidence for its possible contribution to psychotic symptoms relies only on correlational analysis and has not been experimentally tested within the psychotic continuum. This research aims to examine whether repetitive thinking about a negative past experience using concrete versus abstract processing might modify the reporting of anomalous sensory experiences. 89 patients with schizophrenia and 89 matched controls were asked to reflect on their most negative Self-Defining Memory during a thirty-minute period...
April 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273519/long-live-the-king-beginnings-loom-larger-than-endings-of-past-and-recurrent-events
#11
Karl Halvor Teigen, Gisela Böhm, Susanne Bruckmüller, Peter Hegarty, Olivier Luminet
Events are temporal "figures", which can be defined as identifiable segments in time, bounded by beginnings and endings. But the functions and importance of these two boundaries differ. We argue that beginnings loom larger than endings by attracting more attention, being judged as more important and interesting, warranting more explanation, and having more causal power. This difference follows from a lay notion that additions (the introduction of something new) imply more change and demand more effort than do subtractions (returning to a previous state of affairs)...
June 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253090/differential-patterns-in-mind-perception-in-subclinical-paranoia-relationships-to-self-reported-empathy
#12
Benjamin Buck, Neil Hester, David L Penn, Kurt Gray
INTRODUCTION: Although social cognition skills and biases are well-studied in paranoia, "mind perception" - perceiving the extent to which someone even possesses a thinking, feeling mind - is not. We sought to better characterise the profile of mind perception for individuals with paranoia. METHODS: We examined links between mind perception and paranoia in a large (n = 890) subclinical sample. Participants completed measures of paranoia, schizotypy, mind perception, and dispositional empathy...
March 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237834/looking-the-past-in-the-eye-distortion-in-memory-and-the-costs-and-benefits-of-recalling-from-an-observer-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Christopher Jude McCarroll
Jordi Fernández (2015) discusses the possible benefits of two types of allegedly distorted memories: observer memories and fabricated memories. Fernández argues that even when memory does not preserve the past, some memories can still provide an adaptive benefit for the subject. I explore Fernández's claims focussing on the case of observer perspective memories. For Fernández, observer perspectives are distorted memories because they do not preserve past experience. In contrast, I suggest that observer perspectives can accurately reflect past experience: observer perspectives are not necessarily distorted memories...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051936/eavesdropping-on-memory
#14
Elizabeth F Loftus
For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802251/suicide-as-a-distorted-goal-directed-process-wanting-to-die-killing-and-being-killed
#15
Ladislav Valach, Konrad Michel, Richard A Young
It has been suggested that suicidal persons engage in distorted thinking. We propose that suicide can be understood as a distorted goal-directed action. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the specific distortions in the goal-directed processes of suicide as indicated in suicide narratives of 40 persons after a suicide attempt. The findings indicate action distortions such as the disconnect between the wish to die, the action of killing oneself, and the experience of being killed. Furthermore, we found a lack of long-term nonsuicidal pursuits, missing or incomplete action monitoring, and control and regulation processes...
November 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603804/criticism-in-the-self-brain-relationships-and-social-structure-implications-for-psychodynamic-psychiatry
#16
Golan Shahar
An integrative-psychodynamic theory of criticism in self and relationships is presented (Shahar, 2015). My theoretical starting point is the tension between Authenticity (A; our inherited potential, tantamount to Winnicott's True Self) and Self-Knowledge (SK; what we [think] we know about ourselves). Self-criticism, a formidable dimension of vulnerability to a wide array of psychopathologies, is construed as a distorted form of self-knowledge, reducing internal confusion at the expense of widening the gap between A and SK...
December 0: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566987/appearance-evaluation-of-others-faces-and-bodies-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#17
Teena D Moody, Vivian W Shen, Nathan L Hutcheson, Jennifer R Henretty, Courtney L Sheen, Michael Strober, Jamie D Feusner
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) exhibit distorted perception and negative evaluations of their own appearance; however, little is known about how they perceive others' appearance, and whether or not the conditions share perceptual distortions. METHOD: Thirty participants with BDD, 22 with AN, now weight-restored, and 39 healthy comparison participants (HC) rated photographs of others' faces and bodies on attractiveness, how overweight or underweight they were, and how much photographs triggered thoughts of their own appearance...
February 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547253/cognitive-distortions-humor-styles-and-depression
#18
Katerina Rnic, David J A Dozois, Rod A Martin
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms...
August 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492276/the-role-of-psychological-factors-in-the-perception-of-postneedling-soreness-and-the-influence-of-postneedling-intervention
#19
Aitor Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Almudena López-López, Jose Luis González Gutiérrez, Daniel Pecos-Martín, Ángel Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, Isabel María Alguacil-Diego, Tomás Gallego-Izquierdo, Josue Fernández-Carnero
BACKGROUND: Myofascial trigger point dry needling is frequently associated with postneedling soreness, which can generate patient dissatisfaction and reduced treatment adherence. Psychological factors may influence the perception of postneedling soreness and the effectiveness of postneedling soreness treatments. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present study were to determine whether catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, pain anxiety, and fear of pain are significant predictors of postneedling soreness over time; and to analyze whether the relationships between psychological variables and postneedling soreness vary as a function of the postneedling soreness intervention, which included ischemic compression, placebo or control (without treatment)...
April 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435635/brief-cognitive-behavioural-intervention-for-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-improves-quality-of-life-in-chronic-haemodialysis-patients
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Abel Lerma, Héctor Perez-Grovas, Luis Bermudez, María L Peralta-Pedrero, Rebeca Robles-García, Claudia Lerma
OBJECTIVES: Psychological treatment of depression in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has focused on severely depressed patients. We designed and tested a brief (5 weeks) cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) to reduce mild and moderate depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with ESRD. DESIGN: For the purpose of this study, a single-blind, randomized controlled design was used to compare patients with ESRD under haemodialysis treatment with and without the CBI...
March 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
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