keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Arboreal behavior

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785282/trabecular-architecture-in-the-sciuromorph-femoral-head-allometry-and-functional-adaptation
#1
Maja Mielke, Jan Wölfer, Patrick Arnold, Anneke H van Heteren, Eli Amson, John A Nyakatura
Background: Sciuromorpha (squirrels and close relatives) are diverse in terms of body size and locomotor behavior. Individual species are specialized to perform climbing, gliding or digging behavior, the latter being the result of multiple independent evolutionary acquisitions. Each lifestyle involves characteristic loading patterns acting on the bones of sciuromorphs. Trabecular bone, as part of the bone inner structure, adapts to such loading patterns. This network of thin bony struts is subject to bone modeling, and therefore reflects habitual loading throughout lifetime...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771287/term-or-preterm-cesarean-section-delivery-does-not-lead-to-long-term-detrimental-consequences-in-mice
#2
Morgane Chiesa, Damien Guimond, Roman Tyzio, Alexandre Pons-Bennaceur, Natalia Lozovaya, Nail Burnashev, Diana C Ferrari, Yehezkel Ben-Ari
Epidemiological studies have provided contradictory data on the deleterious sequels of cesarean section (C-section) delivery and their links with developmental brain disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders. To gain better insight on these issues, we have now compared physiological, morphological, and behavioral parameters in vaginal, term, and preterm C-section delivered mice. We report that C-section delivery does not lead to long-term behavioral alterations though preterm C-section delivery modifies communicative behaviors in pups...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754753/a-genetically-encoded-biosensor-reveals-location-bias-of-opioid-drug-action
#3
Miriam Stoeber, Damien Jullié, Braden T Lobingier, Toon Laeremans, Jan Steyaert, Peter W Schiller, Aashish Manglik, Mark von Zastrow
Opioid receptors (ORs) precisely modulate behavior when activated by native peptide ligands but distort behaviors to produce pathology when activated by non-peptide drugs. A fundamental question is how drugs differ from peptides in their actions on target neurons. Here, we show that drugs differ in the subcellular location at which they activate ORs. We develop a genetically encoded biosensor that directly detects ligand-induced activation of ORs and uncover a real-time map of the spatiotemporal organization of OR activation in living neurons...
May 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747583/effect-of-the-wecareadvisor%C3%A2-on-family-caregiver-outcomes-in-dementia-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Helen C Kales, Laura N Gitlin, Barbara Stanislawski, H Myra Kim, Katherine Marx, Molly Turnwald, Claire Chiang, Constantine G Lyketsos
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are universal and associated with multiple negative outcomes. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effect of using the WeCareAdvisor, an innovative web-based tool developed to enable family caregivers to assess, manage, and track BPSD. METHODS: This RCT enrolled 57 dementia family caregivers from community and clinical settings in Ann Arbor, Michigan and Baltimore, Maryland...
May 10, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706230/human-like-hip-joint-loading-in-australopithecus-africanus-and-paranthropus-robustus
#5
Timothy M Ryan, Kristian J Carlson, Adam D Gordon, Nina Jablonski, Colin N Shaw, Jay T Stock
Adaptations indicative of habitual bipedalism are present in the earliest recognized hominins. However, debate persists about various aspects of bipedal locomotor behavior in fossil hominins, including the nature of gait kinematics, locomotor variability across different species, and the degree to which various australopith species engaged in arboreal behaviors. In this study, we analyze variation in trabecular bone structure of the femoral head using a sample of modern humans, extant non-human hominoids, baboons, and fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus, and the genus Homo...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702698/comprehensive-behavioral-analysis-of-the-cdkl5-knockout-mice-revealed-significant-enhancement-in-anxiety-and-fear-related-behaviors-and-impairment-in-both-acquisition-and-long-term-retention-of-spatial-reference-memory
#6
Kosuke Okuda, Keizo Takao, Aya Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Masashi Mizuguchi, Teruyuki Tanaka
Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675855/sub-topographic-maps-for-regionally-enhanced-analysis-of-visual-space-in-the-mouse-retina
#7
Rana N El-Danaf, Andrew D Huberman
In many species, neurons are unevenly distributed across the retina, leading to nonuniform analysis of specific visual features at certain locations in visual space. In recent years, the mouse has emerged as a premiere model for probing visual system function, development and disease. Thus, achieving a detailed understanding of mouse visual circuit architecture is of paramount importance. The general belief is that mice possess a relatively even topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)- the output neurons of the eye...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675413/influence-of-the-size-and-curvedness-of-neural-projections-on-the-orientationally-averaged-diffusion-mr-signal
#8
Evren Özarslan, Cem Yolcu, Magnus Herberthson, Hans Knutsson, Carl-Fredrik Westin
Neuronal and glial projections can be envisioned to be tubes of infinitesimal diameter as far as diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) measurements via clinical scanners are concerned. Recent experimental studies indicate that the decay of the orientationally-averaged signal in white-matter may be characterized by the power-law, Ē ( q ) ∝ q -1 , where q is the wavenumber determined by the parameters of the pulsed field gradient measurements. One particular study by McKinnon et al . [1] reports a distinctively faster decay in gray-matter...
