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Contrast kinetics

Jessica Wingerath, Dmitrij Ostroumov, Norman Woller, Michael P Manns, Daniel D Pinschewer, Klaus Orlinger, Ursula Berka, Florian Kühnel, Thomas C Wirth
Successful vaccination against cancer and infectious diseases relies on the induction of adaptive immune responses that induce high-titer antibodies or potent cytoxic T cell responses. In contrast to humoral vaccines, the amplification of cellular immune responses is often hampered by anti-vector immunity that either pre-exists or develops after repeated homologous vaccination. Replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) vectors represent a novel generation of vaccination vectors that induce potent immune responses while escaping recognition by neutralizing antibodies...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Carlo Nebbia, Flavia Girolami, Monica Carletti, Laura Gasco, Ivo Zoccarato, Alessandra Giuliano Albo
Malachite green (MG) has been widely used in aquaculture to treat a number of microbial and parasitic diseases. It is currently banned in the EU because of the high cytotoxicity and carcinogenic activity, which is also shared by leucomalachite green (LMG), a reduced MG metabolite that can persist in fish tissues for months. There is scant information about the ability of either compound to interact with drug metabolizing enzymes in fish. Therefore we evaluated the in vitro effects of MG and LMG (25, 50 and 100μM) on some DMEs and glutathione (GSH) content in rainbow trout liver subfractions...
August 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Jane Vinokur, Stas Obuchovsky, Igal Deckman, Lishai Shoham, Tom Mates, Michael L Chabinyc, Gitti L Frey
Migration of additives to organic/metal interfaces can be used to self-generate interlayers in organic electronic devices. To generalize this approach for different additives, metals and organic electronic devices it is first necessary to study the dynamics of additive migration from the bulk to the top organic/metal interface. In this study we focus a known cathode interlayer material, polyethylene glycol (PEG), as additive in P3HT:PC71BM blends and study its migration to the blend/Al interface during metal deposition, and its effect on organic solar cell (OSC) performance...
August 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tobias Gensch, Robert Thoran, Nils Richter, Hans-Joachim Knölker
We have investigated the diverse mechanisms for the reductive elimination of biaryl compounds from diarylpalladium(II) complexes with a tetradentate ligand in a combined experimental and computational study. At least four distinct chemical triggers with specific regioselectivity exist for this elimination. Heating of the complexes in inert solvents (e.g., para-xylene) reveals their relatively high thermal stability as reflected by a very high barrier for a unimolecular reductive elimination. In contrast, electron-donor ligands like triphenylphosphine induce a facile reductive elimination via twofold associative ligand exchange as confirmed by kinetic experiments which are in excellent agreement with the computational results...
August 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
U K Bodanapally, D Dreizin, G Issa, K L Archer-Arroyo, K Sudini, T R Fleiter
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extravasation of iodinated contrast into subdural space following contrast-enhanced radiographic studies results in hyperdense subdural effusions, which can be mistaken as acute subdural hematomas on follow-up noncontrast head CTs. Our aim was to identify the factors associated with contrast-enhancing subdural effusion, characterize diffusion and washout kinetics of iodine in enhancing subdural effusion, and assess the utility of dual-energy CT in differentiating enhancing subdural effusion from subdural hematoma...
August 10, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
A Bhandari, A Bansal, A Singh, N Sinha
There are many obstacles to transport of chemotherapeutic drugs to tumor cells that lead to irregular and non-uniform uptake of drugs inside tumors. Study of these transport problems will help in accurate prediction of drug transport and optimizing treatment strategy. To this end, liposome mediated drug delivery has emerged as an excellent anticancer therapy due to its ability to deliver drugs at site of action and reducing the chances of side effects to the healthy tissues. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on realistic vasculature of human brain tumor is presented...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Jianqiao Liu, Yinglin Gao, Xu Wu, Guohua Jin, Zhaoxia Zhai, Huan Liu
The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films...
