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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337045/increased-dendritic-length-in-ca1-and-ca3-hippocampal-neurons-during-the-metestrus-phase-in-wistar-rats
#1
Anayeli López Mendoza, Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez
Studies have shown that changes in ovarian hormone concentrations promote natural fluctuations in the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons in female Sprague-Dawley rats, without changes in dendritic length, throughout the estrous cycle. However, it is still unknown whether these fluctuations are present in other rat strains. Due to our interest in Wistar, the objective of the present study was to determine if there is natural dendritic remodeling in the female Wistar rat throughout the estrous cycle...
January 11, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324469/parafibromin-deficient-hpt-jt-type-cdc73-mutated-parathyroid-tumors-demonstrate-distinctive-morphologic-features
#2
Anthony J Gill, Grace Lim, Veronica K Y Cheung, Juliana Andrici, Joanna L Perry-Keene, Julie Paik, Loretta Sioson, Adele Clarkson, Amy Sheen, Catherine Luxford, Marianne S Elston, Goswin Y Meyer-Rochow, M Teresa Nano, Schelto Kruijff, Anton F Engelsman, Mark Sywak, Stanley B Sidhu, Leigh W Delbridge, Bruce G Robinson, Deborah J Marsh, Christopher W Toon, Angela Chou, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh
The gene CDC73 (previously known as HRPT2) encodes the protein parafibromin. Biallelic mutation of CDC73 is strongly associated with malignancy in parathyroid tumors. Heterozygous germline mutations cause hyperparathyroidism jaw tumor syndrome,which is associated with a high life-time risk of parathyroid carcinoma. Therefore loss of parafibromin expression by immunohistochemistry may triage genetic testing for hyperparathyroidism jaw tumor syndrome and be associated with malignant behavior in atypical parathyroid tumors...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316540/allogrooming-in-male-female-pairs-of-captive-owl-monkeys-aotus-nancymaae
#3
Christy K Wolovich, Elizabeth Tapanes, Sian Evans
Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) are socially monogamous, yet allogrooming is reported to be rare. Because Aotus are nocturnal and arboreal, allogrooming is difficult to observe in natural settings. We observed 21 male-female pairs of captive Aotus nancymaae during 2 nonconsecutive study periods in order to describe the details of allogrooming between mates (partner grooming). We found that grooming bouts are brief and consist of tugging the hair or skin with flexed fingers and/or the mouth. Males groomed females most often, and their rates of partner grooming were negatively related to age...
January 10, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297953/evolution-of-morphology-and-locomotor-performance-in-anurans-relationships-with-microhabitat-diversification
#4
Jessyca Michele Citadini, Renata Brandt, Craig R Williams, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
The relationships between morphology, performance, behavior and ecology provide evidence for multiple and complex phenotypic adaptations. The anuran body plan, for example, is evolutionarily conserved and shows clear specializations to jumping performance back at least to the early Jurassic. However, there are instances of more recent adaptation to habit diversity in the post-cranial skeleton, including relative limb length. The present study tested adaptive models of morphological evolution in anurans associated with the diversity of microhabitat use (aquatic, arboreal, fossorial, torrent, and terrestrial) in species of anuran amphibians from Brazil and Australia...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282476/effects-of-environmental-contamination-and-acute-toxicity-of-n-nitrate-on-early-life-stages-of-endemic-arboreal-frog-polypedates-cruciger-blyth-1852
#5
Anusha Balangoda, K H M Ashoka Deepananda, H C E Wegiriya
This study investigated the potential toxic effects of environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations on development, growth, and mortality of early life stages of common hour-glass tree frog, Polypedates cruciger. Tadpoles from hatchlings through pre-adult were exposed to environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations detected in Mirissa, Sri Lanka. Newly hatched, external gill stage, and internal gill stage tadpoles were exposed to potassium nitrate for bioassay tests. No behavioral changes or abnormalities were observed in control and nitrate-induced group...