2018: Frontiers in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#9
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664154/flexibility-in-positional-behavior-strata-use-and-substrate-utilization-among-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-response-to-habitat-fragmentation-and-degradation
#10
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Eric J Sargis, Vivek V Venkataraman, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nils Chr Stenseth
Studies of the effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on primate positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization offer valuable insights into the behavioral and ecological flexibility of primates whose habitats have undergone extensive anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we evaluated how positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization differed between Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis)-bamboo-eating cercopithecids endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands-occupying continuous versus fragmented forests...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659142/an-uneasy-alliance-a-nesting-association-between-aggressive-ants-and-equally-fierce-social-wasps
#11
Pablo Servigne, Jérôme Orivel, Frédéric Azémar, James Carpenter, Alain Dejean, Bruno Corbara
Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617663/brv1-is-required-for-drosophila-larvae-to-sense-gentle-touch
#12
Mingfeng Zhang, Xia Li, Honglan Zheng, Xiaoxu Wen, Sihan Chen, Jia Ye, Siyang Tang, Fuqiang Yao, Yuezhou Li, Zhiqiang Yan
How we sense touch is fundamental for many physiological processes. However, the underlying mechanism and molecular identity for touch sensation are largely unknown. Here, we report on defective gentle-touch behavioral responses in brv1 loss-of-function Drosophila larvae. RNAi and Ca2+ imaging confirmed the involvement of Brv1 in sensing touch and demonstrated that Brv1 mediates the mechanotransduction of class III dendritic arborization neurons. Electrophysiological recordings further revealed that the expression of Brv1 protein in HEK293T cells gives rise to stretch-activated cation channels...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606201/a-new-fossil-cercopithecid-tibia-from-laetoli-and-its-implications-for-positional-behavior-and-paleoecology
#13
Myra F Laird, Elaine E Kozma, Amandus Kwekason, Terry Harrison
Detailed analyses and comparisons of postcranial specimens of Plio-Pleistocene cercopithecids provide an opportunity to examine the recent evolutionary history and locomotor diversity in Old World monkeys. Studies examining the positional behavior and substrate preferences of fossil cercopithecids are also important for reconstructing the paleoenvironments of Plio-Pleistocene hominin sites. Here we describe a new fossil cercopithecid tibia (EP 1100/12) from the Australopithecus afarensis-bearing Upper Laetolil Beds (∼3...
May 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601832/antidepressant-effects-of-acupoint-stimulation-and-fluoxetine-by-increasing-dendritic-arborization-and-spine-density-in-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-of-socially-isolated-rats
#14
Amalia Dávila-Hernández, Sergio R Zamudio, Lucía Martínez-Mota, Roberto González-González, Eduardo Ramírez-San Juan
Given the importance of depression and the adverse effects of conventional treatment, it is necessary to seek complementary therapies. In a rat model of depression, this study aimed to assess the behavioral and morphological effects of embedding absorbable thread in acupoints (acu-catgut), and compare the results to those of fluoxetine treatment and the corresponding control groups. Therefore, depressive-like behavior was evaluated with the forced swimming test, and dendritic morphology (in the CA1 hippocampal region) with the Golgi-Cox technique and Sholl analysis...
