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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910410/the-function-of-drosophila-larval-class-iv-dendritic-arborization-sensory-neurons-in-the-larval-pupal-transition-is-separable-from-their-function-in-mechanical-nociception-responses
#1
Hannah E Brown, Trishna Desai, Allison J Murphy, Harshida Pancholi, Zachary W Schmidt, Hannah Swahn, Eric C Liebl
The sensory and physiological inputs which govern the larval-pupal transition in Drosophila, and the neuronal circuity that integrates them, are complex. Previous work from our laboratory identified a dosage-sensitive genetic interaction between the genes encoding the Rho-GEF Trio and the zinc-finger transcription factor Sequoia that interfered with the larval-pupal transition. Specifically, we reported heterozygous mutations in sequoia (seq) dominantly exacerbated the trio mutant phenotype, and this seq-enhanced trio mutant genotype blocked the transition of third instar larvae from foragers to wanderers, a requisite behavioral transition prior to pupation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899992/depletion-of-progranulin-reduces-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-density-tau-phosphorylation-and-dendritic-arborization-in-mouse-primary-cortical-neurons
#2
Francesca Longhena, Michela Zaltieri, Jessica Grigoletto, Gaia Faustini, Luca La Via, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Cristina Missale, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes and with typical symptoms such as cognitive and memory impairment, profound behavioral abnormalities and personality changes, that are thought to be related to connectome dysfunctions. Recently, PGRN reduction has been found to induce a behavioural phenotype reminiscent of FTLD symptoms in mice by affecting neuron spine density and morphology, suggesting that the protein can influence neuronal structural plasticity...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899869/autism-like-behavior-caused-by-deletion-of-vaccinia-related-kinase-3-is-improved-by-trkb-stimulation
#3
Myung-Su Kang, Tae-Yong Choi, Hye Guk Ryu, Dohyun Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Kyong-Tai Kim
Vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are multifaceted serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in various aspects of cell signaling, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neuronal development and differentiation. However, the neuronal function of VRK3 is still unknown despite its etiological potential in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we report that VRK3-deficient mice exhibit typical symptoms of autism-like behavior, including hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviors, reduced social interaction, and impaired context-dependent spatial memory...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872656/comparison-of-hand-use-and-forelimb-posture-during-vertical-climbing-in-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#4
Johanna Neufuss, Martha M Robbins, Jana Baeumer, Tatyana Humle, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Studies on grasping and limb posture during arboreal locomotion in great apes in their natural environment are scarce and thus, attempts to correlate behavioral and habitat differences with variation in morphology are limited. The aim of this study is to compare hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in wild, habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and semi-free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to assess differences in the climbing styles that may relate to variation in hand or forelimb morphology and body size...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863230/dorsal-and-ventral-parts-of-thalamic-nucleus-submedius-project-to-different-areas-of-rat-orbitofrontal-cortex-a-single-neuron-tracing-study-using-virus-vectors
#5
Eriko Kuramoto, Haruki Iwai, Atsushi Yamanaka, Sachi Ohno, Haruka Seki, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Takahiro Furuta, Hiroyuki Hioki, Tetsuya Goto
The rodent orbitofrontal cortex is involved in a variety of cognitive and behavioral functions that require thalamic input to be successfully expressed. Although the thalamic nucleus submedius (Sm) is a major source of afferents to the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamocortical projection from the Sm has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we first divided the rat Sm into dorsal and ventral parts according to the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive varicosities, which were somatosensory afferents from the brain stem...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857331/ecological-and-phylogenetic-variability-in-the-spinalis-muscle-of-snakes
#6
Jessica L Tingle, Gabriel E A Gartner, Bruce C Jayne, Theodore Garland
Understanding the origin and maintenance of functionally important subordinate traits is a major goal of evolutionary physiologists and ecomorphologists. Within the confines of a limbless body plan, snakes are diverse in terms of body size and ecology, but we know little about the functional traits that underlie this diversity. We used a phylogenetically diverse group of 131 snake species to examine associations between habitat use, sidewinding locomotion, and constriction behavior with the number of body vertebrae spanned by a single segment of the spinalis muscle, with total numbers of body vertebrae used as a covariate in statistical analyses...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855986/treatment-of-relapsed-extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-with-bortezomib-plus-fludarabine
#7
Chen Chen, Hongmin He
Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKL) is a rare entity, associated with an aggressive clinical behavior and poor prognosis. The optimal treatment strategies, particularly for relapsed patients, have not been clearly determined. A 40-year-old female ENKL patient with orbital involvement as the first presentation was initially suspected to have an orbital pseudotumor. When the patient developed disease progression following treatment with methylprednisolone, biopsy of the orbital mass was performed. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen was consistent with the diagnosis of ENKL (Ann Arbor stage IE)...
