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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636751/using-experimentation-to-understand-the-10-year-snowshoe-hare-cycle-in-the-boreal-forest-of-north-america
#1
C J Krebs, R Boonstra, S Boutin
Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation, and social behaviour...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609392/the-role-of-hormone-therapy-in-the-management-of-severe-postpartum-depression-in-patients-with-turner-syndrome
#2
Alison K Shea, Wendy Wolfman
OBJECTIVE: Premature ovarian failure associated with Turner syndrome presents clinicians with a vast range of health concerns, including infertility, cardiovascular disease, and decreased bone mineral density, in addition to psychological sequelae. Hormone therapy is paramount in managing these complications, but the additional needs in the postpartum period for those who are able to carry out a successful pregnancy have not been described. METHODS: We present a case of severe postpartum depression (PPD) with psychotic features in a patient with Turner syndrome, which presented at 4 weeks after the birth of her first child via egg donation RESULTS:: We describe the case of a previously well 32-year-old patient with an 46 X, i(Xq) karyotype, who went through a 4-week intensive inpatient treatment course for PPD, requiring electroconvulsant therapy for persistent infanticidal and suicidal ideation...
June 12, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580656/prepartum-psychosis-and-neonaticide-rare-case-study-and-forensic-psychiatric-synthesis-of-literature
#3
Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Maria Markopoulou, Ioannis K Tentes, Panagiotis N Tsikouras, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Pavlos Pavlidis
Peripartum psychosis is a rare but serious psychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of a mood episode with psychotic features. Although controversy surrounds the nosological status of peripartum mental disorders, these conditions continue to be of exceptional interest to the medical and forensic mental health communities. The aim of this study was to report a rare case of prepartum psychosis which escalated to the endpoint of neonaticide and summarize literature on peripartum mental disorders and infanticide...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565939/homicide-in-the-western-family-and-background-factors-of-a-perpetrator
#4
Anna Liisa Aho, Anni Remahl, Eija Paavilainen
AIMS: Familicide is a multiple-victim homicide incident in which the killer's spouse and one or more children are slain. A systematic review was conducted to reveal the background factors of western homicide perpetrators. METHODS: The systematic search was performed in the Arto, Medic, Cinahl, Medline, EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier and Social Services abstracts databases. The keywords were familicide, family homicide, familicide-suicide, filicide-suicide, extended suicide, child, murder, family, filicide and infanticide...
May 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543783/alpha-male-replacements-in-nonhuman-primates-variability-in-processes-outcomes-and-terminology
#5
Julie A Teichroeb, Katharine M Jack
Alpha male replacements occur in all primates displaying a dominance hierarchy but the process can be extremely variable. Here, we review the primate literature to document differences in patterns of alpha male replacements, showing that group composition and dispersal patterns account for a large proportion of this variability. We also examine the consequences of alpha male replacements in terms of sexual selection theory, infanticide, and group compositions. Though alpha male replacements are often called takeovers in the literature, this term masks much of the variation that is present in these processes...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439031/explaining-negative-kin-discrimination-in-a-cooperative-mammal-society
#6
Faye J Thompson, Michael A Cant, Harry H Marshall, Emma I K Vitikainen, Jennifer L Sanderson, Hazel J Nichols, Jason S Gilchrist, Matthew B V Bell, Andrew J Young, Sarah J Hodge, Rufus A Johnstone
Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are more closely related to dominant individuals are specifically targeted for forcible eviction from the group, often suffering severe injury, and sometimes death, as a result...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405376/a-test-of-male-infanticide-as-a-reproductive-tactic-in-a-cichlid-fish
#7
Shagun Jindal, Aneesh P H Bose, Constance M O'Connor, Sigal Balshine
Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395395/contexts-and-consequences-of-takeovers-in-hamadryas-baboons-female-parity-reproductive-state-and-observational-evidence-of-pregnancy-loss
#8
Alexis L Amann, Mathew Pines, Larissa Swedell
The evolutionary consequences of sexual selection and sexual conflict are epitomized in the hamadryas baboon, a species characterized by strong sexual dimorphism and intense male-male competition. Hamadryas males coerce individual females into reproductively exclusive one-male units via aggressive takeovers, and infants involved in such takeovers are at least four times more likely to be killed (or otherwise die) after takeovers compared to other times. Here we examine female reproductive state before and after takeovers to further investigate the determinants of takeovers and their impact on female reproduction...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388817/social-and-demographic-correlates-of-male-androgen-levels-in-wild-white-faced-capuchin-monkeys-cebus-capucinus
#9
Franka S Schaebs, Susan E Perry, Don Cohen, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner
The Challenge Hypothesis, designed originally to explain the patterning of competitive behavior and androgen levels in seasonally breeding birds, predicts that males will increase their androgen levels in order to become more competitive in reproductive contexts. Here we test predictions derived from the Challenge Hypothesis in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), a species that has somewhat seasonal reproduction. We analyzed demographic and hormonal data collected over a 5.25-year period, from 18 males in nine social groups living in or near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384395/consensus-bundle-on-maternal-mental-health-perinatal-depression-and-anxiety
