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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158126/physiological-and-behavioral-responses-of-an-arboreal-mammal-to-smoke-and-charcoal-ash-substrate
#1
Julia Nowack, Clare Stawski, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
The recent observation that torpor plays a key role in post-fire survival has been mainly attributed to the reduced food resources after fires. However, some of these adjustments can be facilitated or amplified by environmental changes associated with fires, such as the presence of a charcoal-ash substrate. In a previous experiment on a small terrestrial mammal the presence of charcoal and ash linked to food restriction intensified torpor use. However, whether fire cues also act as a trigger of torpor use when food is available and whether they affect other species including arboreal mammals remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153770/rats-exposed-to-2-45ghz-of-non-ionizing-radiation-exhibit-behavioral-changes-with-increased-brain-expression-of-apoptotic-caspase-3
#2
Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla
In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2...
November 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118122/unique-directional-motility-of-influenza-c-virus-controlled-by-its-filamentous-morphology-and-short-range-motions
#3
Tatsuya Sakai, Hiroaki Takagi, Yasushi Muraki, Mineki Saito
Influenza virus motility is based on cooperation between two viral spike proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), and is a major determinant of virus infectivity. To translocate a virus particle on the cell surface, HA molecules exchange viral receptors and NA molecules accelerate the receptor exchange of HA. This type of virus motility was recently identified in influenza A virus (IAV). To determine if other influenza virus types have a similar receptor-exchange mechanism-driven motility, we investigated influenza C virus (ICV) motility on a receptor-fixed glass surface...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107098/corticosteroid-induced-dendrite-loss-and-behavioral-deficiencies-can-be-blocked-by-activation-of-abl2-arg-kinase
#4
Lauren P Shapiro, Mitchell H Omar, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
Stressor exposure induces neuronal remodeling in specific brain regions. Given the persistence of stress-related illnesses, key next steps in determining the contributions of neural structure to mental health are to identify cell types that fail to recover from stressor exposure and to identify "trigger points" and molecular underpinnings of stress-related neural degeneration. We evaluated dendrite arbor structure on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons before, during, and following prolonged exposure to one key mediator of the stress response - corticosterone (cortisol in humans)...
October 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103936/vrille-controls-pdf-neuropeptide-accumulation-and-arborization-rhythms-in-small-ventrolateral-neurons-to-drive-rhythmic-behavior-in-drosophila
#5
Kushan L Gunawardhana, Paul E Hardin
In Drosophila, the circadian clock is comprised of transcriptional feedback loops that control rhythmic gene expression responsible for daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior. The core feedback loop, which employs CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) activators and PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) repressors to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dusk, is required for circadian timekeeping and overt behavioral rhythms. CLK-CYC also activates an interlocked feedback loop, which uses the PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1ε (PDP1ε) activator and the VRILLE (VRI) repressor to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dawn...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064551/organisation-of-the-dopamine-neuronal-subsets-within-midbrain-of-the-pygmy-acrobat
#6
R Krawczyk, I Klejbor, K Turlejski, B Ludkiewicz, J Moryś
Pygmy Acrobat has unique set of morphological, anatomical and behavioral features that make it a promising model for study of primate evolution. Among the many locomotor adaptations, it should be mark a wide range of movements such as gliding, climbing, running, arboreality. This type of behavior can result from differences in anatomy and physiology of the brain systems involved in its integration. It is well acknowledged that dopaminergic neurons are involved in motor control, motivation and cognition. Due to the fact that there are no data on morphological organisation of dopaminergic system in the midbrain of Acrobates pygmaeus, we decide to do this using immunohistochemical and quantitative methods...
