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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730033/incidence-and-biomarkers-of-pregnancy-spontaneous-abortion-and-neonatal-loss-during-an-environmental-stressor-implications-for-female-reproductive-suppression-in-the-cooperatively-breeding-meerkat
#1
Kristin A Dimac-Stohl, Charli S Davies, Nicholas M Grebe, Alexandra C Stonehill, Lydia K Greene, Jessica Mitchell, Tim Clutton-Brock, Christine M Drea
Meerkats are group-living, insectivorous herpestids in which subordinate members provide extensive care for the dominant female's young. In contrast to some cooperative breeders, subordinate female meerkats are physiologically able to reproduce and occasionally do so successfully; their attempts are more frequently 'suppressed' via eviction or infanticide by the dominant female. Spontaneous abortion and neonatal loss occur with some regularity, further negatively impacting reproductive success. Here, we compared the reproductive outcomes and endocrine profiles, including of serum progesterone (P4 ), serum estradiol (E2 ), and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCm), of dominant and subordinate dams residing within their clans in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713492/effect-of-cold-stress-on-infanticide-by-female-swiss-albino-mice-mus-musculus-a-pilot-study
#2
Tabassum Zafar, Ab Qayoom Naik, Vinoy K Shrivastava
Background: Mice are widely accepted research models of great clinical significance. Maintenance of laboratory mice breed is an essential aspect for performing research activities in various fields of science. Infanticide is one of the prominent causes of litter loss during maintenance of laboratory mice stock. The present study is an effort to monitor the effect of change in ambient temperature of female mice below the normal range on cannibalism and infanticide during early postparturition phase...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687607/why-do-some-animals-mate-with-one-partner-rather-than-many-a-review-of-causes-and-consequences-of-monogamy
#3
Charlotta Kvarnemo
Why do some animals mate with one partner rather than many? Here, I investigate factors related to (i) spatial constraints (habitat limitation, mate availability), (ii) time constraints (breeding synchrony, length of breeding season), (iii) need for parental care, and (iv) genetic compatibility, to see what support can be found in different taxa regarding the importance of these factors in explaining the occurrence of monogamy, whether shown by one sex (monogyny or monandry) or by both sexes (mutual monogamy)...
April 23, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675280/what-can-happen-when-postpartum-anxiety-progresses-to-psychosis-a-case-study
#4
Vesna Pirec
This case report describes a primipara without documented psychiatric history prior to complicated delivery. Onset of severe insomnia and anxiety was right after childbirth but not treated. Obsessive thinking pattern became more prominent. The patient became depressed and sought psychiatric help four months after delivery. Insomnia was then treated pharmacologically. Anxiety and depression persisted, suicidal ideation emerged, and the patient became confused, indecisive, overwhelmed, and delusional regarding her child's health...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559642/infanticide-in-a-mammal-eating-killer-whale-population
#5
Jared R Towers, Muriel J Hallé, Helena K Symonds, Gary J Sutton, Alexandra B Morton, Paul Spong, James P Borrowman, John K B Ford
Infanticide can be an extreme result of sexual conflict that drives selection in species in which it occurs. It is a rarely observed behaviour but some evidence for its occurrence in cetaceans exists in three species of dolphin. Here we describe observations of an adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca) and his post-reproductive mother killing a neonate belonging to an unrelated female from the same population in the North Pacific. This is the first account of infanticide reported in killer whales and the only case committed jointly by an adult male and his mother outside of humans...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543323/sexually-selected-infanticide-by-male-red-squirrels-in-advance-of-a-mast-year
#6
Jessica A Haines, David W Coltman, Ben Dantzer, Jamieson C Gorrell, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam, Stan Boutin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533204/relationship-between-the-tensile-strengths-and-diameters-of-human-umbilical-cords
#7
D M G Fernando, S M K Gamage, S Ranmohottige, I Weerakkody, H Abeyruwan, H Parakrama
Mothers of alleged infanticides might claim that umbilical cord broke during precipitate delivery causing injuries detected on baby at autopsy. There is paucity of evidence regarding this possibility. The objective of the study was to determine relationship between tensile strength and diameter or weight per unit length of cord. Diameters and weights per unit length of fresh umbilical cords were determined. Tensile strengths were measured by Hounsfield Testing Machine. Relationship between tensile strength versus cord diameter and weight per unit length were analyzed...
