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Altruism medicine

R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Wael Haddara, Lorelei Lingard
As an ideal, altruism has long enjoyed privileged status in medicine and medical education. As a practice, altruism is perceived to be in decline in the current generation. A number of educational efforts are underway to reclaim this "lost value" of medicine. In this paper we explore constructions of altruism over a defined period of time through a content analysis of the Canadian and Australian Medical Associations (CMA and AMA respectively) Codes of Ethics. We analyzed all editions of both Codes (1868-2004), using a content analysis approach, including thematic analysis...
September 26, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Kebede Beyene, Trudi Aspden, Janie Sheridan
BACKGROUND: Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as the lending of medicines (giving prescription medicines to someone else) or borrowing of medicines (being given and using a medicine prescribed for another person). This qualitative study explored the views of patients, to elicit information regarding factors influencing medicine sharing behaviours, their experiences of the consequences of prescription medicine sharing, and their risk assessment strategies when deciding to share...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Péter Torzsa, Dalma Csatlós, Ajándék Eőry, Csenge Hargittay, Ferenc Horváth, Andrea László, Bernadett Márkus, András Mohos, László Kalabay, Zsuzsa Győrffy
INTRODUCTION: The changing of the family medicine can be observed in the New Millennium. Migration, the aging of the healers and informal payment are crucial to the human resource crisis of the health sector. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the family physicians' and residents' opinions about the vocation and informal payment. METHOD: Exploratory, quantitative study was carried out among family physicians (n = 363) and family physician residents (n = 180)...
September 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Mainul Haque, Zainal Zulkifli, Seraj Zohurul Haque, Zubair M Kamal, Abdus Salam, Vidya Bhagat, Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi, Nor Iza A Rahman
Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today's definition of medical professionalism is evolving - from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient-physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Emily Harrop, Simon Noble, Michelle Edwards, Stephanie Sivell, Barbara Moore, Annmarie Nelson
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored in depth the experiences of patients with advanced cancer who are participating in clinical investigational medicinal product trials. However, integrated qualitative studies in such trials are needed to enable a broader evaluation of patient experiences in the trial, with important ethical and practical implications for the design and conduct of similar trials and treatment regimes in the future. METHODS: Ten participants were recruited from the control and intervention arms of FRAGMATIC: a non-placebo trial for patients with advanced lung cancer...
2016: Trials
Zsuzsa Győrffy, Emma Birkás, Imola Sándor
BACKGROUND: Burnout is a major issue among medical students. Its general characteristics are loss of interest in study and lack of motivation. A study of the phenomenon must extend beyond the university environment and personality factors to consider whether career choice has a role in the occurrence of burnout. METHODS: Quantitative, national survey (n = 733) among medical students, using a 12-item career motivation list compiled from published research results and a pilot study...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Valerie C Youssef, Dexnell Peters, Farid F Youssef
: Phenomenon: This paper concerns itself with the value system that informs and motivates medical students of the twenty-first century as distinct from earlier cohorts. It notes a shift from an era of altruism within which the medical professional was a 'pillar of society' always 'on duty' and always concerned foremost for the patient to an era in which he/she is just another member of the work force, subject to public scrutiny and criticism, to patient autonomy and to a self-serving ethos which characterizes the present age...
July 7, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Joshua Jauregui, Medley O Gatewood, Jonathan S Ilgen, Caitlin Schaninger, Jared Strote
INTRODUCTION: Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM) trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees' perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism...
May 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Zlatka Rakovec-Felser
As health was defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity, the bio-psychosocial paradigm of health and illness attests that curing occurs when the science of medicine (the biomedical and pathos-physiological aspects of disease) and the art of medicine (the psychological, social, and interpersonal aspects of illness) merge into one unified holistic approach to patient care (Hojat, 2007). In this context the relationship between health care professionals and patients also become an indispensable tool in clinical situations to achieve better patient outcomes (Engel, 1990)...
