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robyn langdon

Robert M Ross, Gordon Pennycook, Ryan McKay, Will M Gervais, Robyn Langdon, Max Coltheart
INTRODUCTION: It has been proposed that deluded and delusion-prone individuals gather less evidence before forming beliefs than those who are not deluded or delusion-prone. The primary source of evidence for this "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) bias is provided by research that utilises the "beads task" data-gathering paradigm. However, the cognitive mechanisms subserving data gathering in this task are poorly understood. METHODS: In the largest published beads task study to date (n = 558), we examined data gathering in the context of influential dual-process theories of reasoning...
June 24, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Michael H Connors, Serje Robidoux, Robyn Langdon, Max Coltheart
People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause...
July 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Robyn Langdon, Kiley Seymour, Tracey Williams, Philip B Ward
Explicit tests of social cognition have revealed pervasive deficits in schizophrenia. Less is known of automatic social cognition in schizophrenia. We used a spatial orienting task to investigate automatic shifts of attention cued by another person's eye-gaze in 29 patients and 28 controls. Central photographic images of a face with eyes shifted left or right, or looking straight-ahead, preceded targets that appeared left or right of the cue. To examine automatic effects, cue-direction was non-predictive of target location...
May 20, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Valerie Yeung Shi Chung, Jonathan McGuire, Robyn Langdon
A large body of literature suggests that schizophrenia and nonclinical schizotypal personality traits, or "schizotypy," are associated with increased aggression. However, recent studies focused on school-aged Asian samples have examined the relationship between schizotypal personality and 2 distinct forms of aggression: reactive and proactive aggression. This study aimed to investigate whether schizotypal personality traits would be associated more strongly with reactive, compared with proactive, aggression in an adult Western sample and whether victimization experiences mediated the schizotypy-reactive aggression relation...
August 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Cristina Cacciotti-Saija, Robyn Langdon, Philip B Ward, Ian B Hickie, Adam J Guastella
AIM: Although well established in chronic schizophrenia, the key determinants of functioning remain unknown during the early phase of a psychotic disorder. The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the social cognitive, basic neurocognitive and clinical predictors of concurrent social functioning and global functioning in an early psychosis sample. METHODS: This study examined the relationship between social cognition, basic neurocognition and clinical symptoms with concurrent functioning in 51 early psychosis individuals...
December 2, 2015: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Robyn Petersen, Vlasios Brakoulias, Robyn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in mentalization ability have been theorized to underlie borderline personality disorder (BPD) and have led to mentalization-based treatments. Yet there has been little empirical investigation into whether mentalization deficits do differentiate the BPD population from healthy controls, and the specific nature of these differences. METHOD: Five pre-existing Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that assessed simple to complex mentalization capacity in both the affective and cognitive domains were administered to the same groups of age and gender matched patients with BPD and controls...
January 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Rochelle E Cox, Robyn A Langdon
Olfactory hallucinations (smelling odors that are not present) are intrusive and disruptive yet challenging to investigate because they cannot be produced on demand. In this study, the authors attempted to model olfactory hallucinations using hypnotic suggestions. We gave some subjects a suggestion to smell an odor in the absence of a real odor (positive hallucination) and gave others a suggestion to smell nothing in the presence of a real odor (negative hallucination). High hypnotizable individuals who received the positive hallucination reported intense smells whereas those who received the negative hallucination reported a reduction in intensity...
2016: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Robyn Langdon
According to the 'two-factor' cognitive-neuropsychiatric approach to delusional belief, two factors, in combination, explain the generation and maintenance of monothematic delusions. The first factor varies from delusion to delusion and explains why a patient generates a particular implausible thought in the first place. The second factor explains why a patient fails to reject the implausible thought as belief. This two-factor approach began with a 'two-deficit' account of bizarre monothematic delusions, according to which bizarre delusions are generated when a (first-factor) deficit of basic sensory/affective processing fundamentally distorts perceived reality...
September 2011: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Adam J Guastella, Philip B Ward, Ian B Hickie, Sara Shahrestani, Marie Antoinette Redoblado Hodge, Elizabeth M Scott, Robyn Langdon
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic...
November 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Jonathan McGuire, Linda Barbanel, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Early clinical descriptions of and research with people with schizophrenia described apparent difficulties in moral judgement and sensitivity. However, this research failed to take into account the effect of cognitive deficits and symptoms on task performance. METHODS: We assessed people with schizophrenia on the Moral Judgement Interview, a task used in the earlier literature, alongside a battery of neuro- and social-cognitive tasks. RESULTS: Whereas people with schizophrenia perform more poorly on this task than controls, this is mediated by memory and declarative theory of mind, and also impacted by negative symptoms...
