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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916412/kinetics-of-antibody-secreting-cell-and-fecal-iga-responses-after-oral-cholera-vaccination-in-different-age-groups-in-a-cholera-endemic-country
#1
Marjahan Akhtar, Firdausi Qadri, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Sarmin Akter, Tanzeem A Rafique, Arifuzzaman Khan, Laila N Islam, Amit Saha, Ann-Mari Svennerholm, Anna Lundgren
Immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in children and infants may be influenced by factors such as age, previous priming with related microorganisms and breast feeding. In this study, we aimed to determine optimal time points to assess immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in different clinical specimens. This was done by investigating antibody secreting cell (ASC) and fecal antibody responses on different days after vaccination using the licensed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral, containing cholera toxin B-subunit (rCTB) and inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria, as a model vaccine...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914644/comparison-of-bacterial-growth-in-response-to-photodegraded-terrestrial-chromophoric-dissolved-organic-matter-in-two-lakes
#2
Yaling Su, En Hu, Muhua Feng, Yongdong Zhang, Feizhou Chen, Zhengwen Liu
Terrestrial chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) could subsidize lake food webs. Trophic state and altitude have a pronounced influence on the CDOM concentration and composition of a lake. The impact of future changes in solar radiation on high-altitude lakes is particularly alarming because these aquatic ecosystems experience the most pronounced radiation variation worldwide. Photodegradation experiments were conducted on terrestrial CDOM samples from oligotrophic alpine Lake Tiancai and low-altitude eutrophic Lake Xiaohu to investigate the response of bacterial growth to photodegraded CDOM...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#3
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910874/comprehensive-evaluation-of-molecular-enhancers-of-the-isothermal-exponential-amplification-reaction
#4
Ellie Mok, Eugene Wee, Yuling Wang, Matt Trau
The exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR) is an emerging isothermal nucleic acid amplification method with high potential for molecular diagnostics due to its isothermal nature and high amplification efficiency. However, the use of EXPAR is limited by the high levels of non-specific amplification. Hence, methods that can improve the specificity of EXPAR are desired to facilitate its widespread adoption in practice. Herein, we proposed a strategy to improve EXPAR performance by using molecular enhancers...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909846/benzimidazole-inhibitors-of-protein-kinase-ck2-potently-inhibit-the-activity-of-atypical-protein-kinase-rio1
#5
Konrad Kubiński, Maciej Masłyk, Andrzej Orzeszko
Benzimidazole derivatives of 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB) comprise the important class of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors. Depending on the structure, benzimidazoles inhibit CK2 with different selectivity and potency. Besides CK2, the compounds can inhibit, with similar activity, other classical eukaryotic protein kinases (e.g. PIM, DYRK, and PKD). The present results show that a majority of the most common CK2 inhibitors can affect the atypical kinase Rio1 in a nanomolar range. Kinetic data confirmed the mode of action of benzimidazoles as typical ATP-competitive inhibitors...
December 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907055/effect-of-glu12-his89-interaction-on-dynamic-structures-in-hiv-1-p17-matrix-protein-elucidated-by-nmr
#6
Yuta Konagaya, Rina Miyakawa, Masumi Sato, Akimasa Matsugami, Satoru Watanabe, Fumiaki Hayashi, Takanori Kigawa, Chiaki Nishimura
To test the existence of the salt bridge and stability of the HIV-1 p17 matrix protein, an E12A (mutated at helix 1) was established to abolish possible electrostatic interactions. The chemical shift perturbation from the comparison between wild type and E12A suggested the existence of an electrostatic interaction in wild type between E12 and H89 (located in helix 4). Unexpectedly, the studies using urea denaturation indicated that the E12A substitution slightly stabilized the protein. The dynamic structure of E12A was examined under physiological conditions by both amide proton exchange and relaxation studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905609/pursuing-reliable-thermal-analysis-techniques-for-energetic-materials-decomposition-kinetics-and-thermal-stability-of-dihydroxylammonium-5-5-bistetrazole-1-1-diolate-tkx-50
#7
Nikita V Muravyev, Konstantin A Monogarov, Andrey F Asachenko, Mikhail S Nechaev, Ivan V Ananyev, Igor V Fomenkov, Vitaly G Kiselev, Alla N Pivkina
Thermal decomposition of a novel promising high-performance explosive dihydroxylammonium 5,5'-bistetrazole-1,1'-diolate (TKX-50) was studied using a number of thermal analysis techniques (thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and accelerating rate calorimetry, ARC). To obtain more comprehensive insight into the kinetics and mechanism of TKX-50 decomposition, a variety of complementary thermoanalytical experiments were performed under various conditions. Non-isothermal and isothermal kinetics were obtained at both atmospheric and low (up to 0...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905295/desensitization-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-fibroblasts-to-alternaria-alternata-extract-mediated-necrotic-cell-death
#8
Jintaek Im, Kyutae Kim, Ji Young Yhee, Scott M O'Grady, Richard S Nho