#10
Susan Kendig, John P Keats, M Camille Hoffman, Lisa B Kay, Emily S Miller, Tiffany A Moore Simas, Ariela Frieder, Barbara Hackley, Pec Indman, Christena Raines, Kisha Semenuk, Katherine L Wisner, Lauren A Lemieux
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health conditions encountered by women of reproductive age. When left untreated, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders can have profound adverse effects on women and their children, ranging from increased risk of poor adherence to medical care, exacerbation of medical conditions, loss of interpersonal and financial resources, smoking and substance use, suicide, and infanticide. Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are associated with increased risks of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity and are recognized as a significant patient safety issue...
March 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334747/the-family-planning-conundrum-in-afghanistan
#11
Hemat Shafiqullah, Ayako Morita, Keiko Nakamura, Kaoruko Seino
In Afghanistan, despite the high awareness levels of contraceptive methods, the contraceptive prevalence is low and short birth spacing is common. The aim of this study was to understand the perception about family planning and contraceptive utilization among reproductive-aged married women, their husbands, their mothers-in-law, religious leaders and healthcare providers. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among married women of reproductive age ( n =  482), their husbands ( n =  133), their mothers-in-law ( n =  194), their religious leaders ( n =  16), and healthcare providers ( n =  36) in rural and urban areas in five provinces...
October 20, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332613/hunting-promotes-spatial-reorganization-and-sexually-selected-infanticide
#12
M Leclerc, S C Frank, A Zedrosser, J E Swenson, F Pelletier
Harvest can affect the ecology and evolution of wild species. The removal of key individuals, such as matriarchs or dominant males, can disrupt social structure and exacerbate the impact of hunting on population growth. We do not know, however, how and when the spatiotemporal reorganization takes place after removal and if such changes can be the mechanism that explain a decrease in population growth. Detailed behavioral information from individually monitored brown bears, in a population where hunting increases sexually selected infanticide, revealed that adult males increased their use of home ranges of hunter-killed neighbors in the second year after their death...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297129/towards-a-non-ethics-based-consensual-public-policy-on-abortion
#13
David Alvargonzález
The absence of agreement on the ethical legitimacy of abortion does not entail the impossibility of finding a consensus on the best policy on abortion. This consensus is affordable because nobody doubts that, regarding the methods of birth control, contraception is better than abortion, abortion is better than infanticide and abortion is worse the later and the less safe it is performed. Because the complete elimination of abortion is not possible, the most relevant realistic political objectives that can be proposed are reducing the abortion rate, reducing the gestational age of abortions and making the remaining abortions safer...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262803/adopt-ignore-or-kill-male-poison-frogs-adjust-parental-decisions-according-to-their-territorial-status
#14
Eva Ringler, Kristina Barbara Beck, Steffen Weinlein, Ludwig Huber, Max Ringler
Systematic infanticide of unrelated young has been reported in several animal taxa. Particular attention has been given to carnivores and primates, where infanticide is a sexually selected strategy of males to gain increased access to female mating partners. Cannibals must ensure avoiding their own offspring and targeting only unrelated young. Therefore, decision rules are needed to mediate parental and cannibalistic behaviour. Here we show experimentally that male poison frogs adjust their parental responses - care or infanticide - towards unrelated clutches according to their territorial status...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190757/consensus-bundle-on-maternal-mental-health-perinatal-depression-and-anxiety
#15
Susan Kendig, John P Keats, M Camille Hoffman, Lisa B Kay, Emily S Miller, Tiffany A Moore Simas, Ariela Frieder, Barbara Hackley, Pec Indman, Christena Raines, Kisha Semenuk, Katherine L Wisner, Lauren A Lemieux
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health conditions encountered by women of reproductive age. When left untreated, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders can have profound adverse effects on women and their children, ranging from increased risk of poor adherence to medical care, exacerbation of medical conditions, loss of interpersonal and financial resources, smoking and substance use, suicide, and infanticide. Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are associated with increased risks of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity and are recognized as a significant patient safety issue...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188420/clashes-of-consensus-on-the-problem-of-both-justifying-abortion-of-fetuses-with-down-syndrome-and-rejecting-infanticide
#16
Henrik Friberg-Fernros
Although the abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome has become commonplace, infanticide is still widely rejected. Generally, there are three ways of justifying the differentiation between abortion and infanticide: by referring to the differences between the moral status of the fetus versus the infant, by referring to the differences of the moral status of the act of abortion versus the act of infanticide, or by separating the way the permissibility of abortion is justified from the way the impermissibility of infanticide is justified...
