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Jared R Towers, Muriel J Hallé, Helena K Symonds, Gary J Sutton, Alexandra B Morton, Paul Spong, James P Borrowman, John K B Ford
Infanticide can be an extreme result of sexual conflict that drives selection in species in which it occurs. It is a rarely observed behaviour but some evidence for its occurrence in cetaceans exists in three species of dolphin. Here we describe observations of an adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca) and his post-reproductive mother killing a neonate belonging to an unrelated female from the same population in the North Pacific. This is the first account of infanticide reported in killer whales and the only case committed jointly by an adult male and his mother outside of humans...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jessica A Haines, David W Coltman, Ben Dantzer, Jamieson C Gorrell, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam, Stan Boutin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Ecology
D M G Fernando, S M K Gamage, S Ranmohottige, I Weerakkody, H Abeyruwan, H Parakrama
Mothers of alleged infanticides might claim that umbilical cord broke during precipitate delivery causing injuries detected on baby at autopsy. There is paucity of evidence regarding this possibility. The objective of the study was to determine relationship between tensile strength and diameter or weight per unit length of cord. Diameters and weights per unit length of fresh umbilical cords were determined. Tensile strengths were measured by Hounsfield Testing Machine. Relationship between tensile strength versus cord diameter and weight per unit length were analyzed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Daniel Rodger, Bruce P Blackshaw, Calum Miller
It is commonly argued that a serious right to life is grounded only in actual, relatively advanced psychological capacities a being has acquired. The moral permissibility of abortion is frequently argued for on these grounds. Increasingly it is being argued that such accounts also entail the permissibility of infanticide, with several proponents of these theories accepting this consequence. We show, however, that these accounts imply the permissibility of even more unpalatable acts than infanticide performed on infants: organ harvesting, live experimentation, sexual interference, and discriminatory killing...
February 21, 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
Luis Romero-Morales, Martín Martínez-Torres, Mario Cárdenas, Carmen Álvarez, Agustín Carmona, Benita Cedillo, Loya-Zurita Eduardo, Juana Luis
In the dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli), activational effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) in the regulation of paternal behavior have been repeatedly rejected because peripheral concentrations of E2 do not change across the reproductive cycle of males. Further, castration no affected paternal behavior despite that both T and E2 concentrations decreased significantly. However, the role of these hormones has not been evaluated in models of castration and hormonal replacement in virgin males. Here, we analysed the effects of E2 and T in paternal behavior in virgin male dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli)...
February 6, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Daniel Rodger, Bruce P Blackshaw, Clinton Wilcox
In 'Pro-life arguments against infanticide and why they are not convincing' Joona Räsänen argues that Christopher Kaczor's objections to Giubilini and Minerva's position on infanticide are not persuasive. We argue that Räsänen's criticism is largely misplaced, and that he has not engaged with Kaczor's strongest arguments against infanticide. We reply to each of Räsänen's criticisms, drawing on the full range of Kaczor's arguments, as well as adding some of our own.
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
Michael Thomson, Verinder Sharma
Mood disorders including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are common during and after pregnancy. Timely identification and appropriate management of mood episodes is essential to maximize maternal well-being and minimize adverse outcomes. Failure to do so results in maternal suffering and impaired child bonding, and has the potential for devastating outcomes including suicide and infanticide. Women are routinely screened for unipolar depression during or after pregnancy but not for bipolar disorder, in spite of the fact that childbirth is associated with a major risk for onset or exacerbation of bipolar disorder...
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
Alberto Alesina, Paola Giuliano, Nathan Nunn
We study the historical origins of cross-country differences in the male-to-female sex ratio. Our analysis focuses on the use of the plough in traditional agriculture. In societies that did not use the plough, women tended to participate in agriculture as actively as men. By contrast, in societies that used the plough, men specialized in agricultural work, due to the physical strength needed to pull the plough or control the animal that pulls it. We hypothesize that this difference caused plough-using societies to value boys more than girls...
2018: PloS One
Guillaume Dezecache, Claudia Wilke, Nathalie Richi, Christof Neumann, Klaus Zuberbühler
Infrared thermal imaging has emerged as a valuable tool in veterinary medicine, in particular for evaluating reproductive processes. Here, we explored differences in skin temperature of twenty female chimpanzees in Budongo Forest, Uganda, four of which were pregnant during data collection. Based on previous literature in other mammals, we predicted increased skin temperature of maximally swollen reproductive organs of non-pregnant females when approaching peak fertility. For pregnant females, we made the same prediction because it has been argued that female chimpanzees have evolved mechanisms to conceal pregnancy, including swellings of the reproductive organs, conspicuous copulation calling, and solicitation of male mating behaviour, to decrease the infanticidal tendencies of resident males by confusing paternity...
2017: PeerJ
Christopher Kaczor
Scholars have offered various critiques of Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article, 'After-birth abortion: Why should the baby live?' My book The Ethics of Abortion: Women's Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice presents four such critiques. First, Giubilini and Minerva argue from the deeply controversial to the even more controversial. Second, they presuppose a false view of personal identity called body-self dualism. Third, their view cannot secure human equality. And fourth, their account of harm cannot account for harm found in some cases of murder...