Alternaria alternata is an allergenic fungus and known to cause an upper respiratory tract infection and asthma in humans with compromised immunity. Although A. alternata's effect on airway epithelial cells has previously been examined, the potential role of A. alternata on lung fibroblast viability is not understood. Since lung fibroblasts derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) display a distinct phenotype that is resistant to stress and cell death inducing conditions, the investigation of the role of Alternaria on pathological IPF fibroblasts provides a better understanding of the fibrotic process induced by an allergenic fungus...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904441/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-of-the-bowel-wall-with-quantitative-assessment-of-crohn-s-disease-activity-in-childhood
#9
Damjana Kljucevsek, Dubravka Vidmar, Darja Urlep, Rok Dezman
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become an established non-invasive, patient-friendly imaging technique which improves the characterization of lesions. In addition, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) provides valuable information concerning perfusion of examined organs. This review addresses current applications of CEUS in children, focused on DCE-US of the bowel wall in patients with Crohn disease, which enables realtime assessment of the bowel wall vascularity with semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of disease activity and response to medical treatment...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903626/a-unified-perspective-on-ankle-push-off-in-human-walking
#10
REVIEW
Karl E Zelik, Peter G Adamczyk
Muscle-tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power during the step-to-step transition in human walking, termed ankle push-off, but there is no scientific consensus on its functional role. A central question embodied in the biomechanics literature is: does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing, or to center of mass (COM) acceleration? This question has been debated in various forms for decades. However, it actually presents a false dichotomy, as these two possibilities are not mutually exclusive...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902729/eastern-mediterranean-economic-exchange-during-the-iron-age-portable-x-ray-fluorescence-and-neutron-activation-analysis-of-cypriot-style-pottery-in-the-amuq-valley-turkey
#11
Steven Karacic, James F Osborne
Two markers of regional exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the first millennium BCE are the White Painted and Bichrome Wares from Cyprus's Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Archaic periods. Although these ceramics are often assumed to be imports from Cyprus, excavations in southern Turkey at sites such as Tarsus-Gözlükule, Kilise Tepe, Sirkeli Höyük, and Kinet Höyük suggest that at least some of this pottery was produced locally, requiring a major revision of our understanding of economic interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902592/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-breast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-prediction-of-early-and-late-recurrences-in-breast-cancer
#12
Eun Jung Choi, HyeMi Choi, Sin Ae Choi, Ji Hyun Youk
The aim of the study was to evaluate dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) features for the prediction of early and late recurrences in patients with breast cancer.Of 1030 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery at our hospital from January 2007 to July 2011, 83 recurrent breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study. We compared MRI features (background parenchymal enhancement [BPE], internal enhancement, adjacent vessel sign, whole-breast vascularity, initial enhancement pattern, kinetic curve types, and quantitative kinetic parameters) and clinico-pathologic variables (age, stage, histologic grade, nuclear grade, existence of lymphovascular invasion and extensive intraductal carcinoma component, and immunohistochemical profiles) between patients with early (≤2...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902420/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-il-1ra-an-early-immunomodulatory-cytokine-induced-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#13
Teerawut Nedumpun, Piya Wongyanin, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Patcharee Ritprajuk, Tanapat Palaga, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection poorly induces pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) and type I IFN production during the early phase of infection. Our microarray analysis indicated strong upregulation of the IL1RA gene in type 2 PRRSV infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an early inhibitory cytokine, which suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and T lymphocyte responses. To investigate the induction of IL-1Ra by PRRSV, MoDC were cultured with type 2 PRRSV or other swine viruses...
November 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900590/assessment-of-oxidative-nitrative-modifications-of-plasma-proteins-selected-rotem-parameters-and-kinetics-of-fibrinogen-polymerization-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-at-diagnosis
#14
W Nowak, J Treliński, K Chojnowski, J Matczak, M Robak, M Misiewicz, P Nowak
Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at increased risk of thrombosis. Growing evidence indicates that oxidative and nitrative modifications of proteins, including fibrinogen, may lead to changes in hemostasis. The study compares samples from patients with MM at diagnosis and healthy volunteers with regard to the oxidative/nitrative modifications of proteins, ROTEM and thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization. The content of carbonyl groups in plasma proteins of patients with MM was significantly higher than in controls (2...
