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Contrast dynamics

Joseba Andoni Hernández-Preciado, Eneko Baz, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, David Marchante, Jordan Santos-Concejero
This study examined the acute effects of the potentiation protocol known as French Contrast Method on the vertical jumping ability measured by a countermovement jump (CMJ). 31 athletes participated in the study (intervention group n=17 and control group n=14). The CMJ height was measured using the IOS application MyJump App 2.0 pre- and post- the French Contrast protocol, which consisted of 3 sets of isometric partial squats, drop jumps, dynamic half-squats and hurdle jumps. The CMJ height improved from its baseline values by 5...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Arghya Chakravorty, Zhe Jia, Lin Li, Shan Zhao, Emil Alexov
Typically, the ensemble average polar component of solvation energy (∆G_polar^solv) of a macromolecule is computed using molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to generate conformational ensemble and then single/rigid conformation solvation energy calculation is performed on each of snapshots. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate that Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) based approach using a Gaussian-based smooth dielectric function for macromolecular modeling previously developed by us (Li et al...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Marina Carotti, Vittoria Galeazzi, Francesca Catucci, Marcello Zappia, Francesco Arrigoni, Antonio Barile, Andrea Giovagnoni
With the introduction of new biologics such as anti-TNF-alpha antibodies and other therapies in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, capable of halting joint destruction and functional disability, there are new pressures on diagnostic and prognostic imaging. Early demonstration of pre-erosive inflammatory features and monitoring of the long-term effects of treatment are becoming increasingly important. Early detection of synovitis offers advantages in terms of allowing early instigation of therapy and may allow the identification of those patients displaying more aggressive disease who might benefit from early intervention with expensive DMARD therapy...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Masaki Kimura, Hiroki Kato, Seishiro Sekino, Narihiro Ishida, Katsutoshi Murase, Katsuya Shimabukuro, Takafumi Sekino, Kiyoshi Doi, Masayuki Matsuo
BACKGROUND: We report a case of a giant retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) treated by radical tumor resection combined with right hepatectomy and reconstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral renal veins. Only three case reports of CFT arising in the retroperitoneum have been reported until today. CASE PRESENTATION: In a 19-year-old female patient, computed tomography (CT) images showed a well-demarcated expansile lesion around the IVC accompanied by focal calcification, whereas the IVC that was circumferentially surrounded by the lesion was dilated due to the desmoplastic reaction...
January 18, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Sergey V Pyrlin, Nicholas D M Hine, Arjan W Kleij, Marta M D Ramos
The recently-observed self-assembly of certain salphen-based compounds into neuron-like networks of microrings interconnected with nano-thin strings may suggest a new highly-potent tool for nanoscale patterning. However, the mechanism behind such phenomena needs to be clarified before they can be applied in materials design. Here we show that, in contrast with what was initially presumed, the emergence of a "rings-and-rods" pattern is unlikely to be explained by merging, collapse and piercing of vesicles as in previously reported cases of nanorings self-assembly via non-bonding interactions...