May 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464993/beyond-infanticide-how-psychological-accounts-of-persons-can-justify-harming-infants
#8
Daniel Rodger, Bruce P Blackshaw, Calum Miller
It is commonly argued that a serious right to life is grounded only in actual, relatively advanced psychological capacities a being has acquired. The moral permissibility of abortion is frequently argued for on these grounds. Increasingly it is being argued that such accounts also entail the permissibility of infanticide, with several proponents of these theories accepting this consequence. We show, however, that these accounts imply the permissibility of even more unpalatable acts than infanticide performed on infants: organ harvesting, live experimentation, sexual interference, and discriminatory killing...
February 21, 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425672/an-increase-in-estradiol-facilitates-the-onset-of-paternal-behavior-in-the-dwarf-hamster-phodopus-campbelli
#9
Luis Romero-Morales, Martín Martínez-Torres, Mario Cárdenas, Carmen Álvarez, Agustín Carmona, Benita Cedillo, Eduardo Loya-Zurita, Juana Luis
In the dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli), activational effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2 ) in the regulation of paternal behavior have been repeatedly rejected because peripheral concentrations of E2 do not change across the reproductive cycle of males. Further, castration no affected paternal behavior despite that both T and E2 concentrations decreased significantly. However, the role of these hormones has not been evaluated in models of castration and hormonal replacement in virgin males. Here, we analysed the effects of E2 and T in paternal behavior in virgin male dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli)...
March 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369381/why-arguments-against-infanticide-remain-convincing-a-reply-to-r%C3%A3-s%C3%A3-nen
#10
COMMENT
Daniel Rodger, Bruce P Blackshaw, Clinton Wilcox
In 'Pro-life arguments against infanticide and why they are not convincing' Joona Räsänen argues that Christopher Kaczor's objections to Giubilini and Minerva's position on infanticide are not persuasive. We argue that Räsänen's criticism is largely misplaced, and that he has not engaged with Kaczor's strongest arguments against infanticide. We reply to each of Räsänen's criticisms, drawing on the full range of Kaczor's arguments, as well as adding some of our own.
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350128/between-a-rock-a-bye-and-a-hard-place-mood-disorders-during-the-peripartum-period
#11
Michael Thomson, Verinder Sharma
Mood disorders including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are common during and after pregnancy. Timely identification and appropriate management of mood episodes is essential to maximize maternal well-being and minimize adverse outcomes. Failure to do so results in maternal suffering and impaired child bonding, and has the potential for devastating outcomes including suicide and infanticide. Women are routinely screened for unipolar depression during or after pregnancy but not for bipolar disorder, in spite of the fact that childbirth is associated with a major risk for onset or exacerbation of bipolar disorder...
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338023/traditional-agricultural-practices-and-the-sex-ratio-today
#12
Alberto Alesina, Paola Giuliano, Nathan Nunn
We study the historical origins of cross-country differences in the male-to-female sex ratio. Our analysis focuses on the use of the plough in traditional agriculture. In societies that did not use the plough, women tended to participate in agriculture as actively as men. By contrast, in societies that used the plough, men specialized in agricultural work, due to the physical strength needed to pull the plough or control the animal that pulls it. We hypothesize that this difference caused plough-using societies to value boys more than girls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230360/skin-temperature-and-reproductive-condition-in-wild-female-chimpanzees
#13
Guillaume Dezecache, Claudia Wilke, Nathalie Richi, Christof Neumann, Klaus Zuberbühler
Infrared thermal imaging has emerged as a valuable tool in veterinary medicine, in particular for evaluating reproductive processes. Here, we explored differences in skin temperature of twenty female chimpanzees in Budongo Forest, Uganda, four of which were pregnant during data collection. Based on previous literature in other mammals, we predicted increased skin temperature of maximally swollen reproductive organs of non-pregnant females when approaching peak fertility. For pregnant females, we made the same prediction because it has been argued that female chimpanzees have evolved mechanisms to conceal pregnancy, including swellings of the reproductive organs, conspicuous copulation calling, and solicitation of male mating behaviour, to decrease the infanticidal tendencies of resident males by confusing paternity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171674/a-dubious-defense-of-after-birth-abortion-a-reply-to-r%C3%A3-s%C3%A3-nen
#14
COMMENT
Christopher Kaczor
Scholars have offered various critiques of Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article, 'After-birth abortion: Why should the baby live?' My book The Ethics of Abortion: Women's Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice presents four such critiques. First, Giubilini and Minerva argue from the deeply controversial to the even more controversial. Second, they presuppose a false view of personal identity called body-self dualism. Third, their view cannot secure human equality. And fourth, their account of harm cannot account for harm found in some cases of murder...
