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Arboreal behavior

Alison Cieslak, Gary Elkins, Tanima Banerjee, Jessica Marsack, Kimberly Hickman, Alisa Johnson, Norah Henry, Debra Barton
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine the content, feasibility, and best outcome of a mind-body intervention involving self-directed hypnotic relaxation to target body image.
. DESIGN: A five-week, uncontrolled, unblinded feasibility intervention study.
. SETTING: Behavioral therapy offices in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Waco, Texas.
. SAMPLE: 10 female breast cancer survivors and 1 breast and gynecologic cancer survivor...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Megan Allen, Suhasini Ghosh, Gerard P Ahern, Sonia Villapol, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss, Katherine Conant
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted endopeptidases expressed by neurons and glia. Regulated MMP activity contributes to physiological synaptic plasticity, while dysregulated activity can stimulate injury. Disentangling the role individual MMPs play in synaptic plasticity is difficult due to overlapping structure and function as well as cell-type specific expression. Here, we develop a novel system to investigate the selective overexpression of a single MMP driven by GFAP expressing cells in vivo...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marco Bacigaluppi, Gianluca Luigi Russo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Silvia Rossi, Stefano Sandrone, Erica Butti, Roberta De Ceglia, Andrea Bergamaschi, Caterina Motta, Mattia Gallizioli, Valeria Studer, Emanuela Colombo, Cinthia Farina, Giancarlo Comi, Letterio Salvatore Politi, Luca Muzio, Claudia Villani, Roberto William Invernizzi, Dirk Matthias Hermann, Diego Centonze, Gianvito Martino
: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, but effective therapies are currently widely lacking. Recovery from stroke is very much dependent on the possibility to develop treatments able to both halt the neurodegenerative process as well as to foster adaptive tissue plasticity. Here we show that ischemic mice treated with neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation had on neurophysiological analysis, early after treatment, reduced presynaptic release of glutamate within the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST), and an enhanced NMDA-mediated excitatory transmission in the contralesional CST...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jason E Pipkin, Eric A Bushong, Mark H Ellisman, William B Kristan
Microscale connectomics involves the large-scale acquisition of high-resolution serial electron micrographs from which neuronal arbors can be reconstructed and synapses can be detected. In addition to connectivity information, these data sets are also rich with structural information, including vesicle types, number of postsynaptic partners at a given presynaptic site, and spatial distribution of synaptic inputs and outputs. This study uses serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (EM) to collect two volumes of serial EM data from ganglia of the medicinal leech...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Domenico Albano, Mattia Bertoli, Paola Ferro, Federico Fallanca, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Picchio, Raffaele Giubbini, Francesco Bertagna
PURPOSE: The role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in evaluating gastric MALT lymphoma is still controversial. In the literature the detection rate of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma is variable, and the reason for this heterogeneity is not still clear. Our aim was to investigate the particular metabolic behavior of these lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients (26 female, 43 male) with histologically confirmed gastric MALT lymphoma who underwent a 18F-FDG-PET/CT for initial staging from two centers were included...
