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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684306/jumping-and-the-aerial-behavior-of-aquatic-mayfly-larvae-myobaetis-ellenae-baetidae
#1
Stephen P Yanoviak, Robert Dudley
Mayfly larvae generally are aquatic, but some madicolous taxa (i.e., living in thin water films) crawl over rocks within streams and waterfalls. When startled, these larvae can break the water film, jump, and enter an aerial phase of locomotion. Because mayfly larvae have been suggested as potential exemplars for the origin of insect wings as tracheal gills, and furthermore represent the most basal extant lineage of pterygotes, we analyzed jumping behavior and free-fall trajectories for one such species of mayfly (Myobaetis ellenae, Baetidae) in Costa Rica...
July 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683776/trpa1-channels-promote-astrocytic-ca-2-hyperactivity-and-synaptic-dysfunction-mediated-by-oligomeric-forms-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#2
Anthony Bosson, Adrien Paumier, Sylvie Boisseau, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin, Alain Buisson, Mireille Albrieux
BACKGROUND: Excessive synaptic loss is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the key mechanisms that maintain plasticity of synapses during adulthood or initiate synapse dysfunction in AD remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that astrocytes contribute to functional changes observed during synaptic plasticity and play a major role in synaptic dysfunction but astrocytes behavior and involvement in early phases of AD remained largely undefined. METHODS: We measure astrocytic calcium activity in mouse CA1 hippocampus stratum radiatum in both the global astrocytic population and at a single cell level, focusing in the highly compartmentalized astrocytic arbor...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683067/early-postnatal-exposure-to-isoflurane-causes-cognitive-deficits-and-disrupts-development-of-newborn-hippocampal-neurons-via-activation-of-the-mtor-pathway
#3
Eunchai Kang, Danye Jiang, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Christy D Gray, Michael Xu, Jun H Choi, Sue Junn, Jieun Kim, Jing Xu, Michele Schaefer, Roger A Johns, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming, C David Mintz
Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#4
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625590/intranasal-cotinine-improves-memory-and-reduces-depressive-like-behavior-and-gfap-cells-loss-induced-by-restraint-stress-in-mice
#5
Nelson Perez-Urrutia, Cristhian Mendoza, Nathalie Alvarez-Ricartes, Patricia Oliveros-Matus, Florencia Echeverria, J Alex Grizzell, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Valentina Echeverria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622924/functional-associations-between-support-use-and-forelimb-shape-in-strepsirrhines-and-their-relevance-to-inferring-locomotor-behavior-in-early-primates
#6
Anne-Claire Fabre, Judit Marigó, Michael C Granatosky, Daniel Schmitt
The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and orientation. It is widely assumed that primates are behaviorally and anatomically adapted to movement on specific substrates, but few explicit tests of this relationship in an evolutionary context have been conducted. Without direct tests of form-function relationships in living primates it is impossible to reliably infer behavior in fossil taxa...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620013/the-evolution-of-vertical-climbing-in-primates-evidence-from-reaction-forces
#7
Jandy B Hanna, Michael C Granatosky, Pooja Rana, Daniel Schmitt
Vertical climbing is an essential behavior for arboreal animals, yet limb mechanics during climbing are poorly understood and rarely compared to those observed during horizontal walking. Primates commonly engage in both arboreal walking and vertical climbing, and this makes them an ideal taxa in which to compare these locomotor forms. Additionally, primates exhibit unusual limb mechanics compared to most other quadrupeds, with weight distribution biased towards the hindlimbs, a pattern that is argued to have evolved in response to the challenges of arboreal walking...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611607/generating-executable-models-of-the-drosophila-central-complex
#8
Lev E Givon, Aurel A Lazar, Chung-Heng Yeh
The central complex (CX) is a set of neuropils in the center of the fly brain that have been implicated as playing an important role in vision-mediated behavior and integration of spatial information with locomotor control. In contrast to currently available data regarding the neural circuitry of neuropils in the fly's vision and olfactory systems, comparable data for the CX neuropils is relatively incomplete; many categories of neurons remain only partly characterized, and the synaptic connectivity between CX neurons has yet to be fully determined...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609458/dendritic-overgrowth-and-elevated-erk-signaling-during-neonatal-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism
