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Health advocacy

Michel Garenne, Mark A Collinson, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman
BACKGROUND: Completeness of vital registration remains very low in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in rural areas. OBJECTIVES: To investigate trends and factors in completeness of birth and death registration in Agincourt, a rural area of South Africa covering a population of about 110,000 persons, under demographic surveillance since 1992. The population belongs to the Shangaan ethnic group and hosts a sizeable community of Mozambican refugees. DESIGN: Statistical analysis of birth and death registration over time in a 22-year perspective (1992-2014)...
2016: Global Health Action
Benjamin Mason Meier, Averi Chakrabarti
The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan's focus on "a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Kerry McBroom
One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Purnima Menon, Phuong Hong Nguyen, Kuntal Kumar Saha, Adiba Khaled, Andrew Kennedy, Lan Mai Tran, Tina Sanghvi, Nemat Hajeebhoy, Jean Baker, Silvia Alayon, Kaosar Afsana, Raisul Haque, Edward A Frongillo, Marie T Ruel, Rahul Rawat
BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations supporting optimal breastfeeding, the number of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low, and few interventions have demonstrated implementation and impact at scale. Alive & Thrive was implemented over a period of 6 y (2009-2014) and aimed to improve breastfeeding practices through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) intervention components delivered at scale in the context of policy advocacy (PA) in Bangladesh and Viet Nam...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Hellen J Amuguni, Melissa Mazan, Robert Kibuuka
Infectious diseases of grave concern to human health are emerging from wildlife and livestock populations in multiple regions of the world. Responding effectively to these emerging pandemics requires engagement of multidisciplinary groups of professionals. Using a One Health approach, One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), a network of seven schools of public health and seven veterinary schools, with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has engaged in curriculum review with the aim of building the skills of multidisciplinary groups of professionals to improve their capacity to respond to emerging infectious diseases...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Rebecca J Macy, Sandra L Martin, Ijeoma Nwabuzor Ogbonnaya, Cynthia F Rizo
Using survey data, we investigate perspectives of 80 program directors of domestic violence and/or sexual assault agencies regarding whether gathering specific information at intake is helpful in determining survivors' needs for five service areas: legal advocacy, medical advocacy, support group, counseling, and shelter. We explore whether directors' opinions of information-type usefulness differ by type of service agency (single- or dual-focus). Findings show directors perceive the information most helpful to early service provision includes survivors' goals, experiences of violence and trauma, and health status...
October 24, 2016: Violence Against Women
Sally Lindsay, Laura McAdam, Tania Mahendiran
BACKGROUND: Young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) live into adulthood and need specialized care. However, services for adults are fragmented. We know little about young men's experiences, their parents, and clinicians who support them as they transition to adult care. OBJECTIVE: To explore the enablers and barriers of clinicians, young men, and parents as they transition from an adult DMD clinic within a pediatric hospital to an adult health facility...
October 11, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Alex Hall, Tracy Finch, Niina Kolehmainen, Deborah James
BACKGROUND: Implementing good-quality health and social care requires empowerment of staff members within organizations delivering care. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is an intervention using positive video feedback to empower staff through reflection on practice. This qualitative study explored the implementation of VIG within an autism care organization in England, from the perspective of staff members undergoing training to deliver VIG. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 7 participants working within the organization (5 staff undergoing training to deliver VIG; 2 senior managers influencing co-ordination of training)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Kathleen W Gorman, Beth Ann Hatkevich
Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Mussa N Sweya, Sia E Msuya, Michael J Mahande, Rachel Manongi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Jane Landon, Tim Lobstein, Fiona Godfrey, Paula Johns, Chris Brookes, David Jernigan
Background and aims The 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Disease failed to call for global action on alcohol marketing despite calls in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-20 to restrict or ban alcohol advertising. In this paper we ask what it might take to match the global approach to tobacco enshrined in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggest that public health advocates can learn from the development of the FCTC and the Code of Marketing on infant formula milks and the recent recommendations on restricting food marketing to children...
