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Infanticide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140543/infant-mortality-in-white-faced-capuchins-the-impact-of-alpha-male-replacements
#1
Lauren F Brasington, Eva C Wikberg, Shoji Kawamura, Linda M Fedigan, Katharine M Jack
Infanticide is common in the context of alpha male replacements (AMR), particularly in groups where alpha males experience high reproductive skew and the infants are unlikely to be related to a new alpha male. We examined the relationship between the rate of infant mortality, infant age, and the occurrence and type of AMR in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator) of the Santa Rosa population in Sector Santa Rosa, Área de Conservación Guanacaste. Specifically, we investigated how the source of the new alpha male (coresident or extragroup) and relative aggression level during AMRs influenced infant mortality in this species...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072310/infanticide-in-chimpanzees-taphonomic-case-studies-from-gombe
#2
Claire A Kirchhoff, Michael L Wilson, Deus C Mjungu, Jane Raphael, Shadrack Kamenya, D Anthony Collins
OBJECTIVES: We present a study of skeletal damage to four chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infanticide victims from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Skeletal analysis may provide insight into the adaptive significance of infanticide by examining whether nutritional benefits sufficiently explain infanticidal behavior. The nutritional hypothesis would be supported if bone survivorship rates and skeletal damage patterns are comparable to those of monkey prey. If not, other explanations, such as the resource competition hypothesis, should be considered...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062162/low-temperatures-during-ontogeny-increase-fluctuating-asymmetry-and-reduce-maternal-aggression-in-the-house-mouse-mus-musculus
#3
Zeynep Benderlioglu, Eliot Dow
Maternal aggression is behavior displayed by post-partum lactating female mice toward unfamiliar conspecifics, presumably as a defense against infanticide. A variety of perinatal stressors can impair maternal care in adulthood. Previous studies on associations between developmental perturbations and maternal aggression have produced mixed results. To address this issue, we employed a proxy for developmental instability, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) to further elucidate the relationship between low temperature stress and maternal aggression...
June 2017: Ethology: Formerly Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019607/-european-representations-of-birth-control-and-abortions-in-islamic-societies-and-harems-in-the-modern-period
#4
Marina Juliana de Oliveira Soares
Throughout the modern period, Islamic women (whether they lived in palaces or normal houses) resorted to measures to prevent conception or to induce abortion when pregnancy occurred. They used herbs and abortifacient drugs or relied on help from other women to eliminate unwanted pregnancies. Such practices were recorded by Europeans - in some cases, doctors - who traveled to Islamic regions and described these scenes in their narratives. In addition to abortions, infanticide was also observed in the imperial palaces...
July 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983906/a-newborn-infant-chimpanzee-snatched-and-cannibalized-immediately-after-birth-implications-for-maternity-leave-in-wild-chimpanzee
#5
Hitonaru Nishie, Michio Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: This study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate "maternity leave" from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855370/effects-of-early-life-competition-and-maternal-nutrition-on-telomere-lengths-in-wild-meerkats
#6
Dominic L Cram, Pat Monaghan, Robert Gillespie, Tim Clutton-Brock
Early-life adversity can affect health, survival and fitness later in life, and recent evidence suggests that telomere attrition may link early conditions with their delayed consequences. Here, we investigate the link between early-life competition and telomere length in wild meerkats. Our results show that, when multiple females breed concurrently, increases in the number of pups in the group are associated with shorter telomeres in pups. Given that pups from different litters compete for access to milk, we tested whether this effect is due to nutritional constraints on maternal milk production, by experimentally supplementing females' diets during gestation and lactation...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791488/the-bruce-effect-revisited-is-pregnancy-termination-in-female-rodents-an-adaptation-to-ensure-breeding-success-after-male-turnover-in-low-densities
#7
Jana A Eccard, Melanie Dammhahn, Hannu Ylönen
Pregnancy termination after encountering a strange male, the Bruce effect, is regarded as a counterstrategy of female mammals towards anticipated infanticide. While confirmed in caged rodent pairs, no verification for the Bruce effect existed from experimental field populations of small rodents. We suggest that the effect may be adaptive for breeding rodent females only under specific conditions related to populations with cyclically fluctuating densities. We investigated the occurrence of delay in birth date after experimental turnover of the breeding male under different population composition in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in large outdoor enclosures: one-male-multiple-females (n = 6 populations/18 females), multiple-males-multiple-females (n = 15/45), and single-male-single-female (MF treatment, n = 74/74)...