#9
Ning Cheng, Fawaz Alshammari, Elizabeth Hughes, Maryam Khanbabaei, Jong M Rho
Autism spectrum disorder (hereafter referred to as "ASD") is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social communication and interactions, and restricted, repetitive activities or interests. Alterations in network connectivity and memory function are frequently observed in autism patients, often involving the hippocampus. However, specific changes during early brain development leading to disrupted functioning remain largely unclear. Here, we investigated the development of dendritic arbor of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605033/the-befuddling-nature-of-mouse-lemur-hands-and-feet-at-bez%C3%A3-mahafaly-sw-madagascar
#10
Gina Agostini, Emilienne Rasoazanabary, Laurie R Godfrey
The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus-a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594068/chimpanzee-ankle-and-foot-joint-kinematics-arboreal-versus-terrestrial-locomotion
#11
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
OBJECTIVES: Many aspects of chimpanzee ankle and midfoot joint morphology are believed to reflect adaptations for arboreal locomotion. However, terrestrial travel also constitutes a significant component of chimpanzee locomotion, complicating functional interpretations of chimpanzee and fossil hominin foot morphology. Here we tested hypotheses of foot motion and, in keeping with general assumptions, we predicted that chimpanzees would use greater ankle and midfoot joint ranges of motion during travel on arboreal supports than on the ground...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592698/a-screening-of-unf-targets-identifies-rnb-a-novel-regulator-of-drosophila-circadian-rhythms
#12
Anatoly Kozlov, Edouard Jaumouillé, Pedro Machado Almeida, Rafael Koch, Joseph Rodriguez, Katherine C Abruzzi, Emi Nagoshi
Behavioral circadian rhythms are controlled by multi-oscillator networks comprising functionally different subgroups of clock neurons. Studies have demonstrated that molecular clocks in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are regulated differently in clock neuron subclasses to support their specific functions (Lee et al., 2016; Top et al., 2016). The nuclear receptor unfulfilled (unf) represents a regulatory node that provides the small ventral Lateral Neurons (s-LNvs) unique characteristics as the master pacemaker (Beuchle et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576774/aff-1-fusogen-can-rejuvenate-the-regenerative-potential-of-adult-dendritic-trees-via-self-fusion
#13
Veronika Kravtsov, Meital Oren-Suissa, Benjamin Podbilewicz
The aging brain undergoes structural changes, affecting brain homeostasis, neuronal function and consequently cognition. The complex architecture of dendritic arbors poses a challenge to understanding age-dependent morphological alterations, behavioral plasticity and remodeling following brain injury. Here, we use the PVD polymodal neurons of C. elegans as a model to study how aging affects neuronal plasticity. Using confocal live imaging of C. elegans PVD neurons, we demonstrate age-related progressive morphological alterations of intricate dendritic arbors...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576726/nicotine-induced-and-d1-receptor-dependent-dendritic-remodeling-in-a-subset-of-dorsolateral-striatum-medium-spiny-neurons
#14
Daniel G Ehlinger, Julian C Burke, Craig G McDonald, Robert F Smith, Hadley C Bergstrom
Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances known, targeting multiple memory systems, including the ventral and dorsal striatum. One form of neuroplasticity commonly associated with nicotine is dendrite remodeling. Nicotine-induced dendritic remodeling of ventral striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is well-documented. Whether MSN dendrites in the dorsal striatum undergo a similar pattern of nicotine-induced structural remodeling is unknown. A morphometric analysis of Golgi-stained MSNs in rat revealed a natural asymmetry in dendritic morphology across the mediolateral axis, with larger, more complex MSNs found in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS)...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560319/cyclical-nursing-patterns-in-wild-orangutans
#15
Tanya M Smith, Christine Austin, Katie Hinde, Erin R Vogel, Manish Arora
