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Joona Räsänen
Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article 'After-Birth Abortion: Why Should the Baby Live?' has received a lot of criticism since its publishing. Part of the recent criticism has been made by pro-life philosopher Christopher Kaczor, who argues against infanticide in his updated book 'Ethics of Abortion'. Kaczor makes four arguments to show where Giubilini and Minerva's argument for permitting infanticide goes wrong. In this article I argue that Kaczor's arguments, and some similar arguments presented by other philosophers, are mistaken and cannot show Giubilini and Minerva's view to be flawed...
November 2016: Bioethics
Veerle Bergink, Natalie Rasgon, Katherine L Wisner
OBJECTIVE: Psychosis or mania after childbirth is a psychiatric emergency with risk for suicide and infanticide. METHOD: The authors reviewed the epidemiologic and genetic research and physiological postpartum triggers (endocrine, immunological, circadian) of psychosis. They also summarized all systematic reviews and synthesized the sparse clinical studies to provide diagnostic recommendations, treatment options, and strategies for prevention. RESULTS: The incidence of first-lifetime onset postpartum psychosis/mania from population-based register studies of psychiatric admissions varies from 0...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
V Gopalakrishnan, N K Sahoo, I D Roy
Mandibular fractures in the neonate are rare. The aetiological factors are traumatic delivery, accidental fall, road traffic accidents, and attempted infanticide. The diagnosis is difficult due to facial oedema masking the clinical features and the absence of dentition. The treatment of fractures in the newborn represents a unique problem in terms of investigations, diagnosis, selection of anaesthesia, and method of fixation. The case of a 1-day-old infant referred for the management of a mandibular fracture sustained in an accidental fall is presented herein...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Luca Morino, Carola Borries
OBJECTIVES: Infanticide by males is assumed to promote permanent male-female associations, although its importance for social monogamy is still debated. We examined the consequences of male membership change in the largest socially monogamous primate, the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), a species that also forms polyandrous groups and where males may provide offspring care. We examine (a) the potential risk of infanticide by documenting changes in female-offspring relationships following male change, expecting abrupt weaning; and (b) the potential importance of male care and polyandry for offspring survival...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Narendra Kumar, Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj, Umashree Koudike, Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi
BACKGROUND: A range of psychological disorders occur in women in the postpartum period apart from the traditional blues, postpartum depression and psychosis. These include obsession of infanticide, PTSD, morbid preoccupations regarding child birth and disorders of mother-infant relationships, though they are under emphasized. METHODS: it is a cross-sectional study conducted in the tertiary maternity care hospital. A total of 152 study subjects were interviewed on MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) within 2 weeks after delivery...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Christin Minge, Andreas Berghänel, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
Male care for offspring is unexpected in polygynandrous mammals. Evidence from nonhuman primates, however, indicates not only the existence of stable male-immature associations in multimale-multifemale groups, but also male care in the form of protection from infanticidal attacks and conspecific harassment. Here, we investigate the relationship characteristics, dynamics, and consequences of male-immature associations in wild Assamese macaques, Macaca assamensis, at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, to inform hypotheses of their evolutionary origins...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
Necati Ucler, Seyho Cem Yucetas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jacinthe Gosselin, Martin Leclerc, Andreas Zedrosser, Sam M J G Steyaert, Jon E Swenson, Fanie Pelletier
1.The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide, very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. 2.Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991-2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Diana Jefferies, Debbie Horsfall, Virginia Schmied
PROBLEM: Often, there is a sense of shock and disbelief when a mother murders her child. BACKGROUND: Yet, literary texts (plays, poems and novels) contain depictions of women experiencing mental illness or feelings of desperation after childbirth who murder their children. AIM: To further understand why a woman may harm her child we examine seven literary texts ranging in time and place from fifth century BCE Greece to twenty-first century Australia...