October 24, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052614/narp-mediates-antidepressant-like-effects-of-electroconvulsive-seizures
#7
Andrew D Chang, Punit V Vaidya, Edward P Retzbach, Sunho J Chung, Urian Kim, Kathryn Baselice, Kristen Maynard, Alec Stepanian, Melissa Staley, Lan Xiao, Ashley Blouin, Sungho Han, JongAh Lee, Paul F Worley, Kellie L Tamashiro, Barbara L Hempstead, Keri Martinowich, Mary Ann Wilson, Jay M Baraban, Irving M Reti
Growing recognition of persistent cognitive defects associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a highly effective and commonly used antidepressant treatment, has spurred interest in identifying its mechanism of action to guide development of safer treatment options. However, as repeated seizure activity elicits a bewildering array of electrophysiological and biochemical effects, this goal has remained elusive. We have examined whether deletion of Narp, an immediate early gene induced by electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), blocks its antidepressant efficacy...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022879/sparse-genetic-tracing-reveals-regionally-specific-functional-organization-of-mammalian-nociceptors
#8
William Olson, Ishmail Abdus-Saboor, Lian Cui, Justin Burdge, Tobias Raabe, Minghong Ma, Wenqin Luo
The human distal limbs have a high spatial acuity for noxious stimuli but a low density of pain-sensing neurites. To elucidate mechanisms underlying regional differences in processing nociception, we sparsely traced non-peptidergic nociceptors across the body using a newly generated Mrgprd(CreERT2) mouse line. We found that mouse plantar paw skin is also innervated by a low density of Mrgprd(+) nociceptors, while individual arbors in different locations are comparable in size. Surprisingly, the central arbors of plantar paw and trunk innervating nociceptors have distinct morphologies in the spinal cord...
October 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021745/tyramine-actions-on-drosophila-flight-behavior-are-affected-by-a-glial-dehydrogenase-reductase
#9
Stefanie Ryglewski, Carsten Duch, Benjamin Altenhein
The biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate insect motor behavior in an antagonistic manner. OA generally enhances locomotor behaviors such as Drosophila larval crawling and flight, whereas TA decreases locomotor activity. However, the mechanisms and cellular targets of TA modulation of locomotor activity are incompletely understood. This study combines immunocytochemistry, genetics and flight behavioral assays in the Drosophila model system to test the role of a candidate enzyme for TA catabolism, named Nazgul (Naz), in flight motor behavioral control...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977692/ant-plant-mutualism-a-dietary-by-product-of-a-tropical-ant-s-macronutrient-requirements
#10
Lina M Arcila Hernández, Jon G Sanders, Gabriel A Miller, Alison Ravenscraft, Megan E Frederickson
Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey...
October 4, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968440/genetic-structure-in-the-southernmost-populations-of-black-and-gold-howler-monkeys-alouatta-caraya-and-its-conservation-implications
#11
Luciana Inés Oklander, Carolina Isabel Miño, Gabriela Fernández, Mariela Caputo, Daniel Corach
Black-and-gold howler monkeys Alouatta caraya, are arboreal primates, inhabitants of Neotropical forests, highly susceptible to the yellow fever virus, considered early 'sentinels' of outbreaks, and thus, of major epidemiological importance. Currently, anthropogenic habitat loss and modifications threatens their survival. Habitat modification can prevent, reduce or change dispersal behavior, which, in turn, may influence patterns of gene flow. We explored past and contemporary levels of genetic diversity, elucidated genetic structure and identified its possible drivers, in ten populations (n = 138) located in the southernmost distribution range of the species in South America, in Argentina and Paraguay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960295/comparative-morphology-of-snake-squamata-endocasts-evidence-of-phylogenetic-and-ecological-signals
#12
Rémi Allemand, Renaud Boistel, Gheylen Daghfous, Zoé Blanchet, Raphaël Cornette, Nathalie Bardet, Peggy Vincent, Alexandra Houssaye
Brain endocasts obtained from computed tomography (CT) are now widely used in the field of comparative neuroanatomy. They provide an overview of the morphology of the brain and associated tissues located in the cranial cavity. Through anatomical comparisons between species, insights on the senses, the behavior, and the lifestyle can be gained. Although there are many studies dealing with mammal and bird endocasts, those performed on the brain endocasts of squamates are comparatively rare, thus limiting our understanding of their morphological variability and interpretations...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957404/megachiropteran-bats-profoundly-unique-from-microchiropterans-in-climbing-and-walking-locomotion-evolutionary-implications
#13
Rick A Adams, Richard T Carter
Understandably, most locomotor analyses of bats have focused on flight mechanics and behaviors. However, we investigated nonflight locomotion in an effort to glean deeper insights into the evolutionary history of bats. We used high-speed video (300 Hz) to film and compare walking and climbing mechanics and kinematics between several species of the suborders Megachiroptera (Pteropodidae) versus Microchiroptera (Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomatidae). We found fundamentally distinctive behaviors, functional abilities, and performance outcomes between groups, but nearly homogeneous outcomes within groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943886/sleeping-site-ecology-but-not-sex-affect-ecto-and-hemoparasite-risk-in-sympatric-arboreal-primates-avahi-occidentalis-and-lepilemur-edwardsi