January 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Zhixin Feng, Jane Falkingham, Xiaoting Liu, Athina Vlachantoni
Living arrangements in later life are dynamic, with changes associated with life events such as widowhood or moves into an institution. Previous research has found particular changes in living arrangements to be associated with an elevated risk of mortality. However, research in this area within the context of China is limited, despite China being home to the world's largest population of older people. This study investigates the impact of changes in living arrangements on older persons' survival using the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2011...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Christopher S Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L Courtney, Pierre Cresson, Ryan Daly, Leigh de Necker, Tetsuya Endo, Ivone Figueiredo, Ashley J Frisch, Joan Holst Hansen, Michael Heithaus, Nigel E Hussey, Johannes Iitembu, Francis Juanes, Michael J Kinney, Jeremy J Kiszka, Sebastian A Klarian, Dorothée Kopp, Robert Leaf, Yunkai Li, Anne Lorrain, Daniel J Madigan, Aleksandra Maljković, Luis Malpica-Cruz, Philip Matich, Mark G Meekan, Frédéric Ménard, Gui M Menezes, Samantha E M Munroe, Michael C Newman, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Heidi Pethybridge, Jeffrey D Plumlee, Carlos Polo-Silva, Katie Quaeck-Davies, Vincent Raoult, Jonathan Reum, Yassir Eden Torres-Rojas, David S Shiffman, Oliver N Shipley, Conrad W Speed, Michelle D Staudinger, Amy K Teffer, Alexander Tilley, Maria Valls, Jeremy J Vaudo, Tak-Cheung Wai, R J David Wells, Alex S J Wyatt, Andrew Yool, Clive N Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits in trophic interactions between sharks found in different habitats...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Debalaya Sarker, Saswata Bhattacharya, H Kumar, Pankaj Srivastava, Santanu Ghosh
The reliance of modern electronic era on ultrafast data recording has made the search for novel tools to tune nano-scale magnetic-anisotropy (MA) never-ending. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the spin-spin interactions, local atomic structure and the MA of Ni nanoparticles (NPs) embedded inside SiO2 matrix under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. In contrast to traditional understandings, MA in Ni NPs along with their aspect ratio, first increases upto 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 SHI fluence (5e13) and gets reduced at highest fluence...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Max L Senders, Xuchu Que, Young Seok Cho, Calvin Yeang, Hannah Groenen, Francois Fay, Claudia Calcagno, Anu E Meerwaldt, Simone Green, Phuong Miu, Mark E Lobatto, Thomas Reiner, Zahi A Fayad, Joseph L Witztum, Willem J M Mulder, Carlos Pérez-Medina, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) are proinflammatory, and elevated levels in plasma predict cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop novel positron emission tomography (PET) probes to noninvasively image OSE-rich lesions. METHODS: An antigen-binding fragment (Fab) antibody library was constructed from human fetal cord blood. After multiple rounds of screening against malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) epitopes, the Fab LA25 containing minimal nontemplated insertions in the CDR3 region was identified and characterized...
January 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Chihun In, Sangwan Sim, Beom Kim, Hyemin Bae, Hyunseung Jung, Woosun Jang, Myungwoo Son, Jisoo Moon, Maryam Salehi, Seung Young Seo, Aloysius Soon, Moon-Ho Ham, Hojin Lee, Seongshik Oh, Dohun Kim, Moon-Ho Jo, Hyunyong Choi
Understanding the mutual interaction between electronic excitations and lattice vibrations is key for electronic transport and optoelectronic phenomena. Dynamic manipulation of such interaction is elusive as it requires varying the material composition on the atomic level. In turn, recent studies on topological insulators (TIs) have revealed the coexistence of a strong phonon resonance and topologically protected Dirac plasmon, both in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. Here, using these intrinsic characteristics of TIs, we demonstrate a new methodology for controlling electron-phonon interaction by lithographically engineered Dirac surface plasmons in the Bi2Se3 TI...