September 12, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Franziska Schmitt, Jens T Vanselow, Andreas Schlosser, Christian Wegener, Wolfgang Rössler
Cataglyphis desert ants exhibit an age-related polyethism with ants performing tasks in the dark nest for the first ∼4 weeks of their adult life before they switch to visually based long-distance navigation to forage. While behavioral and sensory aspects of this transition have been studied, the internal factors triggering the behavioral changes are largely unknown. We suggest the neuropeptide families Allatostatin A (AstA), Allatotropin (AT), short neuropeptide F (sNPF), and Tachykinin (TK) as potential candidates...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Hiroo Takahashi, Yoichi Ogawa, Sei-Ichi Yoshihara, Ryo Asahina, Masahito Kinoshita, Tatsuro Kitano, Michiko Kitsuki, Kana Tatsumi, Mamiko Okuda, Kouko Tatsumi, Akio Wanaka, Hirokazu Hirai, Peter L Stern, Akio Tsuboi
UNLABELLED: Neural circuits that undergo reorganization by newborn interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) are necessary for odor detection and discrimination, olfactory memory, and innate olfactory responses, including predator avoidance and sexual behaviors. The OB possesses many interneurons, including various types of granule cells (GCs); however, the contribution that each type of interneuron makes to olfactory behavioral control remains unknown. Here, we investigated the in vivo functional role of oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein 5T4, a regulator for dendritic arborization of 5T4-expressing GCs (5T4 GCs), the level of which is reduced in the OB of 5T4 knock-out (KO) mice...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yali V Zhang, Timothy J Aikin, Zhengzheng Li, Craig Montell
Food texture has enormous effects on food preferences. However, the mechanosensory cells and key molecules responsible for sensing the physical properties of food are unknown. Here, we show that akin to mammals, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, prefers food with a specific hardness or viscosity. This food texture discrimination depends upon a previously unknown multidendritic (md-L) neuron, which extends elaborate dendritic arbors innervating the bases of taste hairs. The md-L neurons exhibit directional selectivity in response to mechanical stimuli...
August 17, 2016: Neuron
Jonathan N Pauli, M Zachariah Peery, Emily D Fountain, William H Karasov
By exploiting unutilized resources, organisms expand into novel niches, which can lead to adaptive radiation. However, some groups fail to diversify despite the apparent opportunity to do so. Although arising multiple times, arboreal folivores are rare and have not radiated, presumably because of energetic constraints. To explore this hypothesis, we quantified the field metabolic rate (FMR), movement, and body temperature for syntopic two- and three-toed sloths, extreme arboreal folivores that differ in their degree of specialization...
August 2016: American Naturalist
Daniel M Portik, David C Blackburn
The reproductive modes of anurans (frogs and toads) are the most diverse of terrestrial vertebrates, and a major challenge is identifying selective factors that promote the evolution or retention of reproductive modes across clades. Terrestrialized anuran breeding strategies have evolved repeatedly from the plesiomorphic fully aquatic reproductive mode, a process thought to occur through intermediate reproductive stages. Several selective forces have been proposed for the evolution of terrestrialized reproductive traits, but factors such as water systems and co-evolution with ecomorphologies have not been investigated...
September 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Kristi L Lewton, Heather L Dingwall
OBJECTIVES: Determining the functional significance of pubic rami is important for reconstructing locomotor behavior of fossil species. The slow loris pelvis, characterized by long pubic rami, is unusual among primates. Long pubic rami may be related to increasing the moment arm of the abdominal musculature during ventroflexion after the termination of hindlimb suspension, which is a common component of slow arboreal quadrupedalism (AQ). Some extant xenarthran species are also slow AQ taxa, and provide an ideal group to test hypotheses of morphologically convergent adaptations to slow AQ...
July 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Fernanda Moreira Alves, Juliane Saab de Lima, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Guilherme de Miranda Mourão, Ana Maria Jansen
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is dispersed in nature through many transmission mechanisms among a high diversity of vectors and mammalian species, representing particular behaviors and habitats. Thus, each locality has a unique set of conditions underlying the maintenance of this parasite in the wild. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the life-cycle of T. cruzi in free-ranging coatis from the central region of the Brazilian Pantanal using a multi-factorial approach. METHODS: Three methodological blocks were used in the present study: (i) We evaluated T...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jonathan I Bloch, Stephen G B Chester, Mary T Silcox
Paleogene micromomyids are small (∼10-40 g) euarchontan mammals with primate-like molars and postcrania suggestive of committed claw-climbing positional behaviors, similar to those of the extant arboreal treeshrew, Ptilocercus. Based primarily on evidence derived from dental and postcranial morphology, micromomyids have alternately been allied with plesiadapiforms, Dermoptera (colugos), or Primatomorpha (Primates + Dermoptera) within Euarchonta. Partial crania described here of Paleocene Dryomomys szalayi and Eocene Tinimomys graybulliensis from the Clarks Fork Basin of Wyoming are the first known for the family Micromomyidae...