October 18, 2016: Addiction
Susmita Chatterjee, Manish Pant, Pradeep Haldar, Mahesh Kumar Aggarwal, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is one of the largest programmes in the world in terms of quantities of vaccines administered, number of beneficiaries, number of immunization sessions, and geographical extent and diversity of areas covered. Strategic planning for the Programme requires credible information on the cost of achieving the objectives and the financial resources needed at national, State, and district levels. We present here expenditures on immunization services in India in 2012 (baseline) and projected costs for five years (2013-2017)...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Sheryl Scott, Joanne D'Silva, Carol Hernandez, Nicole Toves Villaluz, Jaime Martinez, Chris Matter
While the reduction in the overall U.S. smoking prevalence has been declared one of the top 10 public health achievements of the past century, the growing disparity in smoking between American Indians and the general population is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Minnesota in particular has very high smoking rates among American Indians (59%). Tribal Nations in Minnesota share a past of attempted cultural genocide and a present of restoring the strength of their cultural teachings, including the prominence of traditional tobacco as a sacred "first medicine...
October 14, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Brittani Crook, Brad Love
The young adult (YA) cancer community represents an understudied population in interpersonal and health communication scholarship. Through qualitative analysis, this study sought to advance a dark side perspective by exploring the content of messages shared in an online support forum for YAs with cancer. Our findings highlight a variety of complexities YAs face in an online cancer support community, including the light and dark of soliciting support, disclosing to a community, advocacy online, negative sentiment evaluating health care services, and asynchronous communication...
October 14, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Virginia E M Zweigenthal, Emma Marquez, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Public health (PH) approaches underpin the management and transformation of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the Master of Public Health (MPH) rarely being a prerequisite for health service employment in South Africa, many physicians pursue MPH qualifications. OBJECTIVES: This study identifies their motivations and career intentions and explored MPH programme strengths and gaps in under- and post-graduate PH training. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was completed by physicians graduating with an MPH between 2000 and 2009 and those enrolled in the programme in 2010 at the University of Cape Town...
2016: Global Health Action
Ira L Leeds, Anne Fabrizio, Sara E Cosgrove, Elizabeth C Wick
Antibiotic resistance continues to receive national attention as a leading public health threat. In 2015, President Barack Obama proposed a National Action Plan to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to curb the rise of "superbugs," bacteria resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Whereas many antibiotics are prescribed appropriately to treat infections, there continue to be a large number of inappropriately prescribed antibiotics. Although much of the national attention with regards to stewardship has focused on primary care providers, there is a significant opportunity for surgeons to embrace this national imperative and improve our practices...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Jyothi Gupta
The values of occupational therapy are grounded in justice, and its origins in activism and advocacy. Enabling individuals to participate in meaningful occupations to enhance health and well-being was the genesis of the profession that answered a call to justice. Occupational science brought focus to understand humans as occupational beings and made justice more visible in the discourse. A systematic mapping review was undertaken to deconstruct how notions of occupational justice (OJ) have been woven in the literature...
October 12, 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Ronni Hayon
Transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals experience significant health disparities. They are more likely to use drugs and alcohol, smoke, be diagnosed with HIV infection or other sexually transmitted infections, and experience depression or attempt suicide. Many also experience discrimination within the health care system. Office-level strategies to create a safe and affirming space for gender-expansive patients include posting of a nondiscrimination statement, use of intake forms that ask about current gender identity and birth-assigned sex, provision of gender-neutral restrooms, and staff training in use of appropriate language...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Robert Li Kitts, Kyle John Koleoglou, Jennifer Elysia Holland, Eliza Haapaniemi Hutchinson, Quincy Georgdie Nang, Clare Marie Mehta, Chau Minh Tran, Laurie Newman Fishman
BACKGROUND: Research assistants (RAs) are hired at academic centers to staff the research and quality improvement projects that advance evidence-based medical practice. Considered a transient population, these young professionals may view their positions as stepping-stones along their path to graduate programs in medicine or public health. OBJECTIVE: To address the needs of these future health professionals, a novel program-Program for Research Assistant Development and Achievement (PRADA)-was developed to facilitate the development of desirable professional skill sets (ie, leadership, teamwork, communication) through participation in peer-driven service and advocacy initiatives directed toward the hospital and surrounding communities...
November 2, 2015: JMIR Med Educ
Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen, Sarah Jen, Amanda E B Bryan, Jayn Goldsen
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
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