January 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Stefano S Turzi
I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Elsen Tjhung, Ludovic Berthier
Tracking experiments in dense biological tissues reveal a diversity of sources for local energy injection at the cell scale. The effect of cell motility has been largely studied, but much less is known about the effect of the observed volume fluctuations of individual cells. We consider a microscopic model of "actively deforming" particles where local fluctuations of the particle size constitute a unique source of motion. We demonstrate that collective motion can emerge under the sole influence of such active volume fluctuations...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Nikolai V Priezjev, Maxim A Makeev
Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate mechanical properties and porous structure of binary glasses subjected to steady shear. The model vitreous systems were prepared via thermal quench at constant volume to a temperature well below the glass transition. The quiescent samples are characterized by a relatively narrow pore size distribution whose mean size is larger at lower glass densities. We find that in the linear regime of deformation, the shear modulus is a strong function of porosity, and the individual pores become slightly stretched while their structural topology remains unaffected...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Alexandre Morin, David Lopes Cardozo, Vijayakumar Chikkadi, Denis Bartolo
Combining experiments and theory, we address the dynamics of self-propelled particles in crowded environments. We first demonstrate that motile colloids cruising at constant speed through random lattices undergo a smooth transition from diffusive to subdiffusive to localized dynamics upon increasing the obstacle density. We then elucidate the nature of these transitions by performing extensive simulations constructed from a detailed analysis of the colloid-obstacle interactions. We evidence that repulsion at a distance and hard-core interactions both contribute to slowing down the long-time diffusion of the colloids...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Katherine Klymko, Juan P Garrahan, Stephen Whitelam
Models of bacterial growth tend to be "irreversible," allowing for the number of bacteria in a colony to increase but not to decrease. By contrast, models of molecular self-assembly are usually "reversible," allowing for the addition and removal of particles to a structure. Such processes differ in a fundamental way because only reversible processes possess an equilibrium. Here we show at the mean-field level that dynamic trajectories of reversible and irreversible growth processes are similar in that both feel the influence of attractors, at which growth proceeds without limit but the intensive properties of the system are invariant...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Kenta Ishimoto
The motions of an unsteady circular-disk squirmer and a spherical squirmer have been investigated in the presence of a no-slip infinite wall and a background shear flow in order to clarify the similarities and differences between two- and three-dimensional motions. Despite the similar bifurcation structure of the dynamical system, the stability of the fixed points differs due to the Hamiltonian structure of the disk squirmer. Once the unsteady oscillating surface velocity profile is considered, the disk squirmer can behave in a chaotic manner and cease to be confined in a near-wall region...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Guiomar Ruiz, Ugur Tirnakli, Ernesto P Borges, Constantino Tsallis
We numerically study the two-dimensional, area preserving, web map. When the map is governed by ergodic behavior, it is, as expected, correctly described by Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics, based on the additive entropic functional S_{BG}[p(x)]=-k∫dxp(x)lnp(x). In contrast, possible ergodicity breakdown and transitory sticky dynamical behavior drag the map into the realm of generalized q statistics, based on the nonadditive entropic functional S_{q}[p(x)]=k1-∫dx[p(x)]^{q}/q-1 (q∈R;S_{1}=S_{BG}). We statistically describe the system (probability distribution of the sum of successive iterates, sensitivity to the initial condition, and entropy production per unit time) for typical values of the parameter that controls the ergodicity of the map...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Anubhav Gupta, Tanmoy Banerjee, Partha Sharathi Dutta
Understanding the influence of the structure of a dispersal network on the species persistence and modeling a realistic species dispersal in nature are two central issues in spatial ecology. A realistic dispersal structure which favors the persistence of interacting ecological systems was studied [M. D. Holland and A. Hastings, Nature (London) 456, 792 (2008)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature07395], where it was shown that a randomization of the structure of a dispersal network in a metapopulation model of prey and predator increases the species persistence via clustering, prolonged transient dynamics, and amplitudes of population fluctuations...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Wolfgang Rudolf Bauer
Flow of particles of two different species through a narrow channel with solely two discrete spatial positions is analyzed with respect to the species' capability to cooperate or compete for transport. The origin of the latter arises from particle-channel and interparticle interactions within the channel, i.e., blocking the position of a particle, and its interaction with its neighbors in the channel. The variety of occupation options within the channel defines the state space. The transition dynamics within is considered as a continuous Markov process, which, in contrast to mean-field approaches, conserves explicitly spatial correlations...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Hangmo Yi
Quantum phase transitions of a q-state Potts model in fractal lattices are studied using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation technique. For small values of q, the transition is found to be second order and critical exponents of the quantum critical point are calculated. The dynamic critical exponent z is found to be greater than one for all fractals studied, which is in contrast to integer-dimensional regular lattices. When q is greater than a certain value q_{c}, the phase transition becomes first order, where q_{c} depends on the lattice...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
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