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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#1
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#2
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878209/preclinical-models-of-overwhelming-sepsis-implicate-the-neural-system-that-encodes-contextual-fear-memory
#3
Patricio T Huerta, Sergio Robbiati, Tomás Salvador Huerta, Anchal Sabharwal, Rose A Berlin, Maya Frankfurt, Bruce T Volpe
Long-term sepsis survivors sustain cryptic brain injury that leads to cognitive impairment, emotional imbalance, and increased disability burden. Suitable animal models of sepsis, such as cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), have permitted the analysis of abnormal brain circuits that underlie post-septic behavioral phenotypes. For instance, we have previously shown that CLP-exposed mice exhibit impaired spatial memory together with depleted dendritic arbors and decreased spines in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829143/touch-receptors-undergo-rapid-remodeling-in-healthy-skin
#4
Kara L Marshall, Rachel C Clary, Yoshichika Baba, Rachel L Orlowsky, Gregory J Gerling, Ellen A Lumpkin
Sensory tissues exposed to the environment, such as skin, olfactory epithelia, and taste buds, continuously renew; therefore, peripheral neurons must have mechanisms to maintain appropriate innervation patterns. Although somatosensory neurons regenerate after injury, little is known about how these neurons cope with normal target organ changes. To elucidate neuronal plasticity in healthy skin, we analyzed the structure of Merkel-cell afferents, which are gentle touch receptors, during skin remodeling that accompanies mouse hair-follicle regeneration...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822504/sleep-and-serotonin-modulate-paracapsular-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressing-neurons-of-the-amygdala
#5
Marco Bocchio, Simon P Fisher, Gunes Unal, Tommas J Ellender, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Marco Capogna
Unraveling the roles of distinct neuron types is a fundamental challenge to understanding brain function in health and disease. In the amygdala, a brain structure regulating emotional behavior, the diversity of GABAergic neurons has been only partially explored. We report a novel population of GABAergic amygdala neurons expressing high levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). These cells are predominantly localized along basolateral amygdala (BLA) boundaries. Performing ex vivo patch-clamp recordings from nNOS(+) neurons in Nos1-Cre(ER);Ai9 mice, we observed that nNOS(+) neurons located along the external capsule display distinctive electrophysiological properties, axonal and dendritic arborization, and connectivity...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794576/get-a-grip-substrate-orientation-and-digital-grasping-pressures-in-strepsirrhines
#6
Kimberly A Congdon, Matthew J Ravosa
Skeletal functional morphology in primates underlies many fossil interpretations. Understanding the functional correlates of arboreal grasping is central to identifying locomotor signatures in extinct primates. We tested 3 predictions linking substrate orientation and digital grasping pressures: (1) below-branch pressures are greater than above-branch and vertical-branch pressures; (2) there is no difference in pressure exerted across digits within autopods at any substrate orientation, and (3) there is no difference in pressure exerted between homologous digits across autopods at any substrate orientation...
2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787898/role-of-a-heterotrimeric-g-protein-gi2-in-the-corticogenesis-possible-involvement-in-periventricular-nodular-heterotopia-and-intellectual-disability
#7
Nanako Hamada, Yutaka Negishi, Makoto Mizuno, Fuyuki Miya, Ayako Hattori, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Mitsuhiro Kato, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Mami Yamasaki, Yonehiro Kanemura, Kenjiro Kosaki, Hidenori Tabata, Shinji Saitoh, Koh-Ichi Nagata
We analyzed the role of a heterotrimeric G-protein, Gi2, in the development of the cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of the α-subunit (Gαi2) with in utero electroporation caused delayed radial migration of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis, perhaps because of impaired morphology. The migration phenotype was rescued by an RNAi-resistant version of Gαi2. On the other hand, silencing of Gαi2 did not affect axon elongation, dendritic arbor formation or neurogenesis at ventricular zone in vivo. When behavior analyses were conducted with acute Gαi2-knockdown mice, they showed defects in social interaction, novelty recognition and active avoidance learning as well as increased anxiety...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784858/reproductive-experience-modified-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-to-enhance-sensory-perception-and-spatial-learning-in-rats
#8
Jeng-Rung Chen, Seh Hong Lim, Sin-Cun Chung, Yee-Fun Lee, Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng, Tsyr-Jiuan Wan
Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat's sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task...