March 27, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580891/repeated-social-stress-leads-to-contrasting-patterns-of-structural-plasticity-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#15
D Patel, S Anilkumar, S Chattarji, B Buwalda
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated immobilization and restraint stress cause contrasting patterns of dendritic reorganization as well as alterations in spine density in amygdalar and hippocampal neurons. Whether social and ethologically relevant stressors can induce similar patterns of morphological plasticity remains largely unexplored. Hence, we assessed the effects of repeated social defeat stress on neuronal morphology in basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal CA1 and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
March 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534354/-primary-testicular-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-six-cases
#16
REVIEW
X L Shi, J L Xie, X G Zhou
Objective: To evaluate the clinicopathological features, diagnosis and management of primary testicular NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL). Methods: Six cases of primary testicular NKTCL at Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2007 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed for the morphology, immunephenotype and outcome, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results: The median age of patients at diagnosis was 45 years(range 32-65 years). All patients presented with testicular masses as initial symptoms (6/6), five cases (5/6) were on the right...
March 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532620/strategy-of-landing-behavior-of-the-tree-frog-hyla-japonica
#17
Koushun Kamada, Ryousuke Tachibanagi, Hideki Nakagawa
Toads on the ground control landing behavior by a simple strategy in which they extend their elbows at roughly the same time after take-off and continue extending them at the same velocity until they land. However, this simple strategy does not work well in much more complicated arboreal habitat. We analyzed properties of jumping and timing of forelimb extension of the tree frog, Hyla japonica, to demonstrate how the arboreal species land safely. The results showed that distance, duration, and velocity of jump were not affected by explicit optic flow information, whereas the all three parameters decreased significantly in the blindfolded animals...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530733/an-arboreal-spider-protects-its-offspring-by-diving-into-the-water-of-tank-bromeliads
#18
Yann Hénaut, Bruno Corbara, Frédéric Azémar, Régis Céréghino, Olivier Dézerald, Alain Dejean
Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae) individuals frequently live in association with tank bromeliads, including Aechmea bracteata, in Quintana Roo (Mexico). Whereas C. salei females without egg sacs hunt over their entire host plant, females carrying egg sacs settle above the A. bracteata reservoirs they have partially sealed with silk. There they avoid predators that use sight to detect their prey, as is known for many bird species. Furthermore, if a danger is more acute, these females dive with their egg sacs into the bromeliad reservoir...
March 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527094/a-discrete-event-simulation-approach-to-identify-rules-that-govern-arbor-remodeling-for-branching-cutaneous-afferents-in-hairy-skin
#19
Hyojung Kang, Rachel L Orlowsky, Gregory J Gerling
In mammals, touch is encoded by sensory receptors embedded in the skin. For one class of receptors in the mouse, the architecture of its Merkel cells, unmyelinated neurites, and heminodes follow particular renewal and remodeling trends over hair cycle stages from ages 4 to 10 weeks. As it is currently impossible to observe such trends across a single animal's hair cycle, this work employs discrete event simulation to identify and evaluate policies of Merkel cell and heminode dynamics. Well matching the observed data, the results show that the baseline model replicates dynamic remodeling behaviors between stages of the hair cycle - based on particular addition and removal polices and estimated probabilities tied to constituent parts of Merkel cells, terminal branch neurites and heminodes...
December 2017: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522177/mir-214-3p-targets-%C3%AE-catenin-to-regulate-depressive-like-behaviors-induced-by-chronic-social-defeat-stress-in-mice
#20
Zhi-Fang Deng, Hui-Ling Zheng, Jian-Guo Chen, Yi Luo, Jun-Feng Xu, Gang Zhao, Jia-Jing Lu, Hou-Hong Li, Shuang-Qi Gao, Deng-Zheng Zhang, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Yong-Hui Zhang, Fang Wang
β-Catenin has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD), which is associated with synaptic plasticity and dendritic arborization. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides and involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological process, but their roles in MDD remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and function of miRNAs in the mouse model of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). The regulation of β-catenin by selected miRNA was validated by silico prediction, target gene luciferase reporter assay, and transfection experiment in neurons...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
keyword
keyword
74451
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"