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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777234/prevotella-to-bacteroides-ratio-predicts-body-weight-and-fat-loss-success-on-24-week-diets-varying-in-macronutrient-composition-and-dietary-fiber-results-from-a-post-hoc-analysis
#1
Mads F Hjorth, Trine Blædel, Line Q Bendtsen, Janne K Lorenzen, Jacob B Holm, Pia Kiilerich, Henrik M Roager, Karsten Kristiansen, Lesli H Larsen, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756972/dietary-patterns-physical-activity-body-mass-index-weight-related-behaviours-and-their-interrelationship-among-romanian-university-students-trends-from-2003-to-2016
#2
Lucia Maria Lotrean, Ovidiu Stan, Lencu Codruta, Valeria Laza
INTRODUCTION: promotion of a healthy diet and involvement in physical activity among young people has an important impact on their actual and future lifestyle, health and well being. OBJECTIVES: this study investigates dietary patterns, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and weight-related behaviours as well as their interrelationship among Romanian university students. METHODS: the study used anonymous questionnaires and was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania in 2003 (n = 320) and 2016 (n = 320)...
January 19, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753982/does-urinary-bisphenol-a-change-after-bariatric-surgery
#3
Carl L Dambkowski, Luis Garcia, Natalia Leva, John M Morton
BACKGROUND: One of the world's highest volume chemicals is bisphenol-A (BPA), an organic compound with a high solubility in fat. An emerging body of literature has suggested a link between BPA and obesity and insulin resistance. The study aim is to determine if surgical weight loss is associated with changes in BPA levels. METHODS: Demographic, preoperative, and 3, 6, and 12 month postoperative urine and laboratory data were prospectively collected on 22 bariatric surgery patients at a single academic institution...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745914/weight-loss-in-a-young-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-challenges-of-diabetes-management-using-online-program-of-good-nutrition-case-report
#4
V Krylov
A 31-year-old male with a history of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypercholesterolemia came to our clinic for medical weight-loss management. According to his initial anthropometric measurements (weight - 193 kg, height - 181 cm, and body mass index (BMI) - 58 kg/m2) patient had morbid obesity. In order to educate our patient about good nutrition, physical activity and the need of sun exposure we used an online system based on the video lessons, full of humor, pictures, and cartoons. Even one month of watching the short educational movies was sufficient for the patient to form the habits of healthy eating, including restriction of fat and digestible carbohydrates and increase in daily consumption of low-fat dairy products, slow carbohydrates, protein and fiber...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743072/usefulness-of-circuit-training-at-home-for-improving-bone-mass-and-muscle-mass-while-losing-fat-mass-in-undergraduate-female-students
#5
Yoko Takahata
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not circuit training at home affects the calcaneus quantitative ultrasound status as well as other indices of body composition among undergraduate female students. METHODS: Forty-one adolescents were recruited (18.5 ± 0.6 years old). The stiffness index of the calcaneus, broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus, speed of sound of the calcaneus, and body frame index. This was a three-month intervention study, so the measurements were conducted at baseline, 2 months later, and 3 months later while the subjects underwent circuit training at home...
May 9, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696385/effects-of-different-weight-loss-approaches-on-cvd-risk
#6
REVIEW
Peter M Clifton, Jennifer B Keogh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we aimed to answer the question as to whether deliberate weight loss can reduce cardiovascular events or improve cardiovascular risk factors and whether different methods of weight loss can have a differential effect on risk factor improvement. RECENT FINDINGS: It would appear that deliberate weight loss reduces total mortality by 16% in obese people with risk factors including type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes who lose at least 10% of their initial body weight reduce CVD end points by 21% with dietary weight loss while the effect is greater with the greater weight loss induced by bariatric surgery with a 32% reduction in events...
April 25, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685623/dysregulated-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-levels-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-can-be-restored-by-changing-to-a-lower-fat-diet-in-mice
#7
Young Sun Jung, Dayong Wu, Donald Smith, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Sung Nim Han
Altered regulation of vitamin D metabolites, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D), was observed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We hypothesized that these HFD-induced changes in vitamin D metabolism would be reversed by decreasing fat mass through dietary intervention. Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diet groups: (1) the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, (2) the HH group was fed an HFD for 31 weeks, and (3) the HL group was fed HFD for 15 weeks then switched to the control diet for the remaining 16 weeks...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680707/mice-selectively-bred-for-high-voluntary-wheel-running-behavior-conserve-more-fat-despite-increased-exercise
#8
Layla Hiramatsu, Theodore Garland
Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes...
April 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676589/association-of-diabetes-diagnosis-with-dietary-changes-and-weight-reduction
#9
Daeho Kim, Kanghyock Koh, Shailender Swaminathan, Amal N Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle modifications are associated with better outcomes for patients with diabetes. Patients' awareness of having diabetes may promote lifestyle changes, but there is limited evidence to support this assertion. This study examined whether a report of physician-diagnosed diabetes is associated with dietary changes and efforts to lose weight. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparison of individuals with and without diabetes or prediabetes diagnosis, matched on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, socio-demographic characteristics, and health status using propensity-score matching analysis...
