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Altruism medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408120/quantifying-population-preferences-around-vaccination-against-severe-but-rare-diseases-a-conjoint-analysis-among-french-university-students-2016
#1
Joy Seanehia, Carole Treibich, Christine Holmberg, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Valerie Casin, Jocelyn Raude, Judith E Mueller
BACKGROUND: Several concepts are available to explain vaccine decision making by individual and inter-individual factors, including risk perception, social conformism and altruism. However, only a few studies have quantified the weight of these determinants in vaccine acceptance. Using a conjoint analysis tool, we aimed at eliciting preferences in a student population regarding vaccination against a rare, severe and rapidly evolving hypothetical disease, similar to meningococcal serogroup C meningitis or measles...
April 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301701/enrolling-in-clinical-research-while-incarcerated-what-influences-participants-decisions
#2
Paul P Christopher, Lorena G Garcia-Sampson, Michael Stein, Jennifer Johnson, Josiah Rich, Charles Lidz
As a 2006 Institute of Medicine report highlights, surprisingly little empirical attention has been paid to how prisoners arrive at decisions to participate in modern research. With our study, we aimed to fill this gap by identifying a more comprehensive range of factors as reported by prisoners themselves during semistructured interviews. Our participants described a diverse range of motives, both favoring and opposing their eventual decision to join. Many are well-recognized considerations among nonincarcerated clinical research participants, including a desire for various forms of personal benefit, altruism, and concern about study risks and inconveniences...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187021/on-the-road-to-professionalism
#3
David H Chestnut
Many observers have concluded that we have a crisis of professionalism in the practice of medicine. In this essay, the author identifies and discusses personal attributes and commitments important in the development and maintenance of physician professionalism: humility, servant leadership, self-awareness, kindness, altruism, attention to personal well-being, responsibility and concern for patient safety, lifelong learning, self-regulation, and honesty and integrity. Professionalism requires character, but character alone is not enough...
May 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164318/-doing-good-by-proxy-human-animal-kinship-and-the-donation-of-canine-blood
#4
Vanessa Ashall, Pru Hobson-West
This article demonstrates the relevance of animals to medical sociology by arguing that pet owners' accounts of veterinary decision-making can highlight key sociological themes which are important to both human and animal health. Based on semi-structured interviews, the article argues that interspecies 'kinship' allows for the extension of sociological claims regarding altruism, self-interest and mutuality from human blood donation to companion animal blood 'donation'. Furthermore, this study extends sociological understanding of the human-animal bond by showing how the dog's status as kin meant they were expected to donate blood, and that the act of donation itself represents an important opportunity for family 'display'...
February 6, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125088/motivations-of-participants-in-the-citizen-science-of-microbiomics-data-from-the-british-gut-project
#5
Lorenzo Del Savio, Barbara Prainsack, Alena Buyx
PURPOSE: The establishment of databases for research in human microbiomics is dependent on the recruitment of sufficient numbers and diversity of participants. Factors that support or impede participant recruitment in studies of this type have not yet been studied. METHODS: We report the results of a survey aimed at establishing the motivations of participants in the British Gut Project, a research project that relies on volunteers to provide samples and to help fund the project...
January 26, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914993/-solid-paediatricians-in-fluid-times-reviving-professionalism
#6
Carmen Martínez González, María Tasso Cereceda, Marta Sánchez Jacob, Isolina Riaño Galán
Professionalism is rarely taught formally. It is learned by osmosis through the hidden curriculum: a set of attitudes that each one of us transmits unconsciously to students, medical residents, and colleagues. All of us are a model or counter-model of professionalism through a series of values that have been the pillars of our profession since Hippocrates. Values that do not seem to be strong enough to pass our time. There are specific factors of the 21st century such as the financial crisis, the highly technical nature of medicine, bureaucratisation or trivialisation of the medical process that could explain, but not justify, the decline in the values of our profession: Empathy, integrity, solidarity, the altruism, or confidentiality...
November 30, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785164/purchasing-over-the-counter-medicines-from-australian-pharmacy-what-do-the-pharmacy-customers-value-and-expect
#7
Vincent Chan, Hung Tran
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine customers' key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour...
July 2016: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752721/-new-insights-into-the-neuroscience-of-human-altruism
#8
REVIEW
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
November 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671289/exploring-the-premise-of-lost-altruism-content-analysis-of-two-codes-of-ethics
#9
Wael Haddara, Lorelei Lingard
As an ideal, altruism has long enjoyed privileged status in medicine and medical education. As a practice, altruism is perceived to be in decline in the current generation. A number of educational efforts are underway to reclaim this "lost value" of medicine. In this paper we explore constructions of altruism over a defined period of time through a content analysis of the Canadian and Australian Medical Associations (CMA and AMA respectively) Codes of Ethics. We analyzed all editions of both Codes (1868-2004), using a content analysis approach, including thematic analysis...