February 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164358/medical-and-neuropsychiatric-phenomena-depicted-in-two-spanish-medieval-texts-of-marian-miracles
#15
Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, Pamela Bastante, Wilcar Cavalcante Gondim, Joana Gurgel Holanda Filha, Florian P Thomas
In the history of Christianity, veneration of the Virgin Mary reached its greatest intensity in the XIII century. Her perceived impact on daily life was tremendous and not surprisingly this extended to the spheres of disease and healing. The purpose of this study is to compare the medical and neuropsychiatric findings in two XIII century Spanish texts of Marian miracles, both examples of the popular Catholicism (vs. official catholic doctrine). We analyzed the medical and neuropsychiatric events in the Cantigas de Santa Maria (Canticles of St...
November 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140543/infant-mortality-in-white-faced-capuchins-the-impact-of-alpha-male-replacements
#16
Lauren F Brasington, Eva C Wikberg, Shoji Kawamura, Linda M Fedigan, Katharine M Jack
Infanticide is common in the context of alpha male replacements (AMR), particularly in groups where alpha males experience high reproductive skew and the infants are unlikely to be related to a new alpha male. We examined the relationship between the rate of infant mortality, infant age, and the occurrence and type of AMR in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator) of the Santa Rosa population in Sector Santa Rosa, Área de Conservación Guanacaste. Specifically, we investigated how the source of the new alpha male (coresident or extragroup) and relative aggression level during AMRs influenced infant mortality in this species...
December 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072310/infanticide-in-chimpanzees-taphonomic-case-studies-from-gombe
#17
Claire A Kirchhoff, Michael L Wilson, Deus C Mjungu, Jane Raphael, Shadrack Kamenya, D Anthony Collins
OBJECTIVES: We present a study of skeletal damage to four chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infanticide victims from Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Skeletal analysis may provide insight into the adaptive significance of infanticide by examining whether nutritional benefits sufficiently explain infanticidal behavior. The nutritional hypothesis would be supported if bone survivorship rates and skeletal damage patterns are comparable to those of monkey prey. If not, other explanations, such as the resource competition hypothesis, should be considered...
January 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062162/low-temperatures-during-ontogeny-increase-fluctuating-asymmetry-and-reduce-maternal-aggression-in-the-house-mouse-mus-musculus
#18
Zeynep Benderlioglu, Eliot Dow
Maternal aggression is behavior displayed by post-partum lactating female mice toward unfamiliar conspecifics, presumably as a defense against infanticide. A variety of perinatal stressors can impair maternal care in adulthood. Previous studies on associations between developmental perturbations and maternal aggression have produced mixed results. To address this issue, we employed a proxy for developmental instability, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) to further elucidate the relationship between low temperature stress and maternal aggression...
June 2017: Ethology: Formerly Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019607/-european-representations-of-birth-control-and-abortions-in-islamic-societies-and-harems-in-the-modern-period
#19
Marina Juliana de Oliveira Soares
Throughout the modern period, Islamic women (whether they lived in palaces or normal houses) resorted to measures to prevent conception or to induce abortion when pregnancy occurred. They used herbs and abortifacient drugs or relied on help from other women to eliminate unwanted pregnancies. Such practices were recorded by Europeans - in some cases, doctors - who traveled to Islamic regions and described these scenes in their narratives. In addition to abortions, infanticide was also observed in the imperial palaces...
July 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983906/a-newborn-infant-chimpanzee-snatched-and-cannibalized-immediately-after-birth-implications-for-maternity-leave-in-wild-chimpanzee
#20
Hitonaru Nishie, Michio Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: This study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate "maternity leave" from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania...
January 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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