October 25, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779826/mystacial-whisker-layout-and-musculature-in-the-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-a-social-diurnal-mammal
#9
Robyn A Grant, Mariane G Delaunay, Sebastian Haidarliu
All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared to terrestrial, diurnal mammals...
October 25, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768128/developing-a-hypnotic-relaxation-intervention-to-improve-body-image-a-feasibility-study
#10
Alison Cieslak, Gary Elkins, Tanima Banerjee, Jessica Marsack, Kimberly Hickman, Alisa Johnson, Norah Henry, Debra Barton
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine the content, feasibility, and best outcome of a mind-body intervention involving self-directed hypnotic relaxation to target body image.
. DESIGN: A five-week, uncontrolled, unblinded feasibility intervention study.
. SETTING: Behavioral therapy offices in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Waco, Texas.
. SAMPLE: 10 female breast cancer survivors and 1 breast and gynecologic cancer survivor...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762280/protease-induced-plasticity-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-promotes-neurostructural-changes-through-activation-of-protease-activated-receptor-1
#11
Megan Allen, Suhasini Ghosh, Gerard P Ahern, Sonia Villapol, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss, Katherine Conant
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted endopeptidases expressed by neurons and glia. Regulated MMP activity contributes to physiological synaptic plasticity, while dysregulated activity can stimulate injury. Disentangling the role individual MMPs play in synaptic plasticity is difficult due to overlapping structure and function as well as cell-type specific expression. Here, we develop a novel system to investigate the selective overexpression of a single MMP driven by GFAP expressing cells in vivo...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733606/neural-stem-cell-transplantation-induces-stroke-recovery-by-upregulating-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-astrocytes
#12
Marco Bacigaluppi, Gianluca Luigi Russo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Silvia Rossi, Stefano Sandrone, Erica Butti, Roberta De Ceglia, Andrea Bergamaschi, Caterina Motta, Mattia Gallizioli, Valeria Studer, Emanuela Colombo, Cinthia Farina, Giancarlo Comi, Letterio Salvatore Politi, Luca Muzio, Claudia Villani, Roberto William Invernizzi, Dirk Matthias Hermann, Diego Centonze, Gianvito Martino
: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, but effective therapies are currently widely lacking. Recovery from stroke is very much dependent on the possibility to develop treatments able to both halt the neurodegenerative process as well as to foster adaptive tissue plasticity. Here we show that ischemic mice treated with neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation had on neurophysiological analysis, early after treatment, reduced presynaptic release of glutamate within the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST), and an enhanced NMDA-mediated excitatory transmission in the contralesional CST...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636374/patterns-and-distribution-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-elements-within-serial-electron-microscopic-reconstructions-of-neuronal-arbors-from-the-medicinal-leech-hirudo-verbana
#13
Jason E Pipkin, Eric A Bushong, Mark H Ellisman, William B Kristan
Microscale connectomics involves the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution serial electron micrographs from which neuronal arbors can be reconstructed and synapses can be detected. In addition to connectivity information, these data sets are also rich with structural information, including vesicle types, number of postsynaptic partners at a given presynaptic site, and spatial distribution of synaptic inputs and outputs. This study uses serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (EM) to collect two volumes of serial EM data from ganglia of the medicinal leech...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619357/18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-gastric-malt-lymphoma-a-bicentric-experience
#14
Domenico Albano, Mattia Bertoli, Paola Ferro, Federico Fallanca, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Picchio, Raffaele Giubbini, Francesco Bertagna
PURPOSE: The role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in evaluating gastric MALT lymphoma is still controversial. In the literature the detection rate of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma is variable, and the reason for this heterogeneity is not still clear. Our aim was to investigate the particular metabolic behavior of these lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients (26 female, 43 male) with histologically confirmed gastric MALT lymphoma who underwent a 18F-FDG-PET/CT for initial staging from two centers were included...
