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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330732/racial-ethnic-differences-in-weight-loss-strategies-among-us-adults-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2007-2012
#1
Becky Marquez, Rosenda Murillo
BACKGROUND: Dieting, exercising, and seeking professional help have been associated with intentional weight loss among adults. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the use of diet (eg, ate less, ate less fat, or switched to low-calorie foods), exercise, diet and exercise, and professional help (eg, weight-loss program or prescribed diet pills) for weight loss among non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic blacks. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299597/the-stellate-cell-system-vitamin-a-storing-cell-system
#2
REVIEW
Haruki Senoo, Yoshihiro Mezaki, Mutsunori Fujiwara
Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history...
March 15, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299034/the-effect-of-a-lifestyle-modification-education-on-adiposity-measures-in-overweight-and-obese-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-patients
#3
Arman Arab, Gholamreza Askari, Parastoo Golshiri, Awat Feizi, Ali Hekmatnia, Bijan Iraj, Mojgan Nourian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasingly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and weight loss through a combination of dietary modifications and increased physical activity is a primary goal of therapy in this disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle modification education on adiposity measures, physical activity, and total calorie intake in overweight and obese NAFLD patients. METHODS: During 8 weeks, 82 obese patients were randomly assigned into either an intervention group (n = 41) receiving a lifestyle modification education or to a control group (n = 41) receiving usual care...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281508/-protein-losing-enteropathy
#4
A I Parfenov, L M Krums
Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a rare complication of intestinal diseases. Its main manifestation is hypoproteinemic edema. The diagnosis of PLE is based on the verification of protein loss into the intestinal lumen, by determining fecal α1-antitrypsin concentration and clearance. The localization of the affected colonic segment is clarified using radiologic and endoscopic techniques. The mainstay of treatment for PLE is a fat-free diet enriched with medium-chain triglycerides. Surgical resection of the affected segment of the colon may be the treatment of choice for severe hypoproteinemia resistant to drug therapy...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259401/replacing-alfalfa-silage-with-tannin-containing-birdsfoot-trefoil-silage-in-total-mixed-rations-for-lactating-dairy-cows
#5
G A Broderick, J H Grabber, R E Muck, U C Hymes-Fecht
Two lactation trials were conducted comparing the feeding value of silages made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT) to an alfalfa silage (AS) when fed as the principal forage in total mixed rations. Diets also included corn silage, high-moisture shelled corn, soybean meal, soy hulls, and supplemental fat. In trial 1, 32 lactating Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk, assigned to treatment sequences in 8 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares, and fed 50% dietary dry matter from AS or 1 of 3 BFT silages containing 0...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253030/case-study-the-effect-of-32-weeks-of-figure-contest-preparation-on-a-self-proclaimed-drug-free-female-s-lean-body-and-bone-mass
#6
John Petrizzo, Frederick J DiMenna, Kimberly Martins, John Wygand, Robert M Otto
To achieve the criterion appearance prior to competing in a physique competition, athletes undergo preparatory regimens involving high-volume intense resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake. As the popularity of "drug-free" competition increases, more athletes are facing this challenge without the recuperative advantage provided by performance-enhancing drugs. Consequently, the likelihood of loss of lean body and/or bone mass is increased. The purpose of this investigation was to monitor changes in body composition for a 29-year-old self-proclaimed drug-free female figure competitor during a 32-week preparatory regimen comprising high-volume resistance and aerobic exercise with hypocaloric energy intake...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214525/-is-there-an-optimal-diet-for-weight-management-and-metabolic-health
#7
George Thom, Mike Lean
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193599/an-online-intervention-comparing-a-very-low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations-versus-a-plate-method-diet-in-overweight-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Laura R Saslow, Ashley E Mason, Sarah Kim, Veronica Goldman, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Hovig Bayandorian, Jennifer Daubenmier, Frederick M Hecht, Judith T Moskowitz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187500/basement-membrane-type-iv-collagen-and-laminin-an-overview-of-their-biology-and-value-as-fibrosis-biomarkers-of-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Ki M Mak, Rena Mei
Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina...
February 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160309/dietary-management-of-presumptive-protein-losing-enteropathy-in-yorkshire-terriers
#10
A J Rudinsky, J P Howard, M A Bishop, R G Sherding, V J Parker, C Gilor
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical outcome of dietary management of Yorkshire terriers with protein-losing enteropathy without immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory medications. METHODS: Records were searched for Yorkshire terriers with hypoalbuminaemia and a clinical diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy that were managed with diet and without immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory medications. Serum albumin changes were compared using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA...
February 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152263/trajectories-of-weight-change-and-predictors-over-18-month-weight-loss-treatment
#11
Yaguang Zheng, Susan M Sereika, Cynthia A Danford, Christopher C Imes, Rachel Woodson Goode, Juliet Mancino, Lora E Burke
BACKGROUND: Obesity research has typically focused on weight change patterns using the whole sample in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), ignoring subsets of individuals with varying weight change trajectories (e.g., continuing to lose, or maintaining weight). The purpose was to explore possible trajectories of weight change and their associated predictors. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from two RCTs using standard behavioral treatment for weight loss...