June 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178041/consensus-bundle-on-maternal-mental-health-perinatal-depression-and-anxiety
#17
Susan Kendig, John P Keats, M Camille Hoffman, Lisa B Kay, Emily S Miller, Tiffany A Moore Simas, Ariela Frieder, Barbara Hackley, Pec Indman, Christena Raines, Kisha Semenuk, Katherine L Wisner, Lauren A Lemieux
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health conditions encountered by women of reproductive age. When left untreated, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders can have profound adverse effects on women and their children, ranging from increased risk of poor adherence to medical care, exacerbation of medical conditions, loss of interpersonal and financial resources, smoking and substance use, suicide, and infanticide. Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are associated with increased risks of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity and are recognized as a significant patient safety issue...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167774/female-sociality-and-sexual-conflict-shape-offspring-survival-in-a-neotropical-primate
#18
Urs Kalbitzer, Mackenzie L Bergstrom, Sarah D Carnegie, Eva C Wikberg, Shoji Kawamura, Fernando A Campos, Katharine M Jack, Linda M Fedigan
Most mammals live in social groups in which members form differentiated social relationships. Individuals may vary in their degree of sociality, and this variation can be associated with differential fitness. In some species, for example, female sociality has a positive effect on infant survival. However, investigations of such cases are still rare, and no previous study has considered how male infanticide might constrain effects of female sociality on infant survival. Infanticide is part of the male reproductive strategy in many mammals, and it has the potential to override, or even reverse, effects of female reproductive strategies, including sociality...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100822/conditional-fetal-and-infant-killing-by-male-baboons
#19
Matthew N Zipple, Jackson H Grady, Jacob B Gordon, Lydia D Chow, Elizabeth A Archie, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C Alberts
Sexually selected feticide-the death of infants in utero as a result of male behaviour-has only rarely been described or analysed, although it is presumed to be favoured by the same selective pressures that favour sexually selected infanticide. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frequency of feticide and infanticide by male baboons of the Amboseli basin in Kenya, and examined which characteristics of a male and his environment made him more likely to commit feticide and/or infanticide. We found a dramatic increase in fetal and infant death rates, but no increase in death rates of 1- to 2-year-old individuals, following the immigration of males who stood to benefit from feticide and infanticide...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100816/diets-derived-from-maize-monoculture-cause-maternal-infanticides-in-the-endangered-european-hamster-due-to-a-vitamin-b3-deficiency
#20
Mathilde L Tissier, Yves Handrich, Odeline Dallongeville, Jean-Patrice Robin, Caroline Habold
From 1735 to 1940, maize-based diets led to the death of hundreds of thousands of people from pellagra, a complex disease caused by tryptophan and vitamin B3 deficiencies. The current cereal monoculture trend restricts farmland animals to similarly monotonous diets. However, few studies have distinguished the effects of crop nutritional properties on the reproduction of these species from those of other detrimental factors such as pesticide toxicity or agricultural ploughing. This study shows that maize-based diets cause high rates of maternal infanticides in the European hamster, a farmland species on the verge of extinction in Western Europe...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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