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Altruism medicine

Pamela M White
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy is growing worldwide. Although recently some countries have sought to ban it, between 2010 and 2014 the number of babies born to gestational surrogates having in vitro fertilization treatment in California doubled, and in Canada it grew by 35%. This work seeks to fill identified knowledge gaps about the similarities and differences in the practices and outcomes of gestational surrogacy, which in California operates on a commercial basis, whereas in Canada it is illegal to pay a surrogate...
March 9, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Leanne Chrisman-Khawam, Neelab Abdullah, Arjun Dhoopar
This article describes a novel inter-professional curriculum designed to address the needs of homeless patients in a Midwestern region of the United States which has high rates of poverty. The curriculum is intended for healthcare trainees coming from undergraduate pre-medical programs, nursing, pharmacy, social work, clinical psychology, medical school and post-graduate medical training in family medicine, medicine-pediatrics, and psychiatry. The clinical component is specifically designed to reach destitute patients and the curriculum is structured to reverse commonly held myths about homelessness among the trainees, thereby improving their Homelessness Information Quotient, the ability to more fully understand homelessness...
May 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
T Rumpíková, I Oborná, S Bělašková, D Rumpík
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate (a) the basic socio-demographic characteristics of Czech oocytes donors, (b) their attitudes towards anonymous or nonanonymous donation and (c) their motivations to donate oocytes. DESIGN: Original article. SETTING: Clinic of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecology Zlin. METHODS: A total of 215 oocytes donors participated in this study, which was undertaken in years 2015-2016...
2017: Ceská Gynekologie
S Sanjai, Vijayaprasad Gopichandran
INTRODUCTION: An important virtue in the medical profession is altruism, which makes a doctor serve without an excess of expectation of return. OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of altruism and factors influencing altruism among medical students at a medical college in Chennai. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 224 students from the first, third and fourth years. We prepared a questionnaire which contained questions from the previously validated Altruistic Personality Scale...
September 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Jane Williams, Wendy Lipworth, Christopher Mayes, Ian Olver, Ian Kerridge
CONTEXT: Conflicts of interest (CoIs) are considered to be ubiquitous in health care and biomedicine. The disclosure of relevant interests is a first step in managing conflicts, although its usefulness is contested. Although several countries have mandated the public disclosure of doctors' financial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry, little is known about medical students' understanding of mandatory public disclosure. METHODS: Six 90-minute focus groups were conducted with medical students in New South Wales, Australia...
July 31, 2017: Medical Education
Gesine Richter, Michael Krawczak, Wolfgang Lieb, Lena Wolff, Stefan Schreiber, Alena Buyx
PurposeTo facilitate ethically acceptable and practically successful health care-embedded biobanking, the attitudes and understanding of patients and their motivation to participate need to be explored.MethodsA questionnaire study was conducted among 760 outpatients of a northern German university hospital to assess their awareness of, and motivation for giving broad consent to health care-embedded biobanking, also addressing the issue of feedback on individual-level research findings.ResultsThe overall willingness to give broad consent was high (86...
June 22, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Solveig L Hansen, Marthe I Eisner, Larissa Pfaller, Silke Schicktanz
Organ transplantation is a well-established practice in modern medicine. However, many countries, especially those with an opt-in regulation, face the problem of low donation numbers. Respective public campaigns attempt to increase the number of donors by swaying public opinion with the use of carefully selected bits of information. Germany serves as a case study for an opt-in country investing approximately €7.5 million/year in the distribution of respective campaigns. To address diverse populations, large-scale posters in various public spaces still display a multitude of moral messages for organ donation...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
Peter Gilbey, Mary C J Rudolf, Sivan Spitzer-Shohat, Anthony Luder
The unique characteristics of the next generation of medical professionals in Israel and the current model of physician employment in the country may pose a real threat to the high quality of both public clinical care and medical education in the near future, and to the continued flourishing of clinical research. According to the Israel Medical Association's general obligations for Israeli physicians, the doctor should place the patient's interests foremost in his or her mind, before any other issue. This has led many to believe that selflessness or altruism should be among a physician's core values...
