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Infanticide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903871/decline-and-recovery-of-a-large-carnivore-environmental-change-and-long-term-trends-in-an-endangered-brown-bear-population
#1
Isabel Martínez Cano, Fernando González Taboada, Javier Naves, Alberto Fernández-Gil, Thorsten Wiegand
Understanding what factors drive fluctuations in the abundance of endangered species is a difficult ecological problem but a major requirement to attain effective management and conservation success. The ecological traits of large mammals make this task even more complicated, calling for integrative approaches. We develop a framework combining individual-based modelling and statistical inference to assess alternative hypotheses on brown bear dynamics in the Cantabrian range (Iberian Peninsula). Models including the effect of environmental factors on mortality rates were able to reproduce three decades of variation in the number of females with cubs of the year (Fcoy), including the decline that put the population close to extinction in the mid-nineties, and the following increase in brown bear numbers...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849056/observations-of-severe-and-lethal-coalitionary-attacks-in-wild-mountain-gorillas
#2
Stacy Rosenbaum, Veronica Vecellio, Tara Stoinski
In humans and chimpanzees, most intraspecific killing occurs during coalitionary intergroup conflict. In the closely related genus Gorilla, such behavior has not been described. We report three cases of multi-male, multi-female wild mountain gorilla (G. beringei) groups attacking extra-group males. The behavior was strikingly similar to reports in chimpanzees, but was never observed in gorillas until after a demographic transition left ~25% of the population living in large social groups with multiple (3+) males...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832444/screening-for-and-treating-postpartum-depression-and-psychosis-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#3
Andra Wilkinson, Seri Anderson, Stephanie B Wheeler
Objectives Postpartum depression impacts 6.5-12.9% of U.S. women. Postpartum depression is associated with impaired bonding and development, marital discord, suicide, and infanticide. However, the current standard of care is to not screen women for postpartum depression. This study modeled the cost-effectiveness of physicians screening for and treating postpartum depression and psychosis in partnership with a psychiatrist. Methods This study follows a hypothetical cohort of 1000 pregnant women experiencing one live birth over a 2-year time horizon...
November 10, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793732/development-dependent-behavioral-change-toward-pups-and-synaptic-transmission-in-the-rhomboid-nucleus-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#4
Taiju Amano, Sayaka Shindo, Chihiro Yoshihara, Yousuke Tsuneoka, Haruka Uki, Masabumi Minami, Kumi O Kuroda
Sexually naïve male C57BL/6 mice aggressively bite unfamiliar pups. This behavior, called infanticide, is considered an adaptive reproductive strategy of males of polygamous species. We recently found that the rhomboid nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTrh) is activated during infanticide and that the bilateral excitotoxic lesions of BSTrh suppress infanticidal behavior. Here we show that 3-week-old male C57BL/6 mice rarely engaged in infanticide and instead, provided parental care toward unfamiliar pups, consistent with observations in rats and other rodent species...
October 25, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783254/cases-of-maternal-cannibalism-in-wild-bonobos-pan-paniscus-from-two-different-field-sites-wamba-and-kokolopori-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#5
Nahoko Tokuyama, Deborah Lynn Moore, Kirsty Emma Graham, Albert Lokasola, Takeshi Furuichi
Maternal cannibalism, whereby a mother consumes her own offspring, occurs in various animal taxa and is commonly explained by nutritional stress or environmental pressures. It is rare in nonhuman primates and is considered an aberrant behavior only observed under high-stress conditions. It was therefore surprising when, in the first reported case of cannibalism in wild bonobos, a mother consumed part of the dead infant at LuiKotale. Here we report two more cases of maternal cannibalism by wild bonobos at two different study sites, Wamba and Kokolopori...
October 25, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717058/pro-life-arguments-against-infanticide-and-why-they-are-not-convincing
#6
Joona Räsänen
Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article 'After-Birth Abortion: Why Should the Baby Live?' has received a lot of criticism since its publishing. Part of the recent criticism has been made by pro-life philosopher Christopher Kaczor, who argues against infanticide in his updated book 'Ethics of Abortion'. Kaczor makes four arguments to show where Giubilini and Minerva's argument for permitting infanticide goes wrong. In this article I argue that Kaczor's arguments, and some similar arguments presented by other philosophers, are mistaken and cannot show Giubilini and Minerva's view to be flawed...