September 12, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580025/neuropeptides-in-the-desert-ant-cataglyphis-fortis-mass-spectrometric-analysis-localization-and-age-related-changes
#15
Franziska Schmitt, Jens T Vanselow, Andreas Schlosser, Christian Wegener, Wolfgang Rössler
Cataglyphis desert ants exhibit an age-related polyethism, with ants performing tasks in the dark nest for the first ∼4 weeks of their adult life before they switch to visually based long-distance navigation to forage. Although behavioral and sensory aspects of this transition have been studied, the internal factors triggering the behavioral changes are largely unknown. We suggest the neuropeptide families allatostatin A (AstA), allatotropin (AT), short neuropeptide F (sNPF), and tachykinin (TK) as potential candidates...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488640/a-subtype-of-olfactory-bulb-interneurons-is-required-for-odor-detection-and-discrimination-behaviors
#16
Hiroo Takahashi, Yoichi Ogawa, Sei-Ichi Yoshihara, Ryo Asahina, Masahito Kinoshita, Tatsuro Kitano, Michiko Kitsuki, Kana Tatsumi, Mamiko Okuda, Kouko Tatsumi, Akio Wanaka, Hirokazu Hirai, Peter L Stern, Akio Tsuboi
UNLABELLED: Neural circuits that undergo reorganization by newborn interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) are necessary for odor detection and discrimination, olfactory memory, and innate olfactory responses, including predator avoidance and sexual behaviors. The OB possesses many interneurons, including various types of granule cells (GCs); however, the contribution that each type of interneuron makes to olfactory behavioral control remains unknown. Here, we investigated the in vivo functional role of oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein 5T4, a regulator for dendritic arborization of 5T4-expressing GCs (5T4 GCs), the level of which is reduced in the OB of 5T4 knock-out (KO) mice...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478019/the-basis-of-food-texture-sensation-in-drosophila
#17
Yali V Zhang, Timothy J Aikin, Zhengzheng Li, Craig Montell
Food texture has enormous effects on food preferences. However, the mechanosensory cells and key molecules responsible for sensing the physical properties of food are unknown. Here, we show that akin to mammals, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, prefers food with a specific hardness or viscosity. This food texture discrimination depends upon a previously unknown multidendritic (md-L) neuron, which extends elaborate dendritic arbors innervating the bases of taste hairs. The md-L neurons exhibit directional selectivity in response to mechanical stimuli...
August 17, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420784/arboreal-folivores-limit-their-energetic-output-all-the-way-to-slothfulness
#18
Jonathan N Pauli, M Zachariah Peery, Emily D Fountain, William H Karasov
By exploiting unutilized resources, organisms expand into novel niches, which can lead to adaptive radiation. However, some groups fail to diversify despite the apparent opportunity to do so. Although arising multiple times, arboreal folivores are rare and have not radiated, presumably because of energetic constraints. To explore this hypothesis, we quantified the field metabolic rate (FMR), movement, and body temperature for syntopic two- and three-toed sloths, extreme arboreal folivores that differ in their degree of specialization...
August 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402182/the-evolution-of-reproductive-diversity-in-afrobatrachia-a-phylogenetic-comparative-analysis-of-an-extensive-radiation-of-african-frogs
#19
Daniel M Portik, David C Blackburn
The reproductive modes of anurans (frogs and toads) are the most diverse of terrestrial vertebrates, and a major challenge is identifying selective factors that promote the evolution or retention of reproductive modes across clades. Terrestrialized anuran breeding strategies have evolved repeatedly from the plesiomorphic fully aquatic reproductive mode, a process thought to occur through intermediate reproductive stages. Several selective forces have been proposed for the evolution of terrestrialized reproductive traits, but factors such as water systems and co-evolution with ecomorphologies have not been investigated...
September 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377428/morphological-convergence-in-the-pubis-of-slow-moving-primates-and-xenarthrans
#20
Kristi L Lewton, Heather L Dingwall
OBJECTIVES: Determining the functional significance of pubic rami is important for reconstructing locomotor behavior of fossil species. The slow loris pelvis, characterized by long pubic rami, is unusual among primates. Long pubic rami may be related to increasing the moment arm of the abdominal musculature during ventroflexion after the termination of hindlimb suspension, which is a common component of slow arboreal quadrupedalism (AQ). Some extant xenarthran species are also slow AQ taxa, and provide an ideal group to test hypotheses of morphologically convergent adaptations to slow AQ...
July 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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