October 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842257/antidepressant-and-pro-neurogenic-effects-of-agmatine-in-a-mouse-model-of-stress-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-corticosterone
#8
Gislaine Olescowicz, Vivian B Neis, Daiane B Fraga, Priscila B Rosa, Dayane P Azevedo, Fernando Falkenburger Melleu, Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that has been shown to have beneficial effects in the central nervous system, including antidepressant-like effects in animals. In this study, we investigated the ability of agmatine (0.1mg/kg, p.o.) and the conventional antidepressant fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o.) to reverse the behavioral effects and morphological alterations in the hippocampus of mice exposed to chronic corticosterone (20mg/kg, p.o.) treatment for a period of 21days as a model of stress and depressive-like behaviors...
August 24, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833113/dorsal-and-ventral-parts-of-thalamic-nucleus-submedius-project-to-different-areas-of-rat-orbitofrontal-cortex-a-single-neuron-tracing-study-using-virus-vectors
#9
Eriko Kuramoto, Haruki Iwai, Atsushi Yamanaka, Sachi Ohno, Haruka Seki, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Takahiro Furuta, Hiroyuki Hioki, Tetsuya Goto
The rodent orbitofrontal cortex is involved in a variety of cognitive and behavioral functions that require thalamic input to be successfully expressed. Although the thalamic nucleus submedius (Sm) is a major source of afferents to the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamocortical projection from the Sm has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we first divided the rat Sm into dorsal and ventral parts according to the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive varicosities, which were somatosensory afferents from the brain stem...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820910/impaired-dendritic-growth-and-positioning-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-by-activation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-in-the-developing-mouse
#10
Eiki Kimura, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Toshihiro Endo, Wenting Ling, Kazunori Nakajima, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors exert multiple functions in mammalian cerebral cortex development. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the bHLH-Per-Arnt-Sim subfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor reported to regulate nervous system development in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but the functions that AhR signaling pathway may have for mammalian cerebral cortex development remains elusive. Although the endogenous ligand involved in brain developmental process has not been identified, the environmental pollutant dioxin potently binds AhR and induces abnormalities in higher brain function of laboratory animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820892/maternal-autoimmune-antibodies-alter-the-dendritic-arbor-and-spine-numbers-in-the-infragranular-layers-of-the-cortex
#11
Jeanelle Ariza, Jesus Hurtado, Haille Rogers, Raymond Ikeda, Michael Dill, Craig Steward, Donnay Creary, Judy Van de Water, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
An association between maternal IgG antibodies reactive against proteins in fetal brain and an outcome of autism in the child has been identified. Using a mouse model of prenatal intraventricular administration of autism-specific maternal IgG, we demonstrated that these antibodies produce behavioral alterations similar to those in children with ASD. We previously demonstrated that these antibodies bind to radial glial stem cells (RG) and observed an increase in the number of divisions of translocating RG in the developing cortex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803873/neural-circuitry-that-evokes-escape-behavior-upon-activation-of-nociceptive-sensory-neurons-in-drosophila-larvae
#12
Jiro Yoshino, Rei K Morikawa, Eri Hasegawa, Kazuo Emoto
Noxious stimuli trigger a stereotyped escape response in animals. In Drosophila larvae, class IV dendrite arborization (C4 da) sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system are responsible for perception of multiple nociceptive modalities, including noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation, through distinct receptors [1-9]. Silencing or ablation of C4 da neurons largely eliminates larval responses to noxious stimuli [10-12], whereas optogenetic activation of C4 da neurons is sufficient to provoke corkscrew-like rolling behavior similar to what is observed when larvae receive noxious stimuli, such as high temperature or harsh mechanical stimulation [10-12]...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793027/oviposition-behavior-of-haemagogus-leucocelaenus-diptera-culicidae-a-vector-of-wild-yellow-fever-in-brazil
