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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063513/associations-between-yoga-meditation-use-body-satisfaction-and-weight-management-methods-results-of-a-national-cross-sectional-survey-of-8009-australian-women
#1
Romy Lauche, David Sibbritt, Thomas Ostermann, Nicholas R Fuller, Jon Adams, Holger Cramer
OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether yoga or meditation use is associated with body (dis)satisfaction and weight control methods in Australian women. METHODS: Women ages 34 to 39 y from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and yoga and meditation practice. Associations of body satisfaction and weight control methods with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034590/hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-lipodystrophy-under-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-evaluation-of-body-composition
#2
Inês Grenha, Joana Oliveira, Eva Lau, Ana Cristina Santos, António Sarmento, Jorge Pereira, Davide Carvalho, Paula Freitas
In HIV-infected patients, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated to adipose tissue redistribution known as lipodystrophy and associated cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to evaluate the evolution of body composition in HIV-infected patients, with and without lipodystrophy, over 2 yr. We evaluated anthropometric parameters and body composition by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 144 HIV-infected patients on cART. We defined lipodystrophy by fat mass ratio. Lipodystrophy was present in 45...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009296/human-beta-cells-produce-and-release-serotonin-to-inhibit-glucagon-secretion-from-alpha-cells
#3
Joana Almaça, Judith Molina, Danusa Menegaz, Alexey N Pronin, Alejandro Tamayo, Vladlen Slepak, Per-Olof Berggren, Alejandro Caicedo
In the pancreatic islet, serotonin is an autocrine signal increasing beta cell mass during metabolic challenges such as those associated with pregnancy or high-fat diet. It is still unclear whether serotonin is relevant for regular islet physiology and hormone secretion. Here, we show that human beta cells produce and secrete serotonin when stimulated with increases in glucose concentration. Serotonin secretion from beta cells decreases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in neighboring alpha cells via 5-HT1F receptors and inhibits glucagon secretion...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986754/cannula-versus-sharp-needle-for-placement-of-soft-tissue-fillers-an-observational-cadaver-study
#4
Jani A J van Loghem, Dalvi Humzah, Martina Kerscher
BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue fillers have become important products for facial rejuvenation. Deep fat compartments and facial bones lose volume during the natural aging process. For the most natural-looking results, deep volumetric injections at strategic sites are therefore preferred. Supraperiosteal placement is performed with a sharp needle or a non-traumatic cannula. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine whether there is a difference in precision between supraperiosteal placement with a sharp needle compared with a non-traumatic cannula in cadaver specimens...
December 16, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958252/comparison-of-the-body-compositions-in-obese-and-nonobese-individuals-can-learning-body-compositions-motivate-losing-weight
#5
R Kutlu, F G Cihan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To compare body compositions in obese and nonobese individuals. METHODS: This cross-sectional study constituted of 428 individuals. Body compositions were determined using the Tanita. RESULTS: Of all the participants, 300 (70.1%) were female. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 30.8% and 47.7%, respectively. Having low educational level, female gender, not working, being married, and nonsmoker significantly increased more in obese than nonobese (P < 0...
January 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936460/b-cells-present-skewed-profile-and-lose-the-function-of-supporting-t-cell-inflammation-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#6
Xiaojiang Dai, Weiguo Zhao, Junfang Zhan, Songhua Zeng, Dongzhi Ran, Hongbin Zhang, Zhigao Song, Ken H Song, Liangping Wu
Bariatric surgeries, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are currently the best treatment for obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism of bariatric surgeries is not entirely understood. Further investigations are needed to improve the success rate and achieve sustained health benefits. Given that B cell dysregulation is a critical component of etiology in inflammatory diseases, whereas obesity and type 2 diabetes represent two major inflammatory disorders, we investigated the effect of RYGB on B cell inflammation...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921046/weight-management-in-primary-care
#7
REVIEW
Susanne Maurer
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide. It is not only a medical but also a philosophical, ecological, economic, sociocultural, and psychological problem as well as a severe consequence of our modern value definition to 'receive more and more'. Therefore, physicians are not able to treat obesity broadly and should not be used as tools to achieve certain weight goals. METHODS: This article presents an outline of conservative obesity therapy...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920041/an-adaptive-response-to-uncertainty-can-lead-to-weight-gain-during-dieting-attempts
#8
A D Higginson, J M McNamara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Peoples' attempts to lose weight by low calorie diets often result in weight gain because of over-compensatory overeating during lapses. Animals usually respond to a change in food availability by adjusting their foraging effort and altering how much energy reserves they store. But in many situations the long-term availability of food is uncertain, so animals may attempt to estimate it to decide the appropriate level of fat storage. METHODOLOGY: We report the results of a conceptual model of feeding in which the animal knows whether food is currently abundant or limited, but does not know the proportion of time, there will be an abundance in the long-term and has to learn it...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883321/body-size-and-outcomes-in-dialysis-and-transplant-patients-does-it-matter
#9
Mehmet Sukru Sever
The terminologies of "body size", "body mass index (BMI)", "body weight", "large BMI" and "obesity" are controversial for defining the effects of "adiposity" or "fat excess" on the outcomes of dialysis and transplant patients. However, probably these terminologies will be continued to be used in the future as well, because of being older and simpler terminologies. In the general population obesity is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, while, it conferred a survival advantage to dialysis patients...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773644/does-weight-cycling-promote-obesity-and-metabolic-risk-factors
#10
Grace M Mackie, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Charmaine S Tam
BACKGROUND: There remains common belief in the general community that weight cycling or 'yo-yo dieting' is associated with potential adverse effects on obesity and metabolic risk factors. In 1994, a review by the National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity concluded that weight cycling did not impact metabolism, and that weight loss attempts should not be discouraged. This study is an updated review of the literature published since 1994, to determine if weight cycling is associated with metabolic risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes...
