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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089852/dopamine-d1-receptor-agonist-treatment-attenuates-extinction-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-while-increasing-dendritic-complexity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#1
Kendra L Kobrin, Danielle T Arena, Stephen C Heinrichs, Olivia H Nguyen, Gary B Kaplan
The dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) has a role in opioid reward and conditioned place preference (CPP), but its role in CPP extinction is undetermined. We examined the effect of D1R agonist SKF81297 on the extinction of opioid CPP and associated dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region involved with reward integration and its extinction. During the acquisition of morphine CPP, mice received morphine and saline on alternate days; injections were given immediately before each of eight daily conditioning sessions...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069946/wnt5a-is-essential-for-hippocampal-dendritic-maintenance-and-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#2
Chih-Ming Chen, Lauren L Orefice, Shu-Ling Chiu, Tara A LeGates, Samer Hattar, Richard L Huganir, Haiqing Zhao, Baoji Xu, Rejji Kuruvilla
Stability of neuronal connectivity is critical for brain functions, and morphological perturbations are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, how neuronal morphology is maintained in the adult brain remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted morphogens, as an essential factor in maintaining dendritic architecture in the adult hippocampus and for related cognitive functions in mice. Wnt5a expression in hippocampal neurons begins postnatally, and its deletion attenuated CaMKII and Rac1 activity, reduced GluN1 glutamate receptor expression, and impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory in 3-mo-old mice...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069777/an-african-origin-of-the-eurylaimides-passeriformes-and-the-successful-diversification-of-the-ground-foraging-pittas-pittidae
#3
Alexandre Pedro Selvatti, Ana Galvão, Anieli Guirro Pereira, Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga, Claudia Augusta de Moraes Russo
The Eurylaimides is one of the few passerine groups with a pantropical distribution. In this study, we generated a multi-calibrated tree with 83% of eurylaimid species diversity based on 30 molecular loci. Particular attention was given to the monotypic Sapayoidae to reconstruct the biogeography of this radiation. We conducted several topological tests including nonoverlapping subsampling of the concatenated alignment and coalescent species tree reconstruction. These tests firmly placed the South American Sapayoidae as the sister group to all other Eurylaimides families (split at ∼28 Ma), with increasing branch support as highly variable sites were removed...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041904/long-term-high-resolution-imaging-of-developing-c-%C3%A2-elegans-larvae-with-microfluidics
#4
Wolfgang Keil, Lena M Kutscher, Shai Shaham, Eric D Siggia
Long-term studies of Caenorhabditis elegans larval development traditionally require tedious manual observations because larvae must move to develop, and existing immobilization techniques either perturb development or are unsuited for young larvae. Here, we present a simple microfluidic device to simultaneously follow development of ten C. elegans larvae at high spatiotemporal resolution from hatching to adulthood (∼3 days). Animals grown in microchambers are periodically immobilized by compression to allow high-quality imaging of even weak fluorescence signals...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033671/visual-experience-dependent-regulation-of-neuronal-structure-and-function-by-histone-deacetylase-1-in-developing-xenopus-tectum-in-vivo
#5
Hangze Ruan, Juanmei Gao, Xianjie Qi, Yi Tao, Xia Guo, Zhaoyi Guo, Lijun Zheng, Yaling Song, Yuan Liao, Wanhua Shen
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is thought to play pivotal roles in neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. However, the role of HDAC1 in neuronal growth and structural plasticity in the developing brain in vivo remains unclear. Here, we show that in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis, HDAC1 knockdown dramatically decreased the frequency of AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents and increased the frequency of GABAAR-mediated currents, whereas HDAC1 overexpression significantly decreased the frequency of GABAAR-mediated synaptic currents...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003347/olfactory-bulb-deep-short-axon-cells-mediate-widespread-inhibition-of-tufted-cell-apical-dendrites
#6
Shawn D Burton, Greg LaRocca, Annie Liu, Claire E J Cheetham, Nathaniel N Urban