September 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769007/the-deletion-of-gpr40-ffar1-signaling-damages-maternal-care-and-emotional-function-in-female-mice
#8
Fuka Aizawa, Yoshihiro Ogaki, Natsuki Kyoya, Takashi Nishinaka, Kazuo Nakamoto, Takashi Kurihara, Akira Hirasawa, Atsuro Miyata, Shogo Tokuyama
The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acids (DHA). This receptor has been the focus of many studies regarding physiological functions of the central nervous system. PUFAs are essential for neuronal development and maintenance of neuronal function; thus, the decrease of PUFAs in the brain is closely related to the induction of psychiatric diseases associated with emotional disorder, such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766249/if-abortion-then-infanticide
#9
David B Hershenov, Rose J Hershenov
Our contention is that all of the major arguments for abortion are also arguments for permitting infanticide. One cannot distinguish the fetus from the infant in terms of a morally significant intrinsic property, nor are they morally discernible in terms of standing in different relationships to others. The logic of our position is that if such arguments justify abortion, then they also justify infanticide. If we are right that infanticide is not justified, then such arguments will fail to justify abortion...
October 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762352/a-comparative-study-to-associate-the-presence-of-neonatal-line-in-deciduous-teeth-of-infants-with-the-occurrence-of-live-birth
#10
Shruti Srinivasan, Prashanth Sadashiva Murthy, Seema Deshmukh, N M Shamsundar
CONTEXT: The prominent striae of retzius corresponding to the occurrence of live birth is known as the neonatal line (NNL). The very presence of this line indicates the exposure of the infant to the stressful event of birth. AIMS: The study was aimed at locating the NNL in the developing primary teeth of the neonate and associating the presence of NNL to the occurrence of live birth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The donated bodies of the neonates were taken, and a surgical incision was made along the crest of the alveolar ridge in the maxillary anterior region, enabling the careful removal of the tooth germs from within the jaw segment...
July 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699248/phenotypical-characteristics-of-postpartum-psychosis-a-clinical-cohort-study
#11
Astrid M Kamperman, Marian J Veldman-Hoek, Richard Wesseloo, Emma Robertson Blackmore, Veerle Bergink
OBJECTIVES: Postpartum psychosis (PP) is known for its clear onset but its phenotype has never been clearly described in a cohort. The aim of this study was to describe PP symptomatology, and to identify subgroups of patients based on symptom profiles. METHODS: We prospectively assessed a wide range of symptoms in cases of PP in a cohort of women (N=130) admitted to the Mother-Baby inpatient unit. Using a person-centered analytic approach, we distinguished mutually exclusive subgroups of women...
September 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636751/using-experimentation-to-understand-the-10-year-snowshoe-hare-cycle-in-the-boreal-forest-of-north-america
#12
C J Krebs, R Boonstra, S Boutin
Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation, and social behaviour...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609392/the-role-of-hormone-therapy-in-the-management-of-severe-postpartum-depression-in-patients-with-turner-syndrome
#13
Alison K Shea, Wendy Wolfman
OBJECTIVE: Premature ovarian failure associated with Turner syndrome presents clinicians with a vast range of health concerns, including infertility, cardiovascular disease, and decreased bone mineral density, in addition to psychological sequelae. Hormone therapy is paramount in managing these complications, but the additional needs in the postpartum period for those who are able to carry out a successful pregnancy have not been described. METHODS: We present a case of severe postpartum depression (PPD) with psychotic features in a patient with Turner syndrome, which presented at 4 weeks after the birth of her first child via egg donation RESULTS:: We describe the case of a previously well 32-year-old patient with an 46 X, i(Xq) karyotype, who went through a 4-week intensive inpatient treatment course for PPD, requiring electroconvulsant therapy for persistent infanticidal and suicidal ideation...