2015: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Robert Malcolm Ross, Ryan McKay, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon
It has been claimed that delusional and delusion-prone individuals have a tendency to gather less data before forming beliefs. Most of the evidence for this "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) bias comes from studies using the "beads task" data-gathering paradigm. However, the evidence for the JTC bias is mixed. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from 38 clinical and nonclinical samples (n = 2,237) to investigate the relationship between data gathering in the beads task (using the "draws to decision" measure) and delusional ideation (as indexed by the "Peters et al Delusions Inventory"; PDI)...
September 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Oren Griffiths, Mike E Le Pelley, Robyn Langdon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Robyn Langdon, Michael H Connors, Megan Still, Philip B Ward, Stanley Catts
BACKGROUND: People with chronic psychosis often display theory of mind impairments that are not fully accounted for by other, more general neurocognitive deficits. In these patients, both theory of mind and neurocognitive deficits contribute to poor functioning, independently of psychotic symptoms. In young people with recent-onset psychosis, however, it is unclear the extent to which theory of mind impairment is independent of neurocognitive deficits. The primary aim of this study was to examine the evidence for specific theory of mind impairments in early psychosis...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
Robyn Langdon, Emily Connaughton, Max Coltheart
Fregoli delusion is the mistaken belief that some person currently present in the deluded person's environment (typically a stranger) is a familiar person in disguise. The stranger is believed to be psychologically identical to this known person (who is not present) even though the deluded person perceives the physical appearance of the stranger as being different from the known person's typical appearance. To gain a deeper understanding of this contradictory error in the normal system for tracking and identifying known persons, we conducted a detailed survey of all the Fregoli cases reported in the literature since the seminal Courbon and Fail (1927) paper...
October 2014: Topics in Cognitive Science
Robyn Langdon, Jillian McMillan, Tao Gao
Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia and 18 controls detected chasing in displays of moving disks. Compared to controls, patients had relatively higher hit rates for less direct compared to more direct chasing trials. Perceiving intent was generally intact in patients, despite the well-known difficulties with inferring intentional mental states in schizophrenia.
November 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Michael H Connors, Amanda J Barnier, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Rochelle E Cox, Davide Rivolta, Peter W Halligan
Mirrored-self misidentification delusion is the belief that one's reflection in the mirror is not oneself. This experiment used hypnotic suggestion to impair normal face processing in healthy participants and recreate key aspects of the delusion in the laboratory. From a pool of 439 participants, 22 high hypnotisable participants ("highs") and 20 low hypnotisable participants were selected on the basis of their extreme scores on two separately administered measures of hypnotisability. These participants received a hypnotic induction and a suggestion for either impaired (i) self-face recognition or (ii) impaired recognition of all faces...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jonathan McGuire, Robyn Langdon, Martin Brüne
INTRODUCTION: Disordered moral behaviour and understanding of moral rules were described early in the literature on schizophrenia; however, moral cognition has received scant attention in spite of a large literature focused on social cognitive impairments and violent behaviour in schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a narrative synthesis of the literature on violence, moral judgement and schizophrenia. RESULTS: Initial empirical research into moral cognition in schizophrenia did not fully account for the basic- and social-cognitive deficits now known to characterise schizophrenia...
2014: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Cristina Cacciotti-Saija, Robyn Langdon, Philip B Ward, Ian B Hickie, Elizabeth M Scott, Sharon L Naismith, Loretta Moore, Gail A Alvares, Marie Antoinette Redoblado Hodge, Adam J Guastella
Social-cognitive deficits contribute to poor functional outcomes in early psychosis; however, no effective pharmacological treatments exist for these problems. This study was the first to investigate the efficacy of an extended treatment of oxytocin nasal spray combined with social cognition training (SCT) to improve social cognition, clinical symptoms, and social functioning in early psychosis. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, between-subjects trial, 52 individuals (aged 16-35 years) diagnosed with an early psychosis schizophrenia-spectrum illness were recruited...
March 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Tania Malouf, Robyn Langdon, Alan Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Awareness deficits are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, relatively little is known of awareness deficits in the early stages post-injury. This study outlines the development of a new tool, 'The Insight Interview', designed to measure awareness across different domains (awareness of change, severity of deficits, current and future functional consequences) from 3 months post-TBI. METHODS: Forty-three patients with at least a severe TBI, their nominated family member and treating clinician were all administered different versions of the Insight Interview during the patient's inpatient stay...
2014: Brain Injury: [BI]
Yael Perry, Rachael C Murrihy, Megan Varlow, Anna Dedousis-Wallace, Danielle M Ellis, Robyn Langdon, Antony D Kidman
AIM: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a clinically indicated treatment for first-episode psychosis. Despite this, CBT for early psychosis is not routinely available as part of standard mental health services in Australia. The aim of this pilot project was to develop a CBT for early psychosis service to be provided as an adjunct to existing community mental health services. This study examined the feasibility of this service model, delivered in a real-world setting. A secondary aim was to explore the effectiveness of this service, as measured by clinical and functional outcomes...
June 2015: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
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