: In the main olfactory bulb (MOB), the first station of sensory processing in the olfactory system, GABAergic interneuron signaling shapes principal neuron activity to regulate olfaction. Lack of known selective markers for MOB interneurons has strongly impeded cell type-selective investigation of interneuron function, however. Here, we identify the first selective marker of glomerular layer-projecting deep short-axon cells (GL-dSACs) and systematically investigate the structure, abundance, intrinsic physiology, feedforward sensory input, neuromodulation, synaptic output, and functional role of GL-dSACs in the mouse MOB circuit...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997694/spatial-patterning-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuropil-territories-during-spinal-circuit-development
#7
Qing Yan, Lu Zhai, Bo Zhang, Julia E Dallman
To generate rhythmic motor behaviors, both single neurons and neural circuits require a balance between excitatory inputs that trigger action potentials and inhibitory inputs that promote a stable resting potential (E/I balance). Previous studies have focused on individual neurons and have shown that, over a short spatial scale, excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synapses tend to form structured territories with inhibitory inputs enriched on cell bodies and proximal dendrites and excitatory inputs on distal dendrites...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984183/repeated-prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-results-in-cerebellar-hypoplasia-and-ataxia
#8
Stacey L Main, Randy J Kulesza
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, social and communication defects, and is commonly associated with difficulties with motor coordination. The etiology of ASD, while mostly idiopathic, has been linked to hereditary factors and teratogens, such as valproic acid (VPA). VPA is used clinically to treat epilepsy, mood disorders, and in the prevention of migraines. The use of VPA during pregnancy significantly increases the risk of ASD in the offspring...
October 27, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977132/mk-801-dizocilpine-regulates-multiple-steps-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-alters-psychological-symptoms-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-parkinsonian-rats
#9
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Neha Srivastava, Shubha Shukla
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is directly involved in regulation of stress, anxiety, and depression that are commonly observed nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). These symptoms do not respond to pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy. Excitotoxic damage to neuronal cells by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation is also a major contributing factor in PD development, but whether it regulates hippocampal neurogenesis and nonmotor symptoms in PD is yet unexplored. Herein, for the first time, we studied the effect of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral functions in 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) induced rat model of PD...
December 15, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940019/the-habenula-as-a-critical-node-in-chronic-stress-related-anxiety
#10
Luis R Jacinto, Rui Mata, Ashley Novais, Fernanda Marques, Nuno Sousa
The habenula is activated in response to stressful and aversive events, resulting in exploratory inhibition. Although possible mechanisms for habenula activation have been proposed, the effects of chronic stress on the habenular structure have never been studied. Herein, we assessed changes in volume, cell density and dendritic structure of habenular cells after chronic stress exposure using stereological and 3D morphological analysis. This study shows for the first time that there is a hemispherical asymmetry in the medial habenula (MHb) of the adult rat, with the right MHb containing more neurons than its left counterpart...
December 7, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936448/flavivirus-transmission-focusing-on-zika
#11
REVIEW
Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. Taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplification hosts and arboreal mosquitoes; and an urban transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between humans and peridomestic Aedes spp...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927737/the-rock-inhibitor-fasudil-prevents-chronic-restraint-stress-induced-depressive-like-behaviors-and-dendritic-spine-loss-in-rat-hippocampus
#12
Gonzalo García-Rojo, Cristóbal Fresno, Natalia Vilches, Gabriela Díaz-Véliz, Sergio Mora, Felipe Aguayo, Aníbal Pacheco, Nicolás Parra-Fiedler, Claudio S Parra, Paulina S Rojas, Macarena Tejos, Esteban Aliaga, Jenny L Fiedler
BACKGROUND: Dendritic arbor simplification and dendritic spine loss in the hippocampus -a limbic structure implicated in mood disorders- are assumed to contribute to symptoms of depression. These morphological changes imply changes in dendritic cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are regulators of actin dynamics through their effector Rho kinase (ROCK). We have reported that chronic stress promotes depressive-like behaviors in rats, along with dendritic spine loss in apical dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons; changes associated with ROCK activation...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#14