February 2018: Bioethics
Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, Pamela Bastante, Wilcar Cavalcante Gondim, Joana Gurgel Holanda Filha, Florian P Thomas
In the history of Christianity, veneration of the Virgin Mary reached its greatest intensity in the XIII century. Her perceived impact on daily life was tremendous and not surprisingly this extended to the spheres of disease and healing. The purpose of this study is to compare the medical and neuropsychiatric findings in two XIII century Spanish texts of Marian miracles, both examples of the popular Catholicism (vs. official catholic doctrine). We analyzed the medical and neuropsychiatric events in the Cantigas de Santa Maria (Canticles of St...
November 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Lauren F Brasington, Eva C Wikberg, Shoji Kawamura, Linda M Fedigan, Katharine M Jack
Infanticide is common in the context of alpha male replacements (AMR), particularly in groups where alpha males experience high reproductive skew and the infants are unlikely to be related to a new alpha male. We examined the relationship between the rate of infant mortality, infant age, and the occurrence and type of AMR in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator) of the Santa Rosa population in Sector Santa Rosa, Área de Conservación Guanacaste. Specifically, we investigated how the source of the new alpha male (coresident or extragroup) and relative aggression level during AMRs influenced infant mortality in this species...
December 2017: American Journal of Primatology
Claire A Kirchhoff, Michael L Wilson, Deus C Mjungu, Jane Raphael, Shadrack Kamenya, D Anthony Collins
OBJECTIVES: We present a study of skeletal damage to four chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infanticide victims from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Skeletal analysis may provide insight into the adaptive significance of infanticide by examining whether nutritional benefits sufficiently explain infanticidal behavior. The nutritional hypothesis would be supported if bone survivorship rates and skeletal damage patterns are comparable to those of monkey prey. If not, other explanations, such as the resource competition hypothesis, should be considered...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Zeynep Benderlioglu, Eliot Dow
Maternal aggression is behavior displayed by post-partum lactating female mice toward unfamiliar conspecifics, presumably as a defense against infanticide. A variety of perinatal stressors can impair maternal care in adulthood. Previous studies on associations between developmental perturbations and maternal aggression have produced mixed results. To address this issue, we employed a proxy for developmental instability, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) to further elucidate the relationship between low temperature stress and maternal aggression...
June 2017: Ethology: Formerly Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie
Marina Juliana de Oliveira Soares
Throughout the modern period, Islamic women (whether they lived in palaces or normal houses) resorted to measures to prevent conception or to induce abortion when pregnancy occurred. They used herbs and abortifacient drugs or relied on help from other women to eliminate unwanted pregnancies. Such practices were recorded by Europeans - in some cases, doctors - who traveled to Islamic regions and described these scenes in their narratives. In addition to abortions, infanticide was also observed in the imperial palaces...
July 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Hitonaru Nishie, Michio Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: This study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate "maternity leave" from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Dominic L Cram, Pat Monaghan, Robert Gillespie, Tim Clutton-Brock
Early-life adversity can affect health, survival and fitness later in life, and recent evidence suggests that telomere attrition may link early conditions with their delayed consequences. Here, we investigate the link between early-life competition and telomere length in wild meerkats. Our results show that, when multiple females breed concurrently, increases in the number of pups in the group are associated with shorter telomeres in pups. Given that pups from different litters compete for access to milk, we tested whether this effect is due to nutritional constraints on maternal milk production, by experimentally supplementing females' diets during gestation and lactation...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jana A Eccard, Melanie Dammhahn, Hannu Ylönen
Pregnancy termination after encountering a strange male, the Bruce effect, is regarded as a counterstrategy of female mammals towards anticipated infanticide. While confirmed in caged rodent pairs, no verification for the Bruce effect existed from experimental field populations of small rodents. We suggest that the effect may be adaptive for breeding rodent females only under specific conditions related to populations with cyclically fluctuating densities. We investigated the occurrence of delay in birth date after experimental turnover of the breeding male under different population composition in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in large outdoor enclosures: one-male-multiple-females (n = 6 populations/18 females), multiple-males-multiple-females (n = 15/45), and single-male-single-female (MF treatment, n = 74/74)...
September 2017: Oecologia
Fuka Aizawa, Yoshihiro Ogaki, Natsuki Kyoya, Takashi Nishinaka, Kazuo Nakamoto, Takashi Kurihara, Akira Hirasawa, Atsuro Miyata, Shogo Tokuyama
The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acids (DHA). This receptor has been the focus of many studies regarding physiological functions of the central nervous system. PUFAs are essential for neuronal development and maintenance of neuronal function; thus, the decrease of PUFAs in the brain is closely related to the induction of psychiatric diseases associated with emotional disorder, such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
David B Hershenov, Rose J Hershenov
Our contention is that all of the major arguments for abortion are also arguments for permitting infanticide. One cannot distinguish the fetus from the infant in terms of a morally significant intrinsic property, nor are they morally discernible in terms of standing in different relationships to others. The logic of our position is that if such arguments justify abortion, then they also justify infanticide. If we are right that infanticide is not justified, then such arguments will fail to justify abortion...
October 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
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