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Silvia Barja-Fernandez, José María Moreno-Navarrete, Cintia Folgueira, Gemma Xifra, Mònica Sabater, Cecilia Castelao, Johan FernØ, Rosaura Leis, Carlos Diéguez, Felipe F Casanueva, Wifredo Ricart, Luisa M Seoane, José Manuel Fernandez-Real, Rubén Nogueiras
SCOPE: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL-4) regulates plasma lipoprotein levels but its relevance in human obesity and type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the regulation of circulating ANGPTL-4 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes and after changes in body weight. METHODS AND RESULTS: Circulating ANGPTL-4 levels were measured in two different cohorts. First, in a cross-sectional study, we evaluated ANGPTL-4 levels in lean and obese patients with normoglycemia or with altered glucose tolerance (n = 282)...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Jażdżewska, Waldemar Moska, Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Marek Sawczuk, Svetlana I Gubaydullina, Alsu T Shakirova, Pawel Cięszczyk, Adam Maszczyk, Ildus I Ahmetov
The effectiveness of physical exercise on fat loss and improvement of aerobic capacity varies considerably between individuals. A strong linkage exists between common allelic variants of the adrenergic receptor genes and weight gain, as well as changes in body composition. Therefore we aimed to check if body composition and metabolic variables were modulated by the ADRB2 (Gly16Arg and Glu27Gln), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) and ADRA2A (rs553668 G/A) gene polymorphisms in 163 Polish sedentary women (age 19-24; body mass index (BMI) 21...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Carly Griffiths, Lisa Harnack, Mark A Pereira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of nutrient intake calculations from leading nutrition tracking applications (apps). DESIGN: Nutrient intake estimates from thirty 24 h dietary recalls collected using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) were compared with intake calculations from these recalls entered by the researcher into five free nutrition tracking apps. Apps were selected from the Apple App Store based on consumer popularity from the list of free 'Health and Fitness' apps classified as a nutrition tracking apps...
March 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Seung-Yong Han, Alexandra A Brewis, Cindi SturtzSreetharan
For an industrialized nation, obesity rates in South Korea are extremely low. Yet, reflecting an extremely fat-averse, thin-positive society, efforts to lose weight are now reportedly very common. Since the 1980s, South Korea has experienced an increasingly flexible and insecure labor market which was exacerbated by the 1997 economic recession. In this social and economic setting, body shape and weight status, as human capital, may have gained significant bargaining power in the labor market. Consequently, we propose that Koreans, particularly those who are employed in "stable" jobs (i...
March 9, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Nicole Prinz, Barbara Bohn, Annamarie Kern, Deborah Püngel, Olga Pollatos, Reinhard W Holl
OBJECTIVE: For dietary assessment, mobile devices with a camera can be used as an alternative to hand-written paper records. The Nutritional Tracking Information Smartphone (Nutris-Phone) study aimed to examine relative validity and feasibility of a photo-based dietary record in everyday life. DESIGN: Parallel to the photo-based technique, a weighed record was performed. Participant satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire. A trained nutrition scientist evaluated portion sizes and nutrient content was calculated (DGExpert)...
March 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Mitchell S Cappell, Ahmed Edhi, Mitual Amin
RATIONALE: Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare, presumably congenital lesion that is usually diagnosed in patients < 3 years old, is rarely first diagnosed in adulthood, and when first diagnosed in adulthood typically presents with symptoms for many years. Although PIL is often identified by endoscopic abnormalities, it must be emphasized that the jejunoileum/distal duodenum must be intubated for diagnosis because the lesions are present in these regions. This work demonstrates that 1)-PIL can occur in an octogenarian; 2)-shows that the characteristic endoscopic findings are not found at colonoscopy without terminal ileal intubation; and 3)-may be missed at standard EGD without distal duodenal intubation...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katherine E Black, Alistair D Black, Dane F Baker
Rugby is a worldwide intermittent team sport, players tend to be heavier than the majority of similar team sport athletes on whom the dietary guidelines have been developed. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to describe the intakes of rugby union players. Article databases were searched up to February 2017 and were included if they were published in English and reporting dietary intakes of male rugby union players. Of the research articles found energy intakes were lower than four of the five studies which reported intakes and expenditure, which would suggest the players were losing weight which is somewhat supported by the decreases in skinfolds seen during pre-season...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Romy Lauche, Nicholas R Fuller, Holger Cramer, Jon Wardle, David Sibbritt, Jon Adams
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether the use of complementary medicine (CM) is associated with body satisfaction and weight management methods in Australian women. METHODS: Women aged 34-39 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding satisfaction with their body weight and shape, and the use of weight management methods. Associations with CM use were analysed using logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: Women using CM less likely wanted to lose weight; and were more likely to cut down on fats and/or sugars, use low glycaemic diets, diet books and 'other' methods (OR: 1...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Celeste E Naude, Marianne E Visser, Kim A Nguyen, Solange Durao, Anel Schoonees
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to prevent childhood overweight and obesity, we need to understand the relationship between total fat intake and body fatness in generally healthy children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of total fat intake on measures of weight and body fatness in children and young people not aiming to lose weight. SEARCH METHODS: For this update we revised the previous search strategy and ran it over all years in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (PubMed), and Embase (Ovid) (current to 23 May 2017)...