November 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580656/prepartum-psychosis-and-neonaticide-rare-case-study-and-forensic-psychiatric-synthesis-of-literature
#14
Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Maria Markopoulou, Ioannis K Tentes, Panagiotis N Tsikouras, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Pavlos Pavlidis
Peripartum psychosis is a rare but serious psychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of a mood episode with psychotic features. Although controversy surrounds the nosological status of peripartum mental disorders, these conditions continue to be of exceptional interest to the medical and forensic mental health communities. The aim of this study was to report a rare case of prepartum psychosis which escalated to the endpoint of neonaticide and summarize literature on peripartum mental disorders and infanticide...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565939/homicide-in-the-western-family-and-background-factors-of-a-perpetrator
#15
REVIEW
Anna Liisa Aho, Anni Remahl, Eija Paavilainen
AIMS: Familicide is a multiple-victim homicide incident in which the killer's spouse and one or more children are slain. A systematic review was conducted to reveal the background factors of western homicide perpetrators. METHODS: The systematic search was performed in the Arto, Medic, Cinahl, Medline, EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier and Social Services abstracts databases. The keywords were familicide, family homicide, familicide-suicide, filicide-suicide, extended suicide, child, murder, family, filicide and infanticide...
July 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543783/alpha-male-replacements-in-nonhuman-primates-variability-in-processes-outcomes-and-terminology
#16
Julie A Teichroeb, Katharine M Jack
Alpha male replacements occur in all primates displaying a dominance hierarchy but the process can be extremely variable. Here, we review the primate literature to document differences in patterns of alpha male replacements, showing that group composition and dispersal patterns account for a large proportion of this variability. We also examine the consequences of alpha male replacements in terms of sexual selection theory, infanticide, and group compositions. Though alpha male replacements are often called takeovers in the literature, this term masks much of the variation that is present in these processes...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439031/explaining-negative-kin-discrimination-in-a-cooperative-mammal-society
#17
Faye J Thompson, Michael A Cant, Harry H Marshall, Emma I K Vitikainen, Jennifer L Sanderson, Hazel J Nichols, Jason S Gilchrist, Matthew B V Bell, Andrew J Young, Sarah J Hodge, Rufus A Johnstone
Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are more closely related to dominant individuals are specifically targeted for forcible eviction from the group, often suffering severe injury, and sometimes death, as a result...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405376/a-test-of-male-infanticide-as-a-reproductive-tactic-in-a-cichlid-fish
#18
Shagun Jindal, Aneesh P H Bose, Constance M O'Connor, Sigal Balshine
Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395395/contexts-and-consequences-of-takeovers-in-hamadryas-baboons-female-parity-reproductive-state-and-observational-evidence-of-pregnancy-loss
#19
Alexis L Amann, Mathew Pines, Larissa Swedell
The evolutionary consequences of sexual selection and sexual conflict are epitomized in the hamadryas baboon, a species characterized by strong sexual dimorphism and intense male-male competition. Hamadryas males coerce individual females into reproductively exclusive one-male units via aggressive takeovers, and infants involved in such takeovers are at least four times more likely to be killed (or otherwise die) after takeovers compared to other times. Here we examine female reproductive state before and after takeovers to further investigate the determinants of takeovers and their impact on female reproduction...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388817/social-and-demographic-correlates-of-male-androgen-levels-in-wild-white-faced-capuchin-monkeys-cebus-capucinus
#20
Franka S Schaebs, Susan E Perry, Don Cohen, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner
The Challenge Hypothesis, designed originally to explain the patterning of competitive behavior and androgen levels in seasonally breeding birds, predicts that males will increase their androgen levels in order to become more competitive in reproductive contexts. Here we test predictions derived from the Challenge Hypothesis in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), a species that has somewhat seasonal reproduction. We analyzed demographic and hormonal data collected over a 5.25-year period, from 18 males in nine social groups living in or near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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