Nursing behavior is notoriously difficult to study in arboreal primates, particularly when offspring suckle inconspicuously in nests. Orangutans have the most prolonged nursing period of any mammal, with the cessation of suckling (weaning) estimated to occur at 6 to 8 years of age in the wild. Milk consumption is hypothesized to be relatively constant over this period, but direct evidence is limited. We previously demonstrated that trace element analysis of bioavailable elements from milk, such as barium, provides accurate estimates of early-life diet transitions and developmental stress when coupled with growth lines in the teeth of humans and nonhuman primates...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546650/samango-monkeys-cercopithecus-albogularis-labiatus-manage-risk-in-a-highly-seasonal-human-modified-landscape-in-amathole-mountains-south-africa
#16
Katarzyna Nowak, Kirsten Wimberger, Shane A Richards, Russell A Hill, Aliza le Roux
Wild species use habitats that vary in risk across space and time. This risk can derive from natural predators and also from direct and indirect human pressures. A starving forager will often take risks that a less hungry forager would not. At a highly seasonal and human-modified site, we predicted that arboreal samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) would show highly flexible, responsive, risk-sensitive foraging. We first determined how monkeys use horizontal and vertical space across seasons to evaluate if high-risk decisions (use of gardens and ground) changed with season, a proxy for starvation risk...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543982/the-rna-binding-protein-caper-is-required-for-sensory-neuron-development-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Jeremy M Bono, Laura Bell, Logan T Schachtner, Meghan C Lybecker
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. Alternative splicing has been shown to be a widespread phenomenon that facilitates the diversification of gene products in a tissue-specific manner. Although defects in alternative splicing are rooted in many neurological disorders, only a small fraction of splicing factors have been investigated in detail. RESULTS: We find that the splicing factor Caper is required for the development of multiple different mechanosensory neuron subtypes at multiple life stages in Drosophila melanogaster...
August 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542704/trabecular-and-cortical-bone-structure-of-the-talus-and-distal-tibia-in-pan-and-homo
#18
Zewdi J Tsegai, Matthew M Skinner, Andrew H Gee, Dieter H Pahr, Graham M Treece, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Internal bone structure, both cortical and trabecular bone, remodels in response to loading and may provide important information regarding behavior. The foot is well suited to analysis of internal bone structure because it experiences the initial substrate reaction forces, due to its proximity to the substrate. Moreover, as humans and apes differ in loading of the foot, this region is relevant to questions concerning arboreal locomotion and bipedality in the hominoid fossil record...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522766/ontogeny-of-myosin-isoform-expression-and-prehensile-function-in-the-tail-of-the-gray-short-tailed-opossum-monodelphis-domestica
#19
Dylan R Thomas, Brad A Chadwell, Gary R Walker, Julio E Budde, John L VandeBerg, Michael T Butcher
Terrestrial opossums use their semi-prehensile tail for grasping nesting materials as opposed to arboreal maneuvering. We relate the development of this adaptive behavior with ontogenetic changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression from 21 days to adulthood. Monodelphis domestica is expected to demonstrate a progressive ability to flex the distal tail up to age 7 months, when it should exhibit routine nest construction. We hypothesize that juvenile stages (3-7 months) will be characterized by retention of the neonatal isoform (MHC-Neo), along with predominant expression of fast MHC-2X and 2B, which will transition into greater MHC-1β and 2A isoform content as development progresses...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500509/observations-of-termitarium-geophagy-by-rylands-bald-faced-saki-monkeys-pithecia-rylandsi-in-madre-de-dios-peru
#20
Dara B Adams, Jennifer A Rehg, Mrinalini Watsa
Geophagy, or soil consumption, has been documented in diverse animal taxa, including many primates. Physiological functions such as mineral supplementation, detoxification of secondary compounds, and antacid properties are possible causes for this behavior. We report on observations of geophagy at arboreal termitaria by free-ranging Pithecia rylandsi at La Estación Biológica Los Amigos (EBLA) in Perú between 2008 and 2015. Characteristics of geophagy events, including saki monkey behavior at the termitaria, were recorded and geochemical analyses were conducted on consumed termitaria, nearby topsoils, and unvisited termitaria...
July 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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