#13
Aline Tátila-Ferreira, Daniele de Aguiar Maia, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, William Costa Rodrigues, Jeronimo Alencar
Haemagogus leucocelaenus, which is considered a major vector of wild yellow fever, exhibits acrodendrophilic habits and mainly deposits its eggs in treeholes and bamboo internodes. The selection of nursery sites is essential in the life history and reproductive success of mosquitoes. The present work investigated the preferred oviposition height and period of Hg. leucocelaenus in an Atlantic forest area in Rio de Janeiro. Sampling was performed using oviposition traps that were placed on plant material at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 m above the ground, from August 2015 to July 2016...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769796/s-47445-produces-antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-like-effects-through-neurogenesis-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#14
Indira Mendez-David, Jean-Philippe Guilloux, Mariusz Papp, Laurent Tritschler, Elisabeth Mocaer, Alain M Gardier, Sylvie Bretin, Denis J David
Glutamatergic dysfunctions are observed in the pathophysiology of depression. The glutamatergic synapse as well as the AMPA receptor's (AMPAR) activation may represent new potential targets for therapeutic intervention in the context of major depressive disorders. S 47445 is a novel AMPARs positive allosteric modulator (AMPA-PAM) possessing procognitive, neurotrophic properties and enhancing synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated the antidepressant/anxiolytic-like effects of S 47445 in a mouse model of anxiety/depression based on chronic corticosterone administration (CORT) and in the Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761413/curcuma-longa-l-extract-improves-the-cortical-neural-connectivity-during-the-aging-process
#15
REVIEW
Gonzalo Flores
Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684306/jumping-and-the-aerial-behavior-of-aquatic-mayfly-larvae-myobaetis-ellenae-baetidae
#16
Stephen P Yanoviak, Robert Dudley
Mayfly larvae generally are aquatic, but some madicolous taxa (i.e., living in thin water films) crawl over rocks within streams and waterfalls. When startled, these larvae can break the water film, jump, and enter an aerial phase of locomotion. Because mayfly larvae have been suggested as potential exemplars for the origin of insect wings as tracheal gills, and furthermore represent the most basal extant lineage of pterygotes, we analyzed jumping behavior and free-fall trajectories for one such species of mayfly (Myobaetis ellenae, Baetidae) in Costa Rica...
July 3, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683776/trpa1-channels-promote-astrocytic-ca-2-hyperactivity-and-synaptic-dysfunction-mediated-by-oligomeric-forms-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#17
Anthony Bosson, Adrien Paumier, Sylvie Boisseau, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin, Alain Buisson, Mireille Albrieux
BACKGROUND: Excessive synaptic loss is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the key mechanisms that maintain plasticity of synapses during adulthood or initiate synapse dysfunction in AD remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that astrocytes contribute to functional changes observed during synaptic plasticity and play a major role in synaptic dysfunction but astrocytes behavior and involvement in early phases of AD remained largely undefined. METHODS: We measure astrocytic calcium activity in mouse CA1 hippocampus stratum radiatum in both the global astrocytic population and at a single cell level, focusing in the highly compartmentalized astrocytic arbor...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683067/early-postnatal-exposure-to-isoflurane-causes-cognitive-deficits-and-disrupts-development-of-newborn-hippocampal-neurons-via-activation-of-the-mtor-pathway
#18
Eunchai Kang, Danye Jiang, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Christy D Gray, Michael Xu, Jun H Choi, Sue Junn, Jieun Kim, Jing Xu, Michele Schaefer, Roger A Johns, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming, C David Mintz
Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#19
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625590/intranasal-cotinine-improves-memory-and-reduces-depressive-like-behavior-and-gfap-cells-loss-induced-by-restraint-stress-in-mice
#20
Nelson Perez-Urrutia, Cristhian Mendoza, Nathalie Alvarez-Ricartes, Patricia Oliveros-Matus, Florencia Echeverria, J Alex Grizzell, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Valentina Echeverria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress...
September 2017: Experimental Neurology
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