September 26, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617099/prescription-medicine-sharing-exploring-patients-beliefs-and-experiences
#10
Kebede Beyene, Trudi Aspden, Janie Sheridan
BACKGROUND: Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as the lending of medicines (giving prescription medicines to someone else) or borrowing of medicines (being given and using a medicine prescribed for another person). This qualitative study explored the views of patients, to elicit information regarding factors influencing medicine sharing behaviours, their experiences of the consequences of prescription medicine sharing, and their risk assessment strategies when deciding to share...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596511/-opinions-of-hungarian-family-physicians-and-residents-on-vocation-and-informal-payment
#11
Péter Torzsa, Dalma Csatlós, Ajándék Eőry, Csenge Hargittay, Ferenc Horváth, Andrea László, Bernadett Márkus, András Mohos, László Kalabay, Zsuzsa Győrffy
INTRODUCTION: The changing of the family medicine can be observed in the New Millennium. Migration, the aging of the healers and informal payment are crucial to the human resource crisis of the health sector. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the family physicians' and residents' opinions about the vocation and informal payment. METHOD: Exploratory, quantitative study was carried out among family physicians (n = 363) and family physician residents (n = 180)...
September 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524927/professionalism-perspectives-among-medical-students-of-a-novel-medical-graduate-school-in-malaysia
#12
Mainul Haque, Zainal Zulkifli, Seraj Zohurul Haque, Zubair M Kamal, Abdus Salam, Vidya Bhagat, Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi, Nor Iza A Rahman
Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today's definition of medical professionalism is evolving - from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient-physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439472/-i-didn-t-really-understand-it-i-just-thought-it-d-help-exploring-the-motivations-understandings-and-experiences-of-patients-with-advanced-lung-cancer-participating-in-a-non-placebo-clinical-imp-trial
#13
Emily Harrop, Simon Noble, Michelle Edwards, Stephanie Sivell, Barbara Moore, Annmarie Nelson
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored in depth the experiences of patients with advanced cancer who are participating in clinical investigational medicinal product trials. However, integrated qualitative studies in such trials are needed to enable a broader evaluation of patient experiences in the trial, with important ethical and practical implications for the design and conduct of similar trials and treatment regimes in the future. METHODS: Ten participants were recruited from the control and intervention arms of FRAGMATIC: a non-placebo trial for patients with advanced lung cancer...
July 20, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430960/career-motivation-and-burnout-among-medical-students-in-hungary-could-altruism-be-a-protection-factor
#14
Zsuzsa Győrffy, Emma Birkás, Imola Sándor
BACKGROUND: Burnout is a major issue among medical students. Its general characteristics are loss of interest in study and lack of motivation. A study of the phenomenon must extend beyond the university environment and personality factors to consider whether career choice has a role in the occurrence of burnout. METHODS: Quantitative, national survey (n = 733) among medical students, using a 12-item career motivation list compiled from published research results and a pilot study...
July 18, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388537/-it-s-all-about-how-you-carry-yourself-about-how-medical-students-conceptualize-professionalism-in-trinidad-tobago
#15
Valerie C Youssef, Dexnell Peters, Farid F Youssef
Phenomenon: This paper concerns itself with the value system that informs and motivates medical students of the twenty-first century as distinct from earlier cohorts. It notes a shift from an era of altruism within which the medical professional was a 'pillar of society' always 'on duty' and always concerned foremost for the patient to an era in which he/she is just another member of the work force, subject to public scrutiny and criticism, to patient autonomy and to a self-serving ethos which characterizes the present age...
October 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330671/emergency-medicine-resident-perceptions-of-medical-professionalism
#16
Joshua Jauregui, Medley O Gatewood, Jonathan S Ilgen, Caitlin Schaninger, Jared Strote
INTRODUCTION: Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM) trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees' perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism...
May 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898048/the-sensitiveness-and-fulfillment-of-psychological-needs-medical-health-care-and-students
#17
Zlatka Rakovec-Felser
As health was defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity, the bio-psychosocial paradigm of health and illness attests that curing occurs when the science of medicine (the biomedical and pathos-physiological aspects of disease) and the art of medicine (the psychological, social, and interpersonal aspects of illness) merge into one unified holistic approach to patient care (Hojat, 2007). In this context the relationship between health care professionals and patients also become an indispensable tool in clinical situations to achieve better patient outcomes (Engel, 1990)...
September 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26269788/shiraz-medical-students-perceptions-of-their-colleagues-professional-behavior
#18
Mehrdad Askarian, Mohammad Javad Ebrahimi Nia, Fatemeh Sadeghipur, Mina Danaei, Mohsen Momeni
INTRODUCTION: Today, development of professionalism is a critical aim of medical schools. Studies have demonstrated that medical students' perceived level of professionalism is inadequate worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the medical students' perceptions of their colleagues' professional behavior. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study with 280 medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in their fifth to seventh year of study as the sample...
July 2015: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26030377/challenges-to-professionalism-social-accountability-and-global-environmental-change
#19
David Pearson, Sarah Walpole, Stefi Barna
This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve...
2015: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25985555/the-willingness-of-and-barriers-to-korean-health-care-providers-participating-in-a-humanitarian-assistance-field-hospital-responding-to-an-urgent-global-health-crisis
#20
Juhwan Oh, Young Sun Ro, Jong-koo Lee, Min Jung Kim, Sang Do Shin, Jason Ahn, S V Subramanian
PURPOSE: As the number of disaster and humanitarian crisis increases, there is an emphasis on the prompt dispatching of humanitarian assistance field hospitals (HAFHs) in order to relieve a disaster-stricken society as soon as possible. The participants' individual motivation constitutes one of the most important factors in achieving successful HAFH activities. The aims of this study are to evaluate health care providers' willingness to participate in HAFHs when there is an urgent global health need and to examine their motives, perceived barriers, and concerns using a simulated global disaster scenario...
2014: World Hospitals and Health Services: the Official Journal of the International Hospital Federation
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