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878209/preclinical-models-of-overwhelming-sepsis-implicate-the-neural-system-that-encodes-contextual-fear-memory
#15
Patricio T Huerta, Sergio Robbiati, Tomás Salvador Huerta, Anchal Sabharwal, Rose A Berlin, Maya Frankfurt, Bruce T Volpe
Long-term sepsis survivors sustain cryptic brain injury that leads to cognitive impairment, emotional imbalance, and increased disability burden. Suitable animal models of sepsis, such as cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), have permitted the analysis of abnormal brain circuits that underlie post-septic behavioral phenotypes. For instance, we have previously shown that CLP-exposed mice exhibit impaired spatial memory together with depleted dendritic arbors and decreased spines in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829143/touch-receptors-undergo-rapid-remodeling-in-healthy-skin
#16
Kara L Marshall, Rachel C Clary, Yoshichika Baba, Rachel L Orlowsky, Gregory J Gerling, Ellen A Lumpkin
Sensory tissues exposed to the environment, such as skin, olfactory epithelia, and taste buds, continuously renew; therefore, peripheral neurons must have mechanisms to maintain appropriate innervation patterns. Although somatosensory neurons regenerate after injury, little is known about how these neurons cope with normal target organ changes. To elucidate neuronal plasticity in healthy skin, we analyzed the structure of Merkel-cell afferents, which are gentle touch receptors, during skin remodeling that accompanies mouse hair-follicle regeneration...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822504/sleep-and-serotonin-modulate-paracapsular-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressing-neurons-of-the-amygdala
#17
Marco Bocchio, Simon P Fisher, Gunes Unal, Tommas J Ellender, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Marco Capogna
Unraveling the roles of distinct neuron types is a fundamental challenge to understanding brain function in health and disease. In the amygdala, a brain structure regulating emotional behavior, the diversity of GABAergic neurons has been only partially explored. We report a novel population of GABAergic amygdala neurons expressing high levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). These cells are predominantly localized along basolateral amygdala (BLA) boundaries. Performing ex vivo patch-clamp recordings from nNOS(+) neurons in Nos1-Cre(ER);Ai9 mice, we observed that nNOS(+) neurons located along the external capsule display distinctive electrophysiological properties, axonal and dendritic arborization, and connectivity...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794576/get-a-grip-substrate-orientation-and-digital-grasping-pressures-in-strepsirrhines
#18
Kimberly A Congdon, Matthew J Ravosa
Skeletal functional morphology in primates underlies many fossil interpretations. Understanding the functional correlates of arboreal grasping is central to identifying locomotor signatures in extinct primates. We tested 3 predictions linking substrate orientation and digital grasping pressures: (1) below-branch pressures are greater than above-branch and vertical-branch pressures; (2) there is no difference in pressure exerted across digits within autopods at any substrate orientation, and (3) there is no difference in pressure exerted between homologous digits across autopods at any substrate orientation...
2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787898/role-of-a-heterotrimeric-g-protein-gi2-in-the-corticogenesis-possible-involvement-in-periventricular-nodular-heterotopia-and-intellectual-disability
#19
Nanako Hamada, Yutaka Negishi, Makoto Mizuno, Fuyuki Miya, Ayako Hattori, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Mitsuhiro Kato, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Mami Yamasaki, Yonehiro Kanemura, Kenjiro Kosaki, Hidenori Tabata, Shinji Saitoh, Koh-Ichi Nagata
We analyzed the role of a heterotrimeric G-protein, Gi2, in the development of the cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of the α-subunit (Gαi2) with in utero electroporation caused delayed radial migration of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis, perhaps because of impaired morphology. The migration phenotype was rescued by an RNAi-resistant version of Gαi2. On the other hand, silencing of Gαi2 did not affect axon elongation, dendritic arbor formation or neurogenesis at ventricular zone in vivo. When behavior analyses were conducted with acute Gαi2-knockdown mice, they showed defects in social interaction, novelty recognition and active avoidance learning as well as increased anxiety...
January 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784858/reproductive-experience-modified-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-to-enhance-sensory-perception-and-spatial-learning-in-rats
#20
Jeng-Rung Chen, Seh Hong Lim, Sin-Cun Chung, Yee-Fun Lee, Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng, Tsyr-Jiuan Wan
Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat's sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task...
October 25, 2016: Experimental Animals
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