October 20, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759974/acantosis-nigricansis-associated-with-risk-factors-related-to-cardiovascular-disease-in-mexican-children-with-obesity
#11
Hugo Martínez-Rojano, María Luisa Pizano-Zárate, Bernarda Sánchez-Jiménez, Reyna Sámano, Armando López-Portillo
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity in Mexican children has increased during the last decade, as has the risk of early onset metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association ofAcantosis nigricans (AN)with dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and risk factors related to eating behavior in overweight and obese children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This transverse analytical study, conducted in two Mexico City primary schools, included 300 boys and girls...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757510/-our-children-the-future-is-fat-are-we-losing-the-battle-against-the-flab
#12
EDITORIAL
Iris Pigeot, Ulla Walter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697210/implications-of-thermogenic-adipose-tissues-for-metabolic-health
#13
Christian Schlein, Joerg Heeren
Excess and ectopic fat accumulation in obesity is a major risk factor for developing hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The activation of brown and/or beige adipocytes is a promising target for the treatment of metabolic disorders as the combustion of excess energy by these thermogenic adipocytes may help losing weight and improving plasma parameters including triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose levels. The regulation of heat production by thermogenic adipose tissues is based on a complex crosstalk between the autonomous nervous system, intracellular and secreted factors...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667652/evaluation-of-body-weight-body-condition-and-muscle-condition-in-cats-with-hyperthyroidism
#14
M E Peterson, C A Castellano, M Rishniw
BACKGROUND: The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. ANIMALS: Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665038/body-fat-distribution-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-mri-based-body-fat-quantification-study
#15
Denise Bernhardt, Hans-Peter Müller, Albert C Ludolph, Luc Dupuis, Jan Kassubek
INTRODUCTION: There is some evidence that Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients have lower body weight and lower fat mass when compared to healthy subjects and that lower body weight and fat mass influence disease risk and progression. It remains unclear, however, if weight loss of fat mass loss occurs only in a subgroup of patients and whether fat distribution is altered during PD. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate adipose tissue content and distribution in PD patients...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594890/a-different-weight-loss-experience-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-behavioral-physical-and-psychosocial-changes-associated-with-yoga-that-promote-weight-loss
#16
A Ross, A Brooks, K Touchton-Leonard, G Wallen
Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9)...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586376/weight-loss-strategies-of-south-african-female-university-students-and-comparison-of-weight-management-related-characteristics-between-dieters-and-non-dieters
#17
Marjanne Senekal, Gabrielle L Lasker, Lindsay van Velden, Ria Laubscher, Norman J Temple
BACKGROUND: Female university students are at risk for weight gain and use of inappropriate weight-loss strategies. By gaining a greater understanding of the weight-loss strategies used by and weight management related characteristics of these students, effective weight management interventions for this vulnerable group can be developed. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty female students from South Africa universities, aged 18-25 years, participated in this cross-sectional study; 162 attempted weight loss during the year preceding the study (dieters) and 88 were non-dieters...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580804/searching-for-the-%C3%AE-cell-fountain-of-youth
#18
Nathalie Jouvet, Jennifer L Estall
Aging affects every species and tissue but not in equal ways. Human pancreatic β-cells lose their ability to replicate, regenerate, and secrete insulin as one gets older. This natural process increases risk of developing diabetes as you age and is a concern for donor islets and stem cells obtained from older subjects destined for transplantation or emerging regenerative therapies. Using fluidic sorting and RNA sequencing on single cells, Xin et al describe a transcriptional signature of mouse β-cell aging between adulthood and a very old age...
September 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568466/microrna-17-92-cluster-regulates-pancreatic-beta-cell-proliferation-and-adaptation
#19
Yaxi Chen, Li Tian, Shan Wan, Ying Xie, Xiang Chen, Xiao Ji, Qian Zhao, Chunyu Wang, Kun Zhang, Janet M Hock, Haoming Tian, Xijie Yu
MiR-17-92 cluster contributes to the regulation of mammalian development, aging and tumorigenesis. The functional roles of miR-17-92 in pancreatic beta-cells are largely unknown. In this study, we found that conditional deletion of miR-17-92 in mouse pancreatic beta-cells (miR-17-92βKO) significantly reduces glucose tolerance and the first phase of insulin secretion, despite normal ad libitum fed and fasting glucose levels. Proliferation is down-regulated in pancreatic beta-cells after deleting miR-17-92. MiR-17-92βKO mice show higher phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and lower phosphorylated AKT in islets...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567109/body-composition-remodeling-and-mortality-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#20
Adam J Santanasto, Bret H Goodpaster, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Iva Miljkovic, Suzanne Satterfield, Ann V Schwartz, Steven R Cummings, Robert M Boudreau, Tamara B Harris, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Age-related losses of lean mass and shifts to central adiposity are related to functional decline and may predict mortality and/or explain part of the risk of weight loss. To determine how mortality risk is related to shifts in body composition, changes should be considered in the context of overall weight change. METHODS: Five-year changes in body composition were assessed with computed tomography (cm(2)) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (kg) in 869 men and 934 women initially aged 70-79 years...
August 27, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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