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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675859/indirect-task-instructions-better-reveal-theory-of-mind-impairment-independent-of-executive-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#1
Robyn Langdon, Michael Connors, Emily Connaughton
Theory of mind (TOM) impairments associate significantly with executive deficits in schizophrenia, consistent with the proposal that executive abilities can limit TOM task performance, and confounding identification of those patients who would benefit most from targeted mentalising interventions. 50 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls completed an executive battery and four TOM tasks that were alike with regards generating overt measures of causal false-belief reasoning, but differed with regards using indirect (vs...
June 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603875/impairments-of-spontaneous-and-deliberative-mentalizing-co-occur-yet-dissociate-in-schizophrenia
#2
Robyn Langdon, Michaela Flynn, Emily Connaughton, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Evidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others' mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing. METHODS: Forty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people...
June 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#3
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454059/outcome-focused-judgements-of-moral-dilemmas-in-schizophrenia
#4
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
Previous research on moral judgement in healthy adults suggests a complex interplay of automatic, emotional and deliberative processing. We aimed to advance understanding of these processes by examining moral judgement in individuals with schizophrenia, a population characterised by social-cognitive deficits and interpersonal difficulties. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls judged high-conflict moral dilemmas in response to 3rd-person (i.e. "Is it morally okay to [perform X]?") and 1st-person (i...
April 25, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253092/assessing-early-processing-of-eye-gaze-in-schizophrenia-measuring-the-cone-of-direct-gaze-and-reflexive-orienting-of-attention
#5
Kiley Seymour, Gillian Rhodes, Jonathan McGuire, Nikolas Williams, Linda Jeffery, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: The accurate discrimination of another person's eye-gaze direction is vital as it provides a cue to the gazer's focus of attention, which in turn supports joint attention. Patients with schizophrenia have shown a "direct gaze bias" when judging gaze direction. However, current tasks do not dissociate an early perceptual bias from high-level top-down effects. We investigated early stages of gaze processing in schizophrenia by measuring perceptual sensitivity to fine deviations in gaze direction (i...
March 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187217/electrophysiological-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles-of-at-risk-mental-state-the-longitudinal-minds-in-transition-mint-study
#6
Rebbekah J Atkinson, W Ross Fulham, Patricia T Michie, Philip B Ward, Juanita Todd, Helen Stain, Robyn Langdon, Renate Thienel, Georgie Paulik, Gavin Cooper, Ulrich Schall
The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776504/a-quasi-randomized-feasibility-pilot-study-of-specific-treatments-to-improve-emotion-recognition-and-mental-state-reasoning-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#7
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341507/analytic-cognitive-style-not-delusional-ideation-predicts-data-gathering-in-a-large-beads-task-study
#8
Robert M Ross, Gordon Pennycook, Ryan McKay, Will M Gervais, Robyn Langdon, Max Coltheart
INTRODUCTION: It has been proposed that deluded and delusion-prone individuals gather less evidence before forming beliefs than those who are not deluded or delusion-prone. The primary source of evidence for this "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) bias is provided by research that utilises the "beads task" data-gathering paradigm. However, the cognitive mechanisms subserving data gathering in this task are poorly understood. METHODS: In the largest published beads task study to date (n = 558), we examined data gathering in the context of influential dual-process theories of reasoning...
2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258929/beliefs-about-hearing-voices
#9
Michael H Connors, Serje Robidoux, Robyn Langdon, Max Coltheart
People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause...
July 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207190/automatic-attentional-orienting-to-other-people-s-gaze-in-schizophrenia
#10
Robyn Langdon, Kiley Seymour, Tracey Williams, Philip B Ward
Explicit tests of social cognition have revealed pervasive deficits in schizophrenia. Less is known of automatic social cognition in schizophrenia. We used a spatial orienting task to investigate automatic shifts of attention cued by another person's eye gaze in 29 patients and 28 controls. Central photographic images of a face with eyes shifted left or right, or looking straight ahead, preceded targets that appeared left or right of the cue. To examine automatic effects, cue direction was non-predictive of target location...
August 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26785057/the-relationship-between-schizotypy-and-reactive-aggression-in-western-adults-is-mediated-by-victimization
#11
Valerie Yeung Shi Chung, Jonathan McGuire, Robyn Langdon
A large body of literature suggests that schizophrenia and nonclinical schizotypal personality traits, or "schizotypy," are associated with increased aggression. However, recent studies focused on school-aged Asian samples have examined the relationship between schizotypal personality and 2 distinct forms of aggression: reactive and proactive aggression. This study aimed to investigate whether schizotypal personality traits would be associated more strongly with reactive, compared with proactive, aggression in an adult Western sample and whether victimization experiences mediated the schizotypy-reactive aggression relation...