September 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
Mehrdad Askarian, Mohammad Javad Ebrahimi Nia, Fatemeh Sadeghipur, Mina Danaei, Mohsen Momeni
INTRODUCTION: Today, development of professionalism is a critical aim of medical schools. Studies have demonstrated that medical students' perceived level of professionalism is inadequate worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the medical students' perceptions of their colleagues' professional behavior. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study with 280 medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in their fifth to seventh year of study as the sample...
July 2015: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
David Pearson, Sarah Walpole, Stefi Barna
This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve...
2015: Medical Teacher
Juhwan Oh, Young Sun Ro, Jong-koo Lee, Min Jung Kim, Sang Do Shin, Jason Ahn, S V Subramanian
PURPOSE: As the number of disaster and humanitarian crisis increases, there is an emphasis on the prompt dispatching of humanitarian assistance field hospitals (HAFHs) in order to relieve a disaster-stricken society as soon as possible. The participants' individual motivation constitutes one of the most important factors in achieving successful HAFH activities. The aims of this study are to evaluate health care providers' willingness to participate in HAFHs when there is an urgent global health need and to examine their motives, perceived barriers, and concerns using a simulated global disaster scenario...
2014: World Hospitals and Health Services: the Official Journal of the International Hospital Federation
Martin R Huecker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Anna Nicoline Wolter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Jean-François Mattei
Humanitarian action is undergoing profound changes. Beyond the emergency relief phase, it is becoming involved in the processes that enable victims to regain their autonomy and, more recently, in prevention and risk-reduction policies. This trend is similar to that experienced by humanitarian medicine which, after focusing on emergency situations, is now involved in rehabilitation and prevention programs. The concept of resilience is perfectly suited to each phase of humanitarian interventions. Moreover, local communities are increasingly seeking to achieve their humanitarian emancipation...
June 2013: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
José A Sacristán
BACKGROUND: Despite their close relationship, clinical research and medical care have become separated by clear boundaries. The purpose of clinical research is to generate generalizable knowledge useful for future patients, whereas medical care aims to promote the well-being of individual patients. The evolution towards patient-centered medicine and patient-oriented research, and the gradual standardization of medicine are contributing to closer ties between clinical research and medical practice...
2015: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Howard Minkoff, Jeffrey Ecker
Physicians across the United States are engaged in training in the identification, isolation, and initial care of patients with Ebola. Some will be asked to do more. The issue this viewpoint will address is the moral obligation of physicians to participate in these activities. In order to do so the implicit contract between society and its physicians will be considered, as will many of the arguments that are redolent of those that were litigated 30 years ago when acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was raising public fears to similar levels, and some physicians were publically proclaiming their unwillingness to render care to those individuals...
April 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alba Ripoll Gallardo, Pier Luigi Ingrassia, Luca Ragazzoni, Ahmadreza Djalali, Luca Carenzo, Frederick M Burkle, Francesco Della Corte
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, humanitarian crises have seen a sharp upward trend. Regrettably, physicians involved in humanitarian action have often demonstrated incomplete preparation for these compelling events which have proved to be quite different from their daily work. Responders to these crises have included an unpredictable mix of beginner-level, mid-level, and expert-level providers. The quality of care has varied considerably. The international humanitarian community, in responding to international calls for improved accountability, transparency, coordination, and a registry of professionalized international responders, has recently launched a call for further professionalization within the humanitarian assistance sector, especially among academic-affiliated education and training programs...
February 2015: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Fangmin Ge, Gabriele Kaczmarczyk, Nikola Biller-Andorno
OBJECTIVES: As the gap between supply and demand for donor organs is increasing, we sought to clarify the knowledge and attitudes regarding living-organ donation among Chinese medical students and analyze their incentives and influencing factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from Chinese medical students using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 320 surveyed participants, 261 participants (81.6%) said they would consider donating their live kidney organ, and 262 participants (81...
December 2014: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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