November 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609245/postpartum-psychosis-madness-mania-and-melancholia-in-motherhood
#7
Veerle Bergink, Natalie Rasgon, Katherine L Wisner
OBJECTIVE: Psychosis or mania after childbirth is a psychiatric emergency with risk for suicide and infanticide. METHOD: The authors reviewed the epidemiologic and genetic research and physiological postpartum triggers (endocrine, immunological, circadian) of psychosis. They also summarized all systematic reviews and synthesized the sparse clinical studies to provide diagnostic recommendations, treatment options, and strategies for prevention. RESULTS: The incidence of first-lifetime onset postpartum psychosis/mania from population-based register studies of psychiatric admissions varies from 0...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593357/mandibular-fracture-in-a-neonate
#8
V Gopalakrishnan, N K Sahoo, I D Roy
Mandibular fractures in the neonate are rare. The aetiological factors are traumatic delivery, accidental fall, road traffic accidents, and attempted infanticide. The diagnosis is difficult due to facial oedema masking the clinical features and the absence of dentition. The treatment of fractures in the newborn represents a unique problem in terms of investigations, diagnosis, selection of anaesthesia, and method of fixation. The case of a 1-day-old infant referred for the management of a mandibular fracture sustained in an accidental fall is presented herein...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591559/offspring-loss-after-male-change-in-wild-siamangs-the-importance-of-abrupt-weaning-and-male-care
#9
Luca Morino, Carola Borries
OBJECTIVES: Infanticide by males is assumed to promote permanent male-female associations, although its importance for social monogamy is still debated. We examined the consequences of male membership change in the largest socially monogamous primate, the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), a species that also forms polyandrous groups and where males may provide offspring care. We examine (a) the potential risk of infanticide by documenting changes in female-offspring relationships following male change, expecting abrupt weaning; and (b) the potential importance of male care and polyandry for offspring survival...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570341/psychiatric-morbidity-and-correlates-in-postpartum-women-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#10
Narendra Kumar, Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj, Umashree Koudike, Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi
BACKGROUND: A range of psychological disorders occur in women in the postpartum period apart from the traditional blues, postpartum depression and psychosis. These include obsession of infanticide, PTSD, morbid preoccupations regarding child birth and disorders of mother-infant relationships, though they are under emphasized. METHODS: it is a cross-sectional study conducted in the tertiary maternity care hospital. A total of 152 study subjects were interviewed on MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) within 2 weeks after delivery...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546937/patterns-and-consequences-of-male-infant-relationships-in-wild-assamese-macaques-macaca-assamensis
#11
Christin Minge, Andreas Berghänel, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
Male care for offspring is unexpected in polygynandrous mammals. Evidence from nonhuman primates, however, indicates not only the existence of stable male-immature associations in multimale-multifemale groups, but also male care in the form of protection from infanticidal attacks and conspecific harassment. Here, we investigate the relationship characteristics, dynamics, and consequences of male-immature associations in wild Assamese macaques, Macaca assamensis, at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, to inform hypotheses of their evolutionary origins...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512982/incidentally-diagnosed-intracranial-sewing-needle-in-an-adult-patient-a-failed-infanticide-attempt
#12
Necati Ucler, Seyho Cem Yucetas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448763/hunting-promotes-sexual-conflict-in-brown-bears
#13
Jacinthe Gosselin, Martin Leclerc, Andreas Zedrosser, Sam M J G Steyaert, Jon E Swenson, Fanie Pelletier
1.The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide, very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. 2.Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991-2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444643/blurring-reality-with-fiction-exploring-the-stories-of-women-madness-and-infanticide
#14
Diana Jefferies, Debbie Horsfall, Virginia Schmied
PROBLEM: Often, there is a sense of shock and disbelief when a mother murders her child. BACKGROUND: Yet, literary texts (plays, poems and novels) contain depictions of women experiencing mental illness or feelings of desperation after childbirth who murder their children. AIM: To further understand why a woman may harm her child we examine seven literary texts ranging in time and place from fifth century BCE Greece to twenty-first century Australia...