#14
May Hokan, Christina Strube, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910410/the-function-of-drosophila-larval-class-iv-dendritic-arborization-sensory-neurons-in-the-larval-pupal-transition-is-separable-from-their-function-in-mechanical-nociception-responses
#15
Hannah E Brown, Trishna Desai, Allison J Murphy, Harshida Pancholi, Zachary W Schmidt, Hannah Swahn, Eric C Liebl
The sensory and physiological inputs which govern the larval-pupal transition in Drosophila, and the neuronal circuity that integrates them, are complex. Previous work from our laboratory identified a dosage-sensitive genetic interaction between the genes encoding the Rho-GEF Trio and the zinc-finger transcription factor Sequoia that interfered with the larval-pupal transition. Specifically, we reported heterozygous mutations in sequoia (seq) dominantly exacerbated the trio mutant phenotype, and this seq-enhanced trio mutant genotype blocked the transition of third instar larvae from foragers to wanderers, a requisite behavioral transition prior to pupation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899992/depletion-of-progranulin-reduces-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-density-tau-phosphorylation-and-dendritic-arborization-in-mouse-primary-cortical-neurons
#16
Francesca Longhena, Michela Zaltieri, Jessica Grigoletto, Gaia Faustini, Luca La Via, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Cristina Missale, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by brain atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes and such typical symptoms as cognitive and memory impairment, profound behavioral abnormalities, and personality changes is thought to be related to connectome dysfunctions. Recently, PGRN reduction has been found to induce a behavioral phenotype reminiscent of FTLD symptoms in mice by affecting neuron spine density and morphology, suggesting that the protein can influence neuronal structural plasticity...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899869/autism-like-behavior-caused-by-deletion-of-vaccinia-related-kinase-3-is-improved-by-trkb-stimulation
#17
Myung-Su Kang, Tae-Yong Choi, Hye Guk Ryu, Dohyun Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Kyong-Tai Kim
Vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are multifaceted serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in various aspects of cell signaling, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neuronal development and differentiation. However, the neuronal function of VRK3 is still unknown despite its etiological potential in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we report that VRK3-deficient mice exhibit typical symptoms of autism-like behavior, including hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviors, reduced social interaction, and impaired context-dependent spatial memory...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872656/comparison-of-hand-use-and-forelimb-posture-during-vertical-climbing-in-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#18
Johanna Neufuss, Martha M Robbins, Jana Baeumer, Tatyana Humle, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Studies on grasping and limb posture during arboreal locomotion in great apes in their natural environment are scarce and thus, attempts to correlate behavioral and habitat differences with variation in morphology are limited. The aim of this study is to compare hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in wild, habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and semi-free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to assess differences in the climbing styles that may relate to variation in hand or forelimb morphology and body size...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863230/dorsal-and-ventral-parts-of-thalamic-nucleus-submedius-project-to-different-areas-of-rat-orbitofrontal-cortex-a-single-neuron-tracing-study-using-virus-vectors
#19
Eriko Kuramoto, Haruki Iwai, Atsushi Yamanaka, Sachi Ohno, Haruka Seki, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Takahiro Furuta, Hiroyuki Hioki, Tetsuya Goto
The rodent orbitofrontal cortex is involved in a variety of cognitive and behavioral functions that require thalamic input to be successfully expressed. Although the thalamic nucleus submedius (Sm) is a major source of afferents to the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamocortical projection from the Sm has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we first divided the rat Sm into dorsal and ventral parts according to the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive varicosities, which were somatosensory afferents from the brain stem...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857331/ecological-and-phylogenetic-variability-in-the-spinalis-muscle-of-snakes
#20
J L Tingle, G E A Gartner, B C Jayne, T Garland
Understanding the origin and maintenance of functionally important subordinate traits is a major goal of evolutionary physiologists and ecomorphologists. Within the confines of a limbless body plan, snakes are diverse in terms of body size and ecology, but we know little about the functional traits that underlie this diversity. We used a phylogenetically diverse group of 131 snake species to examine associations between habitat use, sidewinding locomotion and constriction behaviour with the number of body vertebrae spanned by a single segment of the spinalis muscle, with total numbers of body vertebrae used as a covariate in statistical analyses...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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