August 10, 2017: Sensors
Xinghua Chen, Fei He, Yanfei Shen, Yiran Yang, Hao Mei, Songqin Liu, Toshiyuki Mori, Yuanjian Zhang
Of note, the mass kinetic current density (mass JK) of most extensively reported M-N/C catalysts (M represents non-precious metal elements such as Fe, Co, and Cu), a potential alternative to noble metal catalyst in fuel cells, is poorer than that of commercial Pt/C. Thus, deep understanding of the intrinsic roles of carbon supports may contribute to the development of M-N/C catalysts from a practical point of view. Herein, the routinely used carbon supports, i.e. carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) that have different morphology and crystallinity were investigated to uncover the factors that affected the mass JK of Fe-N/C in electrocatalytic oxygen reduction...
August 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Stéphanie Truant, Clio Baillet, Anne Claire Deshorgue, Mehdi El Amrani, Damien Huglo, François-René Pruvot
To reduce post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has been recently developed for patients with a limited future remnant liver (FRL). Nevertheless, high morbi-mortality rates have been reported . The current study aimed to analyze the kinetics of FRL function in patients who were offered ALPPS. Serial SPECT (99 m)Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) was performed in all patients before and after surgery as well as at inter-stage to quantitatively assess hepatic function [total liver (TL) and FRL]...
August 9, 2017: Updates in Surgery
Brandy D Hyndman, Mathieu J F Crupi, Susan Peng, Leslie N Bone, Aisha N Rekab, Eric Y Lian, Simona M Wagner, Costin N Antonescu, Lois M Mulligan
The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is implicated in normal development and cancer. RET is expressed as two isoforms, RET9 and RET51, with unique C-terminal tail sequences that recruit distinct protein complexes to mediate signals. Upon activation, RET isoforms are internalized with distinct kinetics, suggesting differences in regulation. Here, we demonstrate that RET9 and RET51 differ in their abilities to recruit E3-ubiquitin ligases to their unique C-termini. RET51, but not RET9, interacts with, and is ubiquitinated by CBL, which is recruited through interactions with the GRB2 adaptor protein...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Rían W Manville, Daniel L Neverisky, Geoffrey W Abbott
Voltage-gated potassium channels of the KCNQ (Kv7) subfamily are essential for control of cellular excitability and repolarization in a wide range of cell types. Recently, we and others found that some KCNQ channels functionally and physically interact with sodium-dependent solute transporters, including myo-inositol transporters SMIT1 and SMIT2, potentially facilitating various modes of channel-transporter signal integration. In contrast to indirect effects such as channel regulation by SMIT-transported, myo-inositol-derived phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), the mechanisms and functional consequences of the physical interaction of channels with transporters have been little studied...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Michael W Risør, Dennis W Juhl, Morten Bjerring, Joachim Mathiesen, Jan J Enghild, Niels C Nielsen, Daniel E Otzen
Many proteins and peptides self-associate into highly ordered and structurally similar amyloid cross-β aggregates. This fibrillation is critically dependent on properties of the protein and the surrounding environment that alter kinetic and thermodynamic equilibria. Here, we report on dominating surface and solution effects on the fibrillogenic behavior and amyloid assembly of the C-36 peptide, a circulating bioactive peptide from the α1-antitrypsin serine protease inhibitor. C-36 converts from an unstructured peptide to mature amyloid twisted-ribbon fibrils over a few hours when incubated on polystyrene plates under physiological conditions through a pathway dominated by surface-enhanced nucleation...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Mikhail Borisover, Nadezhda Bukhanovsky, Marcos Lado Lado
Typical experimental time frames allowed for equilibrating water-organic vapors with soil sorbents might lead to overlooking slow chemical reactions finally controlling a thermodynamically stable state. In this work, long-term gravimetric examination of kinetics covering about 4000 hours was performed for phenol-water vapor interacting with four materials pre-equilibrated at three levels of air relative humidity (RHs 52, 73 and 92%). The four contrasting sorbents included an organic matter (OM)-rich peat soil, an OM-poor clay soil, a hydrophilic Aldrich humic acid salt and water-insoluble leonardite...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Olufunke Olagunju, Reuben Hazvienzani Simoyi