July 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Troy R Shirangi, Allan M Wong, James W Truman, David L Stern
It is unclear how regulatory genes establish neural circuits that compose sex-specific behaviors. The Drosophila melanogaster male courtship song provides a powerful model to study this problem. Courting males vibrate a wing to sing bouts of pulses and hums, called pulse and sine song, respectively. We report the discovery of male-specific thoracic interneurons-the TN1A neurons-that are required specifically for sine song. The TN1A neurons can drive the activity of a sex-non-specific wing motoneuron, hg1, which is also required for sine song...
June 20, 2016: Developmental Cell
Damiano Marchi, Christopher B Ruff, Alessio Capobianco, Katherine L Rafferty, Michael B Habib, Biren A Patel
Palaeopropithecids, or "sloth lemurs," are a diverse clade of large-bodied Malagasy subfossil primates characterized by their inferred suspensory positional behavior. The most recently discovered genus of the palaeopropithecids is Babakotia, and it has been described as more arboreal than Mesopropithecus, but less than Palaeopropithecus. In this article, the within-bone and between-bones articular and cross-sectional diaphyseal proportions of the humerus and femur of Babakotia were compared to extant lemurs, Mesopropithecus and Palaeopropithecus in order to further understand its arboreal adaptations...
September 2016: Journal of Morphology
Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F Aversi-Ferreira, Rafael Vieira Bretas, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Hisao Nishijo
BACKGROUND: The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. METHODS: Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. RESULTS: The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Primatology
Ari L Mendell, Sarah Atwi, Craig D C Bailey, Dan McCloskey, Helen E Scharfman, Neil J MacLusky
Androgen loss is an important clinical concern because of its cognitive and behavioral effects. Changes in androgen levels are also suspected to contribute to neurological disease. However, the available data on the effects of androgen deprivation in areas of the brain that are central to cognition, like the hippocampus, are mixed. In this study, morphological analysis of pyramidal cells was used to investigate if structural changes could potentially contribute to the mixed cognitive effects that have been observed after androgen loss in males...
June 9, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Olca Basturk, Marcus Tan, Umesh Bhanot, Peter Allen, Volkan Adsay, Sasinya N Scott, Ronak Shah, Michael F Berger, Gokce Askan, Esra Dikoglu, Vaidehi Jobanputra, Kazimierz O Wrzeszczynski, Carlie Sigel, Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue, David S Klimstra
In 2010, the World Health Organization reclassified the entity originally described as intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm as the 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Although several key molecular alterations of other intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes have been discovered, including common mutations in KRAS, GNAS, and RNF3, those of oncocytic subtype have not been well characterized. We analyzed 11 pancreatic 'oncocytic subtype' of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms...
September 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Takashi Komatsu
Several spider taxa are specialized to prey on ants. Some species of Zodariidae are known to use specialized tactics to capture ants. In this study, I assessed the diet difference and predatory behavior of the Japanese zodariid Asceua japonica. In a series of surveys, all observed individuals in the field preyed on tiny arboreal ants representing several subfamilies. In addition, the species used tactics similar to those of its European relatives for preying on ants. This is the first observation of myrmecophagy of Zodariidae in East Asia...
2016: SpringerPlus
Kathryn Wallin-Miller, Grace Li, Diana Kelishani, Ruth I Wood
Recent studies have demonstrated that anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) modify cognitive processes such as decision making and behavioral flexibility. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these AAS-induced cognitive changes remain poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, particularly the nucleus accumbens (Acb), is important for reward, motivated behavior, and higher cognitive processes such as decision making. Therefore, AAS-induced plasticity in the DA system is a potential structural substrate for the observed cognitive alterations...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
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