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279308/conditional-deletion-of-hippocampal-ca2-ca3a-oxytocin-receptors-impairs-the-persistence-of-long-term-social-recognition-memory-in-mice
#6
Yu-Ting Lin, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Oxytocin (OXT) receptors (OXTRs) are prominently expressed in hippocampal CA2 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, but little is known about its physiological function. As the functional necessity of hippocampal CA2 for social memory processing, we tested whether CA2 OXTRs may contribute to long-term social recognition memory (SRM) formation. Here, we found that conditional deletion of Oxtr from forebrain (Oxtr-/-) or CA2/CA3a-restricted excitatory neurons in adult male mice impaired the persistence of long-term SRM but had no effect on sociability and preference for social novelty...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259118/generation-of-a-whole-brain-atlas-for-the-cholinergic-system-and-mesoscopic-projectome-analysis-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#7
Xiangning Li, Bin Yu, Qingtao Sun, Yalun Zhang, Miao Ren, Xiaoyan Zhang, Anan Li, Jing Yuan, Linda Madisen, Qingming Luo, Hongkui Zeng, Hui Gong, Zilong Qiu
The cholinergic system in the brain plays crucial roles in regulating sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive behaviors by modulating neuronal activity. Understanding the organization of the cholinergic system requires a complete map of cholinergic neurons and their axon arborizations throughout the entire brain at the level of single neurons. Here, we report a comprehensive whole-brain atlas of the cholinergic system originating from various cortical and subcortical regions of the mouse brain. Using genetically labeled cholinergic neurons together with whole-brain reconstruction of optical images at 2-μm resolution, we obtained quantification of the number and soma volume of cholinergic neurons in 22 brain areas...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237395/insights-into-the-evolution-biogeography-and-natural-history-of-the-acorn-ants-genus-temnothorax-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae
#8
Matthew Prebus
BACKGROUND: Temnothorax (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is a diverse genus of ants found in a broad spectrum of ecosystems across the northern hemisphere. These diminutive ants have long served as models for social insect behavior, leading to discoveries about social learning and inspiring hypotheses about the process of speciation and the evolution of social parasitism. This genus is highly morphologically and behaviorally diverse, and this has caused a great deal of taxonomic confusion in recent years...
December 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211619/life-on-the-edge-a-comparative-study-of-ecophysiological-adaptations-of-frogs-to-tropical-semiarid-environments
#9
Catalina Cruz-Piedrahita, Carlos A Navas, Andrew J Crawford
A key goal of ecology and evolution is to understand the relative contributions of environment and history in determining the geographic distribution of organisms. For the Neotropical lowlands, where temperatures are similar across landscapes, we hypothesize that water balance may be a critical but understudied factor in determining the distribution of species. Amphibians are especially sensitive to variation in precipitation due to their permeable skin. Here we focused on lowland frogs of northwestern South America and investigated variation among 17 species in potentially important ecologically relevant performance variables related to water balance, testing for possible adaptations to semiarid conditions within species...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204911/repeated-shock-stress-facilitates-basolateral-amygdala-synaptic-plasticity-through-decreased-camp-specific-phosphodiesterase-type-iv-pde4-expression
#10
Steve Ryan, Chenchen Li, Aurélie Menigoz, Rimi Hazra, Joanna Dabrowska, David Ehrlich, Katelyn Gordon, Donald G Rainnie
Previous studies have shown that exposure to stressful events can enhance fear memory and anxiety-like behavior as well as increase synaptic plasticity in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA). We have evidence that repeated unpredictable shock stress (USS) elicits a long-lasting increase in anxiety-like behavior in rats, but the cellular mechanisms mediating this response remain unclear. Evidence from recent morphological studies suggests that alterations in the dendritic arbor or spine density of BLA principal neurons may underlie stress-induced anxiety behavior...
December 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178372/thc-alters-alters-morphology-of-neurons-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-and-alters-the-ability-of-later-experience-to-promote-structural-plasticity
#11
Bryan Kolb, Yilin Li, Terry Robinson, Linda A Parker
Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 27, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158126/physiological-and-behavioral-responses-of-an-arboreal-mammal-to-smoke-and-charcoal-ash-substrate
#12
Julia Nowack, Clare Stawski, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
The recent observation that torpor plays a key role in post-fire survival has been mainly attributed to the reduced food resources after fires. However, some of these adjustments can be facilitated or amplified by environmental changes associated with fires, such as the presence of a charcoal-ash substrate. In a previous experiment on a small terrestrial mammal the presence of charcoal and ash linked to food restriction intensified torpor use. However, whether fire cues also act as a trigger of torpor use when food is available and whether they affect other species including arboreal mammals remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153770/rats-exposed-to-2-45ghz-of-non-ionizing-radiation-exhibit-behavioral-changes-with-increased-brain-expression-of-apoptotic-caspase-3
#13
Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla
In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2...