The mechanism of oxidation of the well-known radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea, DMTU, by acidic bromate was studied. The stoichiometry of the reaction is 4:3: 4BrO3- +3CS(NHMe)2 +3H2O → 3SO42- + 3CO(NHMe)2 + 6H+ + 4Br-. In excess acidic bromate, the reaction stoichiometry is 8:5: 8BrO3- + 5CS(NHMe)2 + H2O → 5SO42- + 5CO(NHMe)2 + 4Br2 + 2H+. In excess bromate, the reaction displays well-defined clock reaction characteristics in which, initially, there is a quiescent period before formation of bromine. The direct reaction of aqueous bromine with DMTU, with a bimolecular rate constant of k = (1...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Nathan A Mahynski, Jeffrey R Errington, Vincent K Shen
We derive a method for extrapolating the grand canonical free energy landscape of a multicomponent fluid system from one temperature to another. Previously, we introduced this statistical mechanical framework for the case where kinetic energy contributions to the classical partition function were neglected for simplicity [N. A. Mahynski et al., J. Chem. Phys. 146, 074101 (2017)]. Here, we generalize the derivation to admit these contributions in order to explicitly illustrate the differences that result. Specifically, we show how factoring out kinetic energy effects a priori, in order to consider only the configurational partition function, leads to simpler mathematical expressions that tend to produce more accurate extrapolations than when these effects are included...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Bei Ye, Yue Li, Zhuo Chen, Qian-Yuan Wu, Wen-Long Wang, Ting Wang, Hong-Ying Hu
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is widely used in industry but is difficult to degrade. In this study, the synergistic effect of UV irradiation and chlorination on degradation of PVA was investigated. UV irradiation or chlorination alone did not degrade PVA. By contrast, UV/chlorine oxidation showed good efficiency for PVA degradation via generation of active free radicals, such as OH and Cl. The relative importance of these two free radicals in the oxidation process was evaluated, and it was shown that OH contributed more to PVA degradation than Cl did...
May 30, 2017: Water Research
Mounira Kara Ali, Nawel Outili, Asma Ait Kaki, Radia Cherfia, Sara Benhassine, Akila Benaissa, Noreddine Kacem Chaouche
This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to the central composite experimental design (CCD) as a response surface methodology using Minitab 16 software. Indeed, under optimal biomass production conditions, temperature (32.9 °C), pH (5.35) and the total reducing sugar extracted from dates (70.93 g/L), S. cerevisiae produced 40 g/L of their biomass in an Erlenmeyer after only 16 h of fermentation...
August 7, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Chutikan Nakonkhet, Tanin Nanok, Worawat Wattanathana, Pitak Chuawong, Pimpa Hormnirun
Two series of aluminium complexes bearing salicylbenzothiazole ligands, namely four-coordinate aluminium complexes (1a-7a) and five-coordinate aluminium complexes (1b-7b), were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction crystallography (for 5a and 1b). Their application in the ring-opening polymerisation of rac-lactide and ε-caprolactone was studied with the aim of drawing comparisons to closely related aluminium salicylbenzoxazole complexes investigated previously...
August 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yuan-Ye Jiang, Ling Zhu, Yujie Liang, Xiaoping Man, Siwei Bi
The couplings of carboxylic acids and amines promoted by dichlorosilane derivatives provide a promising tool for amide synthesis and peptide coupling, in which an unprecedented mechanism was proposed for the amide bond formation process. To investigate this mechanistic proposal and enrich the understanding of this novel reaction, a theoretical study was conducted herein. The formation and interconversion of silylamine and silyl ester intermediates were calculated to be kinetically feasible under the experiment conditions...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Alberto Ferraro, Massimiliano Fabbricino, Eric D van Hullebusch, Giovanni Esposito
A comparison of Cu extraction yields for three different ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS)-enhanced washing configurations was performed on a Cu-contaminated soil. Batch experiments were used to simulate a single-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a multi-stage (side feeding and counter-current) reactor. Single-stage CSTR conditions were simulated for various EDDS:(Cu + Cd + Pb + Co + Ni + Zn) molar ratio (EDDS:M ratio) (from 1 to 30) and liquid to soil (L/S) ratio (from 15 to 45). The highest Cu extraction yield (≃56%) was achieved with EDDS:M = 30...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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