February 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kristoffer Ström, David Morales-Alamo, Filip Ottosson, Anna Edlund, Line Hjort, Sine W Jörgensen, Peter Almgren, Yuedan Zhou, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Carl Ekman, Alberto Pérez-López, Ola Ekström, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Markus Mattiasson, Pedro de Pablos-Velasco, Nikolay Oskolkov, Emma Ahlqvist, Nils Wierup, Lena Eliasson, Allan Vaag, Leif Groop, Karin G Stenkula, Céline Fernandez, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Ola Hansson
Obesity is a major health problem, and although caloric restriction and exercise are successful strategies to lose adipose tissue in obese individuals, a simultaneous decrease in skeletal muscle mass, negatively effects metabolism and muscle function. To deeper understand molecular events occurring in muscle during weight-loss, we measured the expressional change in human skeletal muscle following a combination of severe caloric restriction and exercise over 4 days in 15 Swedish men. Key metabolic genes were regulated after the intervention, indicating a shift from carbohydrate to fat metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fat-Moon Suk, Chi-Ching Chang, Ren-Jye Lin, Shyr-Yi Lin, Shih-Chen Liu, Chia-Feng Jau, Yu-Chih Liang
ZFP36 family members include ZFP36, ZFP36L1, and ZFP36L2, which belong to CCCH-type zinc finger proteins with two tandem zinc finger (TZF) regions. Whether ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 have antiproliferative activities similar to that of ZFP36 is unclear. In this study, when ZFP36L1 or ZFP36L2 was overexpressed in T-REx-293 cells, cell proliferation was dramatically inhibited and the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase. The levels of cell-cycle-related proteins, including cyclin B, cyclin D, cyclin A, and p21, decreased; however, p53 increased in ZFP36L1-or ZFP36L2-overexpressing T-REx-293 cells...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Satoshi Nishiwada, Shinji Nakamura, Tetsuya Tanaka, Yuki Kirihataya, Daiki Nezu, Nobuhiro Sawa, Naoki Fujita, Haruka Ikegami, Atsushi Yoshimura
INTRODUCTION: Entero-enteric fistulas are rare complications that occur in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and other intestinal diseases. In this report, we present an ileo-ileal fistula accompanied by severe malnutrition caused by strangulated ileus surgery while preserving the ischemic ileum in a very elderly patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 90-year-old woman underwent emergency surgery without bowel resection for strangulated ileus in another hospital. Minor abdominal pain and slight fever persisted after surgery...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Mariana Schroeder, Yonat Drori, Yair J Ben-Efraim, Alon Chen
Consumption of a low calorie diet is the most common approach to lose weight. While generally effective at first, it is frequently followed by a relapse where the pre-diet weight is regained, and often exceeded. This pattern of repeated weight loss/regain is referred to as weight cycling and the resulting metabolic response varies greatly between individuals. OBJECTIVE: We attempted to address the issue of individual differences in the response to weight cycling in male mice. METHODS: We first exposed adult wild type mice to repeated cycles of high/low fat food...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Becky Marquez, Gregory J Norman, James H Fowler, Kim M Gans, Bess H Marcus
OBJECTIVE: Shared behaviors have been implicated in the clustering of obesity among socially connected people. This study determined how weight and weight control behaviors of participants and their social ties are related and how these factors are associated with weight change in participants. METHOD: Adult Latinas participating in a lifestyle intervention completed an egocentric network measure of weight and weight control behaviors. Participant weight was objectively measured at baseline and 12 months...
February 1, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
A J Chappell, T Simper, M E Barker
Background: Competitive bodybuilders employ a combination of resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, calorie reduction, supplementation regimes and peaking strategies in order to lose fat mass and maintain fat free mass. Although recommendations exist for contest preparation, applied research is limited and data on the contest preparation regimes of bodybuilders are restricted to case studies or small cohorts. Moreover, the influence of different nutritional strategies on competitive outcome is unknown...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Sunhee Park
PURPOSE: The present study compared the physical characteristics and body composition of professional fashion models and women in general, utilizing the skinfold test. METHODS: The research sample consisted of 90 professional fashion models presently active in Korea and 100 females in the general population, all selected through convenience sampling. Measurement was done following standardized methods and procedures set by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry...
December 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Marissa R Pallotto, Maria R C de Godoy, Hannah D Holscher, Preston R Buff, Kelly S Swanson
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
B R Díaz, C S Galina, I Rubio, M Corro, J L Pablos, A Orihuela
With the objective of testing the hypothesis if animals with a stable layer of body fat (FAT) during the peripartum have a better chance of becoming pregnant after calving, fifty-nine multiparous Brahman cows in their last trimester of pregnancy were used. Animals averaged four parturitions and were stocked at a rate of 1.25 animal units per hectare and divided into two groups depending on the time postpartum (dpp) that the intravaginal releasing device CIDR was inserted; Group 1 (<30 dpp; n = 30) received the implant at 25...
January 21, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Xin-Hua Xiao, Xiao-Yan Qi, Ya-Di Wang, Li Ran, Jing Yang, Huan-Li Zhang, Can-Xin Xu, Ge-Bo Wen, Jiang-Hua Liu
Recent studies have highlighted recruiting and activating brite adipocytes in WAT (so-called "browning") would be an attractive anti-obesity strategy. Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is reported to ameliorate glycolipid metabolism and lose body weight in obese mice. However whether the body reducing effect mediated by browning programme remains unclear. Here, we show that overexpression of ZAG in 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced expression of brown fat-specific markers (UCP-1, PRDM16 and CIDEA), mitochondrial biogenesis genes (PGC-1α, NRF-1/2 and mtTFA) and the key lipid metabolism lipases (ATGL, HSL, CPT1-A and p-acyl-CoA carboxylase)...
January 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Steven R Smith, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake...
March 2018: Diabetes Care
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