January 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890142/the-effects-of-a-simple-intervention-on-exposures-to-low-back-pain-risk-factors-during-traditional-posterior-load-carriage
#15
Khoirul Muslim, Maury A Nussbaum
Traditional posterior load carriage (PLC), typically performed without the use of an assistive device, is associated with a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). However, there are few studies that have evaluated potential interventions to reduce exposures to LBP risk factors. This work examined the effects of a simple, potentially low-cost intervention using an assistive device (i.e., carrying aid) on exposures to factors related to LBP risk during PLC. Torso kinematics and kinetics, slip risk, and ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) were obtained during simulated PLC on a walkway...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889474/the-von-willebrand-factor-a1-collagen-iii-interaction-is-independent-of-conformation-and-type-2-von-willebrand-disease-phenotype
#16
Venkata R Machha, Alexander Tischer, Laurie Moon-Tasson, Matthew Auton
The blood von Willebrand factor (VWF) mediates platelet adhesion to injured vessels by sequestering platelets from blood flow and depositing them to collagen and other exposed subendothelial matrix proteins. This process of capturing platelets to facilitate formation of platelet plugs occurs through transient interactions with platelet glycoprotein Ibα via the VWF A1 domain which also binds collagen. Using a conformationally diverse collection of natively folded and mutation-induced misfolded von Willebrand disease (VWD) variants, we test a recently proposed affinity up-regulation hypothesis which states that collagen binding changes the conformation of the A1 domain to a high-affinity GPIbα binding competent state...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888226/single-cell-sequencing-maps-gene-expression-to-mutational-phylogenies-in-pdgf-and-egf-driven-gliomas
#17
Sören Müller, Siyuan John Liu, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Martina Malatesta, Alex A Pollen, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Gary Kohanbash, Manish Aghi, Arnold R Kriegstein, Daniel A Lim, Aaron Diaz
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors are frequently amplified and/or possess gain-of-function mutations in GBM However, clinical trials of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors have shown disappointing efficacy, in part due to intra-tumor heterogeneity. To assess the effect of clonal heterogeneity on gene expression, we derived an approach to map single-cell expression profiles to sequentially acquired mutations identified from exome sequencing...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888015/early-and-long-term-impaired-t-lymphocyte-immune-reconstitution-after-cord-blood-transplantation-with-antithymocyte-globulin
#18
Nerea Castillo, Irene García-Cadenas, Pere Barba, Carme Canals, Cristina Díaz-Heredia, Rodrigo Martino, Christelle Ferrà, Isabel Badell, Izaskun Elorza, Jorge Sierra, David Valcárcel, Sergio Querol
Immune reconstitution is crucial to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) has been associated with delayed immune reconstitution. We characterized the kinetics and investigated the risk variables affecting the main lymphocyte subsets recovery in 225 consecutive pediatric and adult patients [males, n=126, median age=15, range 0.3-60, interquartile range, 4-35] who underwent myeloablative single-UCBT between 2005 and 2015 for malignant and non-malignant disorders...
November 22, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886481/correlation-between-fragility-and-the-arrhenius-crossover-phenomenon-in-metallic-molecular-and-network-liquids
#19
Abhishek Jaiswal, Takeshi Egami, K F Kelton, Kenneth S Schweizer, Yang Zhang
We report the observation of a distinct correlation between the kinetic fragility index m and the reduced Arrhenius crossover temperature θ_{A}=T_{A}/T_{g} in various glass-forming liquids, identifying three distinguishable groups. In particular, for 11 glass-forming metallic liquids, we universally observe a crossover in the mean diffusion coefficient from high-temperature Arrhenius to low-temperature super-Arrhenius behavior at approximately θ_{A}≈2 which is in the stable liquid phases. In contrast, for fragile molecular liquids, this crossover occurs at much lower θ_{A}≈1...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884530/heteroaggregation-of-graphene-oxide-nanoparticles-and-kaolinite-colloids
#20
Nikolaos P Sotirelis, Constantinos V Chrysikopoulos
Graphene oxide (GO) is a material with rapid production growth, and consequently GO nanoparticles are expected to eventually penetrate subsurface formations, where fine mineral particles are in abundance. This study examines the heteroaggregation of GO nanoparticles with kaolinite (KGa-1b) colloids under various conditions. Dynamic batch experiments were conducted in solutions with different pH values (pH=4, 7, and 10), different ionic strengths (IS=7, 12, and 27mM), and at three controlled temperatures (8, 14, and 25°C)...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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