March 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149499/bariatric-surgery-emphasizes-biological-sex-differences-in-rodent-hepatic-lipid-handling
#12
Bernadette E Grayson, Ruth Gutierrez-Aguilar, Joyce E Sorrell, Emily K Matter, Michelle R Adams, Philip Howles, Rebekah Karns, Randy J Seeley, Darleen A Sandoval
BACKGROUND: Eighty percent of patients who receive bariatric surgery are women, yet the majority of preclinical studies are in male rodents. Because sex differences drive hepatic gene expression and overall lipid metabolism, we sought to determine whether sex differences were also apparent in these endpoints in response to bariatric surgery. METHODS: Two cohorts of age-matched virgin male and female Long-Evans rats were placed on a high fat diet for 3 weeks and then received either Sham or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a surgery which resects 80% of the stomach with no intestinal rearrangement...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145064/the-effect-of-pair-based-monetary-contingency-contracts-for-weight-loss-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#13
Bianca J Sykes-Muskett, Andrew Prestwich, Rebecca J Lawton, Christopher J Armitage
OBJECTIVE: Monetary contingency contracts (MCCs), in which deposited money is returned contingent on weight loss, could promote weight/adiposity reduction. This study piloted individual- and pair-based MCCs (when refunds are contingent on two individuals losing weight) and assessed effects on weight/body composition. METHODS: Seventy-seven participants with BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) were recruited. In a non-blinded, randomized controlled trial conducted in a university laboratory setting, participants were randomized in pairs via a computer-generated sequence to one of four conditions: partner with pair-based refund (P-PBR), partner with individual refund (P-IR), individual weight loss with individual refund (I-IR), or no MCC (comparison)...
February 1, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118376/urine-eicosanoids-in-the-metabolic-abnormalities-telmisartan-and-hiv-infection-math-trial
#14
Catherine N Le, Todd Hulgan, Chi-Hong Tseng, Ginger L Milne, Jordan E Lake
OBJECTIVES: Arachidonic acid metabolites (eicosanoids) reflect oxidative stress and vascular health and have been associated with anthropometric measures and sex differences in cross-sectional analyses of HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. Telmisartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker and PPAR-γ agonist with potential anti-inflammatory and metabolic benefits. We assessed telmisartan's effects on urine eicosanoids among HIV+ adults with central adiposity on suppressive antiretroviral therapy enrolled in a prospective clinical trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111285/the-interrelationship-between-bile-acid-and-vitamin-a-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Mark Hoekstra, Martijn Oscar Hoeke, Janette Heegsma, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin important for vision, reproduction, embryonic development, cell differentiation, epithelial barrier function and adequate immune responses. Efficient absorption of dietary vitamin A depends on the fat-solubilizing properties of bile acids. Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and maintained in an enterohepatic circulation. The liver is also the main storage site for vitamin A in the mammalian body, where an intimate collaboration between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells leads to the accumulation of retinyl esters in large cytoplasmic lipid droplet hepatic stellate cells...
January 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110501/worldwide-variability-in-growth-and-its-association-with-health-incorporating-body-composition-developmental-plasticity-and-intergenerational-effects
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells
In their seminal book "Worldwide variation in human growth," published in 1976, Eveleth and Tanner highlighted substantial variability within and between populations in the magnitude and schedule of human growth. In the four decades since then, research has clarified why growth variability is so closely associated with human health. First, growth patterns are strongly associated with body composition, both in the short- and long-term. Poor growth in early life constrains the acquisition of lean tissue, while compensatory "catch-up" growth may elevate body fatness...
January 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063513/associations-between-yoga-meditation-use-body-satisfaction-and-weight-management-methods-results-of-a-national-cross-sectional-survey-of-8009-australian-women
#17
Romy Lauche, David Sibbritt, Thomas Ostermann, Nicholas R Fuller, Jon Adams, Holger Cramer
OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether yoga or meditation use is associated with body (dis)satisfaction and weight control methods in Australian women. METHODS: Women ages 34 to 39 y from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and yoga and meditation practice. Associations of body satisfaction and weight control methods with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034590/hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-lipodystrophy-under-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-evaluation-of-body-composition
#18
Inês Grenha, Joana Oliveira, Eva Lau, Ana Cristina Santos, António Sarmento, Jorge Pereira, Davide Carvalho, Paula Freitas
In HIV-infected patients, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated to adipose tissue redistribution known as lipodystrophy and associated cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to evaluate the evolution of body composition in HIV-infected patients, with and without lipodystrophy, over 2 yr. We evaluated anthropometric parameters and body composition by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 144 HIV-infected patients on cART. We defined lipodystrophy by fat mass ratio. Lipodystrophy was present in 45...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009296/human-beta-cells-produce-and-release-serotonin-to-inhibit-glucagon-secretion-from-alpha-cells
#19
Joana Almaça, Judith Molina, Danusa Menegaz, Alexey N Pronin, Alejandro Tamayo, Vladlen Slepak, Per-Olof Berggren, Alejandro Caicedo
In the pancreatic islet, serotonin is an autocrine signal increasing beta cell mass during metabolic challenges such as those associated with pregnancy or high-fat diet. It is still unclear whether serotonin is relevant for regular islet physiology and hormone secretion. Here, we show that human beta cells produce and secrete serotonin when stimulated with increases in glucose concentration. Serotonin secretion from beta cells decreases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in neighboring alpha cells via 5-HT1F receptors and inhibits glucagon secretion...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986754/cannula-versus-sharp-needle-for-placement-of-soft-tissue-fillers-an-observational-cadaver-study
#20
Jani A J van Loghem, Dalvi Humzah, Martina Kerscher
BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue fillers have become important products for facial rejuvenation. Deep fat compartments and facial bones lose volume during the natural aging process. For the most natural-looking results, deep volumetric injections at strategic sites are therefore preferred. Supraperiosteal placement is performed with a sharp needle or a non-traumatic cannula. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine whether there is a difference in precision between supraperiosteal placement with a sharp needle compared with a non-traumatic cannula in cadaver specimens...
December 16, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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