December 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Joy Seanehia, Carole Treibich, Christine Holmberg, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Valerie Casin, Jocelyn Raude, Judith E Mueller
BACKGROUND: Several concepts are available to explain vaccine decision making by individual and inter-individual factors, including risk perception, social conformism and altruism. However, only a few studies have quantified the weight of these determinants in vaccine acceptance. Using a conjoint analysis tool, we aimed at eliciting preferences in a student population regarding vaccination against a rare, severe and rapidly evolving hypothetical disease, similar to meningococcal serogroup C meningitis or measles...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
Paul P Christopher, Lorena G Garcia-Sampson, Michael Stein, Jennifer Johnson, Josiah Rich, Charles Lidz
As a 2006 Institute of Medicine report highlights, surprisingly little empirical attention has been paid to how prisoners arrive at decisions to participate in modern research. With our study, we aimed to fill this gap by identifying a more comprehensive range of factors as reported by prisoners themselves during semistructured interviews. Our participants described a diverse range of motives, both favoring and opposing their eventual decision to join. Many are well-recognized considerations among nonincarcerated clinical research participants, including a desire for various forms of personal benefit, altruism, and concern about study risks and inconveniences...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
David H Chestnut
Many observers have concluded that we have a crisis of professionalism in the practice of medicine. In this essay, the author identifies and discusses personal attributes and commitments important in the development and maintenance of physician professionalism: humility, servant leadership, self-awareness, kindness, altruism, attention to personal well-being, responsibility and concern for patient safety, lifelong learning, self-regulation, and honesty and integrity. Professionalism requires character, but character alone is not enough...
May 2017: Anesthesiology
Vanessa Ashall, Pru Hobson-West
This article demonstrates the relevance of animals to medical sociology by arguing that pet owners' accounts of veterinary decision-making can highlight key sociological themes which are important to both human and animal health. Based on semi-structured interviews, the article argues that interspecies 'kinship' allows for the extension of sociological claims regarding altruism, self-interest and mutuality from human blood donation to companion animal blood 'donation'. Furthermore, this study extends sociological understanding of the human-animal bond by showing how the dog's status as kin meant they were expected to donate blood, and that the act of donation itself represents an important opportunity for family 'display'...
July 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
Lorenzo Del Savio, Barbara Prainsack, Alena Buyx
PURPOSE: The establishment of databases for research in human microbiomics is dependent on the recruitment of sufficient numbers and diversity of participants. Factors that support or impede participant recruitment in studies of this type have not yet been studied. METHODS: We report the results of a survey aimed at establishing the motivations of participants in the British Gut Project, a research project that relies on volunteers to provide samples and to help fund the project...
August 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Carmen Martínez González, María Tasso Cereceda, Marta Sánchez Jacob, Isolina Riaño Galán
Professionalism is rarely taught formally. It is learned by osmosis through the hidden curriculum: a set of attitudes that each one of us transmits unconsciously to students, medical residents, and colleagues. All of us are a model or counter-model of professionalism through a series of values that have been the pillars of our profession since Hippocrates. Values that do not seem to be strong enough to pass our time. There are specific factors of the 21st century such as the financial crisis, the highly technical nature of medicine, bureaucratisation or trivialisation of the medical process that could explain, but not justify, the decline in the values of our profession: Empathy, integrity, solidarity, the altruism, or confidentiality...
November 30, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Vincent Chan, Hung Tran
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine customers' key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour...
July 2016: Pharmacy Practice
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
November 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Wael Haddara, Lorelei Lingard
As an ideal, altruism has long enjoyed privileged status in medicine and medical education. As a practice, altruism is perceived to be in decline in the current generation. A number of educational efforts are underway to reclaim this "lost value" of medicine. In this paper we explore constructions of altruism over a defined period of time through a content analysis of the Canadian and Australian Medical Associations (CMA and AMA respectively) Codes of Ethics. We analyzed all editions of both Codes (1868-2004), using a content analysis approach, including thematic analysis...
October 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Kebede Beyene, Trudi Aspden, Janie Sheridan
BACKGROUND: Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as the lending of medicines (giving prescription medicines to someone else) or borrowing of medicines (being given and using a medicine prescribed for another person). This qualitative study explored the views of patients, to elicit information regarding factors influencing medicine sharing behaviours, their experiences of the consequences of prescription medicine sharing, and their risk assessment strategies when deciding to share...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Péter Torzsa, Dalma Csatlós, Ajándék Eőry, Csenge Hargittay, Ferenc Horváth, Andrea László, Bernadett Márkus, András Mohos, László Kalabay, Zsuzsa Győrffy
INTRODUCTION: The changing of the family medicine can be observed in the New Millennium. Migration, the aging of the healers and informal payment are crucial to the human resource crisis of the health sector. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the family physicians' and residents' opinions about the vocation and informal payment. METHOD: Exploratory, quantitative study was carried out among family physicians (n = 363) and family physician residents (n = 180)...
September 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Mainul Haque, Zainal Zulkifli, Seraj Zohurul Haque, Zubair M Kamal, Abdus Salam, Vidya Bhagat, Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi, Nor Iza A Rahman
Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today's definition of medical professionalism is evolving - from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient-physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
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