November 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118122/unique-directional-motility-of-influenza-c-virus-controlled-by-its-filamentous-morphology-and-short-range-motions
#14
Tatsuya Sakai, Hiroaki Takagi, Yasushi Muraki, Mineki Saito
Influenza virus motility is based on cooperation between two viral spike proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), and is a major determinant of virus infectivity. To translocate a virus particle on the cell surface, HA molecules exchange viral receptors and NA molecules accelerate the receptor exchange of HA. This type of virus motility was recently identified in influenza A virus (IAV). To determine if other influenza virus types have a similar receptor-exchange mechanism-driven motility, we investigated influenza C virus (ICV) motility on a receptor-fixed glass surface...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107098/corticosteroid-induced-dendrite-loss-and-behavioral-deficiencies-can-be-blocked-by-activation-of-abl2-arg-kinase
#15
Lauren P Shapiro, Mitchell H Omar, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
Stressor exposure induces neuronal remodeling in specific brain regions. Given the persistence of stress-related illnesses, key next steps in determining the contributions of neural structure to mental health are to identify cell types that fail to recover from stressor exposure and to identify "trigger points" and molecular underpinnings of stress-related neural degeneration. We evaluated dendrite arbor structure on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons before, during, and following prolonged exposure to one key mediator of the stress response - corticosterone (cortisol in humans)...
October 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103936/vrille-controls-pdf-neuropeptide-accumulation-and-arborization-rhythms-in-small-ventrolateral-neurons-to-drive-rhythmic-behavior-in-drosophila
#16
Kushan L Gunawardhana, Paul E Hardin
In Drosophila, the circadian clock is comprised of transcriptional feedback loops that control rhythmic gene expression responsible for daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior. The core feedback loop, which employs CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) activators and PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) repressors to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dusk, is required for circadian timekeeping and overt behavioral rhythms. CLK-CYC also activates an interlocked feedback loop, which uses the PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1ε (PDP1ε) activator and the VRILLE (VRI) repressor to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dawn...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064551/organisation-of-the-dopamine-neuronal-subsets-within-midbrain-of-the-pygmy-acrobat
#17
R Krawczyk, I Klejbor, K Turlejski, B Ludkiewicz, J Moryś
Pygmy Acrobat has unique set of morphological, anatomical and behavioral features that make it a promising model for study of primate evolution. Among the many locomotor adaptations, it should be mark a wide range of movements such as gliding, climbing, running, arboreality. This type of behavior can result from differences in anatomy and physiology of the brain systems involved in its integration. It is well acknowledged that dopaminergic neurons are involved in motor control, motivation and cognition. Due to the fact that there are no data on morphological organisation of dopaminergic system in the midbrain of Acrobates pygmaeus, we decide to do this using immunohistochemical and quantitative methods...
October 24, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052614/narp-mediates-antidepressant-like-effects-of-electroconvulsive-seizures
#18
Andrew D Chang, Punit V Vaidya, Edward P Retzbach, Sunho J Chung, Urian Kim, Kathryn Baselice, Kristen Maynard, Alec Stepanian, Melissa Staley, Lan Xiao, Ashley Blouin, Sungho Han, JongAh Lee, Paul F Worley, Kellie L Tamashiro, Barbara L Hempstead, Keri Martinowich, Mary Ann Wilson, Jay M Baraban, Irving M Reti
Growing recognition of persistent cognitive defects associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a highly effective and commonly used antidepressant treatment, has spurred interest in identifying its mechanism of action to guide development of safer treatment options. However, as repeated seizure activity elicits a bewildering array of electrophysiological and biochemical effects, this goal has remained elusive. We have examined whether deletion of Narp, an immediate early gene induced by electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), blocks its antidepressant efficacy...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022879/sparse-genetic-tracing-reveals-regionally-specific-functional-organization-of-mammalian-nociceptors
#19
William Olson, Ishmail Abdus-Saboor, Lian Cui, Justin Burdge, Tobias Raabe, Minghong Ma, Wenqin Luo
The human distal limbs have a high spatial acuity for noxious stimuli but a low density of pain-sensing neurites. To elucidate mechanisms underlying regional differences in processing nociception, we sparsely traced non-peptidergic nociceptors across the body using a newly generated Mrgprd(CreERT2) mouse line. We found that mouse plantar paw skin is also innervated by a low density of Mrgprd(+) nociceptors, while individual arbors in different locations are comparable in size. Surprisingly, the central arbors of plantar paw and trunk innervating nociceptors have distinct morphologies in the spinal cord...
October 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021745/tyramine-actions-on-drosophila-flight-behavior-are-affected-by-a-glial-dehydrogenase-reductase
#20
Stefanie Ryglewski, Carsten Duch, Benjamin Altenhein
The biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate insect motor behavior in an antagonistic manner. OA generally enhances locomotor behaviors such as Drosophila larval crawling and flight, whereas TA decreases locomotor activity. However, the mechanisms and cellular targets of TA modulation of locomotor activity are incompletely understood. This study combines immunocytochemistry, genetics and flight behavioral assays in the Drosophila model system to test the role of a candidate enzyme for TA catabolism, named Nazgul (Naz), in flight motor behavioral control...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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