July 18, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378180/from-facultative-to-obligatory-parental-care-interspecific-variation-in-offspring-dependency-on-post-hatching-care-in-burying-beetles
#15
Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, Eva M Keppner, Heiko Vogel, Manfred Ayasse, Anne-Katrin Eggert, Scott K Sakaluk, Sandra Steiger
Studies on the evolution of parental care have focused primarily on the costs and benefits of parental care and the life-history attributes that favour it. However, once care evolves, offspring in some taxa appear to become increasingly dependent on their parents. Although offspring dependency is a central theme in family life, the evolutionary dynamics leading to it are not fully understood. Beetles of the genus Nicrophorus are well known for their elaborate biparental care, including provisioning of their young...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359104/from-cradle-to-grave-via-the-dissection-room-the-role-of-foetal-and-infant-bodies-in-anatomical-education-from-the-late-1700s-to-early-1900s
#16
REVIEW
Jenna M Dittmar, Piers D Mitchell
The preponderance of men in the narrative of anatomical education during the 1800s has skewed the historical perception of medical cadavers in favour of adult men, and stifled the conversation about the less portrayed individuals, especially children. Although underrepresented in both the historical literature and skeletal remains from archaeological contexts dated to the 1800s, these sources nevertheless illustrate that foetal and infant cadavers were a prized source of knowledge. In the late 1700s and 1800s foetal and infant cadavers were acquired by anatomists following body snatching from graveyards, from the child's death in a charitable hospital, death from infectious disease in large poor families, or following infanticide by desperate unwed mothers...
December 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346386/infanticide-and-within-clutch-competition-select-for-reproductive-synchrony-in-a-cooperative-bird
#17
Christina Riehl
Reproduction among members of social animal groups is often highly synchronized, but neither the selective advantages nor the proximate causes of synchrony are fully understood. Here I investigate the evolution of hatching synchrony in the Greater Ani (Crotophaga major), a communally nesting bird in which several unrelated females contribute eggs to a large, shared clutch. Hatching synchrony is variable, ranging from complete synchrony to moderate asynchrony, and is determined by the onset of incubation of the communal clutch...
August 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335423/human-shields-mediate-sexual-conflict-in-a-top-predator
#18
S M J G Steyaert, M Leclerc, F Pelletier, J Kindberg, S Brunberg, J E Swenson, A Zedrosser
Selecting the right habitat in a risky landscape is crucial for an individual's survival and reproduction. In predator-prey systems, prey often can anticipate the habitat use of their main predator and may use protective associates (i.e. typically an apex predator) as shields against predation. Although never tested, such mechanisms should also evolve in systems in which sexual conflict affects offspring survival. Here, we assessed the relationship between offspring survival and habitat selection, as well as the use of protective associates, in a system in which sexually selected infanticide (SSI), rather than interspecific predation, affects offspring survival...
June 29, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263469/kin-effects-on-energy-allocation-in-group-living-ground-squirrels
#19
Vincent A Viblanc, Claire Saraux, Jan O Murie, F Stephen Dobson
The social environment has potent effects on individual phenotype and fitness in group-living species. We asked whether the presence of kin might act on energy allocation, a central aspect of life-history variation. Using a 22-year data set on reproductive and somatic allocations in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), we tested the effects of co-breeding and non-breeding kin on the fitness and energy allocation balance between reproduction and personal body condition of individual females...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254025/corkscrew-seals-grey-seal-halichoerus-grypus-infanticide-and-cannibalism-may-indicate-the-cause-of-spiral-lacerations-in-seals
#20
Andrew Brownlow, Joseph Onoufriou, Amanda Bishop, Nicholas Davison, Dave Thompson
Large numbers of dead seals with characteristic spiral lesions have been washing ashore around the North Atlantic over the past two decades. Interactions with ship propellers and shark predation have been suggested as the likely causal mechanisms. However, new evidence points towards a more likely candidate: grey seal predation. An adult male grey seal was observed and recorded catching, killing and eating five weaned grey seal pups over a period of one week on the Isle of May, Scotland. A further 9 carcasses found in the same area exhibited similar injuries...
2016: PloS One
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