July 18, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Alexandra Capodeanu-Nägler, Eva M Keppner, Heiko Vogel, Manfred Ayasse, Anne-Katrin Eggert, Scott K Sakaluk, Sandra Steiger
Studies on the evolution of parental care have focused primarily on the costs and benefits of parental care and the life-history attributes that favour it. However, once care evolves, offspring in some taxa appear to become increasingly dependent on their parents. Although offspring dependency is a central theme in family life, the evolutionary dynamics leading to it are not fully understood. Beetles of the genus Nicrophorus are well known for their elaborate biparental care, including provisioning of their young...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jenna M Dittmar, Piers D Mitchell
The preponderance of men in the narrative of anatomical education during the 1800s has skewed the historical perception of medical cadavers in favour of adult men, and stifled the conversation about the less portrayed individuals, especially children. Although underrepresented in both the historical literature and skeletal remains from archaeological contexts dated to the 1800s, these sources nevertheless illustrate that foetal and infant cadavers were a prized source of knowledge. In the late 1700s and 1800s foetal and infant cadavers were acquired by anatomists following body snatching from graveyards, from the child's death in a charitable hospital, death from infectious disease in large poor families, or following infanticide by desperate unwed mothers...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Christina Riehl
Reproduction among members of social animal groups is often highly synchronized, but neither the selective advantages nor the proximate causes of synchrony are fully understood. Here I investigate the evolution of hatching synchrony in the Greater Ani (Crotophaga major), a communally nesting bird in which several unrelated females contribute eggs to a large, shared clutch. Hatching synchrony is variable, ranging from complete synchrony to moderate asynchrony, and is determined by the onset of incubation of the communal clutch...
August 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
S M J G Steyaert, M Leclerc, F Pelletier, J Kindberg, S Brunberg, J E Swenson, A Zedrosser
Selecting the right habitat in a risky landscape is crucial for an individual's survival and reproduction. In predator-prey systems, prey often can anticipate the habitat use of their main predator and may use protective associates (i.e. typically an apex predator) as shields against predation. Although never tested, such mechanisms should also evolve in systems in which sexual conflict affects offspring survival. Here, we assessed the relationship between offspring survival and habitat selection, as well as the use of protective associates, in a system in which sexually selected infanticide (SSI), rather than interspecific predation, affects offspring survival...
June 29, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Vincent A Viblanc, Claire Saraux, Jan O Murie, F Stephen Dobson
The social environment has potent effects on individual phenotype and fitness in group-living species. We asked whether the presence of kin might act on energy allocation, a central aspect of life-history variation. Using a 22-year data set on reproductive and somatic allocations in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), we tested the effects of co-breeding and non-breeding kin on the fitness and energy allocation balance between reproduction and personal body condition of individual females...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Andrew Brownlow, Joseph Onoufriou, Amanda Bishop, Nicholas Davison, Dave Thompson
Large numbers of dead seals with characteristic spiral lesions have been washing ashore around the North Atlantic over the past two decades. Interactions with ship propellers and shark predation have been suggested as the likely causal mechanisms. However, new evidence points towards a more likely candidate: grey seal predation. An adult male grey seal was observed and recorded catching, killing and eating five weaned grey seal pups over a period of one week on the Isle of May, Scotland. A further 9 carcasses found in the same area exhibited similar injuries...
2016: PloS One
Flávia Koch, Johannes Signer, Peter M Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel
ABSTRACT: Individuals living in groups have to achieve collective action for successful territorial defense. Because conflicts between neighboring groups always involve risks and costs, individuals must base their decision to participate in a given conflict on an evaluation of the trade-off between potential costs and benefits. Since group members may differ in motivation to engage in group encounters, they exhibit different levels of participation in conflicts. In this study, we investigated factors influencing participation in intergroup encounters in Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), a group-living primate from Madagascar...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Joanna Sowizdraniuk
Every doctor regardless of specialization in his practice may meet the need to provide assistance to victims of crime-related action. In this article there were disscused the issues of informing the investigative authorities about the crime, ensuring the safety of themselves and the environment at the scene. It also shows the specific elements of necessary procedures and practice to deal with the victims designed to securing any evidence present of potential or committed crime in proper manner. Special attention has been given to medical operation and other, necessary in case of certain criminal groups, among the latter we need to underline: actions against sexual freedom and decency, bodily integrity, life and well-being of human, and specially homicide, infanticide and suicide...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Joseph P Garner, Brianna N Gaskill, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male's territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity...
2016: PloS One
Nicole Barbaro, Todd K Shackelford, Viviana A Weekes-Shackelford
Human life history is unique among primates, most notably the extraordinary length of infant dependency and the formation of long-term pair-bonds. Men and women are motivated to remain pair-bonded to maintain the distribution of male-provisioned resources to a woman and her offspring, or to protect offspring from infanticide. Men and women can employ several strategies to retain their mate and prevent their partner from defecting from the relationship, including individual mate retention (behaviors performed alone) and coalitional mate retention (behaviors performed by a close ally)...
September 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Naeemah Abrahams, Shanaaz Mathews, Lorna J Martin, Carl Lombard, Nadine Nannan, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15-19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y...
April 2016: PLoS Medicine
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