August 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26626426/clinical-symptoms-predict-concurrent-social-and-global-functioning-in-an-early-psychosis-sample
#12
Cristina Cacciotti-Saija, Robyn Langdon, Philip B Ward, Ian B Hickie, Adam J Guastella
AIM: Although well established in chronic schizophrenia, the key determinants of functioning remain unknown during the early phase of a psychotic disorder. The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the social cognitive, basic neurocognitive and clinical predictors of concurrent social functioning and global functioning in an early psychosis sample. METHODS: This study examined the relationship between social cognition, basic neurocognition and clinical symptoms with concurrent functioning in 51 early psychosis individuals...
December 2, 2015: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608042/an-experimental-investigation-of-mentalization-ability-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#13
Robyn Petersen, Vlasios Brakoulias, Robyn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in mentalization ability have been theorized to underlie borderline personality disorder (BPD) and have led to mentalization-based treatments. Yet there has been little empirical investigation into whether mentalization deficits do differentiate the BPD population from healthy controls, and the specific nature of these differences. METHOD: Five pre-existing Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that assessed simple to complex mentalization capacity in both the affective and cognitive domains were administered to the same groups of age and gender matched patients with BPD and controls...
January 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26599992/hypnotic-olfactory-hallucinations
#14
Rochelle E Cox, Robyn A Langdon
Olfactory hallucinations (smelling odors that are not present) are intrusive and disruptive yet challenging to investigate because they cannot be produced on demand. In this study, the authors attempted to model olfactory hallucinations using hypnotic suggestions. We gave some subjects a suggestion to smell an odor in the absence of a real odor (positive hallucination) and gave others a suggestion to smell nothing in the presence of a real odor (negative hallucination). High hypnotizable individuals who received the positive hallucination reported intense smells whereas those who received the negative hallucination reported a reduction in intensity...
2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26302299/the-cognitive-neuropsychiatry-of-delusional-belief
#15
Robyn Langdon
According to the 'two-factor' cognitive-neuropsychiatric approach to delusional belief, two factors, in combination, explain the generation and maintenance of monothematic delusions. The first factor varies from delusion to delusion and explains why a patient generates a particular implausible thought in the first place. The second factor explains why a patient fails to reject the implausible thought as belief. This two-factor approach began with a 'two-deficit' account of bizarre monothematic delusions, according to which bizarre delusions are generated when a (first-factor) deficit of basic sensory/affective processing fundamentally distorts perceived reality...
September 2011: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26150070/a-single-dose-of-oxytocin-nasal-spray-improves-higher-order-social-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Adam J Guastella, Philip B Ward, Ian B Hickie, Sara Shahrestani, Marie Antoinette Redoblado Hodge, Elizabeth M Scott, Robyn Langdon
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic...
November 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26084621/re-examining-kohlberg-s-conception-of-morality-in-schizophrenia
#17
Jonathan McGuire, Linda Barbanel, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Early clinical descriptions of and research with people with schizophrenia described apparent difficulties in moral judgement and sensitivity. However, this research failed to take into account the effect of cognitive deficits and symptoms on task performance. METHODS: We assessed people with schizophrenia on the Moral Judgement Interview, a task used in the earlier literature, alongside a battery of neuro- and social-cognitive tasks. RESULTS: Whereas people with schizophrenia perform more poorly on this task than controls, this is mediated by memory and declarative theory of mind, and also impacted by negative symptoms...
2015: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25616503/jumping-to-conclusions-about-the-beads-task-a-meta-analysis-of-delusional-ideation-and-data-gathering
#18
Robert Malcolm Ross, Ryan McKay, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon
It has been claimed that delusional and delusion-prone individuals have a tendency to gather less data before forming beliefs. Most of the evidence for this "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) bias comes from studies using the "beads task" data-gathering paradigm. However, the evidence for the JTC bias is mixed. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from 38 clinical and nonclinical samples (n = 2,237) to investigate the relationship between data gathering in the beads task (using the "draws to decision" measure) and delusional ideation (as indexed by the "Peters et al Delusions Inventory"; PDI)...
September 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25559738/the-bridge-between-neuroscience-and-cognition-must-be-tethered-at-both-ends
#19
COMMENT
Oren Griffiths, Mike E Le Pelley, Robyn Langdon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25472859/theory-of-mind-and-neurocognition-in-early-psychosis-a-quasi-experimental-study
#20
Robyn Langdon, Michael H Connors, Megan Still, Philip B Ward, Stanley Catts
BACKGROUND: People with chronic psychosis often display theory of mind impairments that are not fully accounted for by other, more general neurocognitive deficits. In these patients, both theory of mind and neurocognitive deficits contribute to poor functioning, independently of psychotic symptoms. In young people with recent-onset psychosis, however, it is unclear the extent to which theory of mind impairment is independent of neurocognitive deficits. The primary aim of this study was to examine the evidence for specific theory of mind impairments in early psychosis...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
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