April 20, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659960/obese-mice-losing-weight-due-to-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-or-food-restriction-harbor-distinct-gut-microbiota
#10
Laura J den Hartigh, Zhan Gao, Leela Goodspeed, Shari Wang, Arun K Das, Charles F Burant, Alan Chait, Martin J Blaser
Background: trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) is a dietary supplement that promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation and energy expenditure. We previously reported that in the absence of t10,c12-CLA, mice forced to lose equivalent body weight by food restriction (FR) do not exhibit increases in fat oxidation or energy expenditure but have improved glucose metabolism, consistent with FR as a metabolically healthy weight-loss method. Objective: Because diet is a primary determinant of gut bacterial populations, we hypothesized that the disparate metabolic effects accompanying weight loss from t10,c12-CLA or FR could be related to altered intestinal microbiota...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617644/a-transcriptional-circuit-filters-oscillating-circadian-hormonal-inputs-to-regulate-fat-cell-differentiation
#11
Zahra Bahrami-Nejad, Michael L Zhao, Stefan Tholen, Devon Hunerdosse, Karen E Tkach, Sabine van Schie, Mingyu Chung, Mary N Teruel
Glucocorticoid and other adipogenic hormones are secreted in mammals in circadian oscillations. Loss of this circadian oscillation pattern correlates with obesity in humans, raising the intriguing question of how hormone secretion dynamics affect adipocyte differentiation. Using live, single-cell imaging of the key adipogenic transcription factors CEBPB and PPARG, endogenously tagged with fluorescent proteins, we show that pulsatile circadian hormone stimuli are rejected by the adipocyte differentiation control system...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604290/intestinal-failure-and-aberrant-lipid-metabolism-in-patients-with-dgat1-deficiency
#12
Jorik M van Rijn, Rico Chandra Ardy, Zarife Kuloğlu, Bettina Härter, Désirée Y van Haaften-Visser, Hubert P J van der Doef, Marliek van Hoesel, Aydan Kansu, Anke H M van Vugt, Marini Ng, Freddy T M Kokke, Ana Krolo, Meryem Keçeli Başaran, Neslihan Gurcan Kaya, Aysel Ünlüsoy Aksu, Buket Dalgıç, Figen Ozcay, Zeren Baris, Renate Kain, Edwin C A Stigter, Klaske D Lichtenbelt, Maarten P G Massink, Karen J Duran, Joke B G M Verheij, Dorien Lugtenberg, Peter G J Nikkels, Henricus G F Brouwer, Henkjan J Verkade, Rene Scheenstra, Bart Spee, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Paul J Coffer, Andreas R Janecke, Gijs van Haaften, Roderick H J Houwen, Thomas Müller, Sabine Middendorp, Kaan Boztug
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Congenital diarrheal disorders are rare inherited intestinal disorders characterized by intractable, sometimes life-threatening, diarrhea and nutrient malabsorption; some have been associated with mutations in diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which catalyzes formation of triacylglycerol from diacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. We investigated the mechanisms by which DGAT1 deficiency contributes to intestinal failure using patient-derived organoids. METHODS: We collected blood samples from 10 patients, from 6 unrelated pedigrees, who presented with early-onset severe diarrhea and/or vomiting, hypoalbuminemia, and/or (fatal) protein-losing enteropathy with intestinal failure; we performed next-generation sequence analysis of DNA from 8 patients...
March 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595858/calycosin-directly-improves-perivascular-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-by-upregulating-the-adiponectin-ampk-enos-pathway-in-obese-mice
#13
Fang Han, Kai Li, Ruiyan Pan, Wenjie Xu, Xue Han, Ningning Hou, Xiaodong Sun
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) loses its anti-contractile activity in obesity. Calycosin, the major bioactive isoflavonoid, was shown to protect endothelial function. However, effects of calycosin on PVAT function in obesity remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of calycosin on the anti-contractile activity of PVAT in obese mice and its potential mechanisms. Obesity in mice was induced with a high-fat diet, with or without calycosin treatment. Thoracic aorta responses to phenylephrine were determined...
March 29, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575968/a-healthy-chubby-japanese-man-genki-na-debu-chan
#14
Genaro Castro-Vázquez
In light of official reports indicating a still prevalent tendency to masculinized obesity and overweight in Japan (Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, 2015), this article explores the experiences of 28 Japanese men grappling with bodyweight control. Aged between 24 and 67, 3 of the men were postgraduate or undergraduate students, 7 self-employed, 17 company workers and 1 retired. Fourteen hold a university degree, 1 completed senior high school and 10 finished 3-year junior college. Twelve were married and 16 were single...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556949/more-sugar-no-thank-you-the-elusive-nature-of-low-carbohydrate-diets
#15
REVIEW
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536615/plasma-angptl-4-is-associated-with-obesity-and-glucose-tolerance-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-findings
#16
Silvia Barja-Fernandez, José María Moreno-Navarrete, Cintia Folgueira, Gemma Xifra, Mònica Sabater, Cecilia Castelao, Johan FernØ, Rosaura Leis, Carlos Diéguez, Felipe F Casanueva, Wifredo Ricart, Luisa M Seoane, José Manuel Fernandez-Real, Rubén Nogueiras
SCOPE: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL-4) regulates plasma lipoprotein levels, but its relevance in human obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is largely unknown. We aim to investigate the regulation of circulating ANGPTL-4 levels in obesity, T2D, and after changes in body weight. METHODS AND RESULTS: Circulating ANGPTL-4 levels were measured in two different cohorts. First, in a cross-sectional study, we evaluated ANGPTL-4 levels in lean and obese patients with normoglycemia or with altered glucose tolerance (AGT; n = 282)...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535587/individual-responsiveness-to-exercise-induced-fat-loss-and-improvement-of-metabolic-profile-in-young-women-is-associated-with-polymorphisms-of-adrenergic-receptor-genes
#17
Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Jażdżewska, Waldemar Moska, Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Marek Sawczuk, Svetlana I Gubaydullina, Alsu T Shakirova, Pawel Cięszczyk, Adam Maszczyk, Ildus I Ahmetov
The effectiveness of physical exercise on fat loss and improvement of aerobic capacity varies considerably between individuals. A strong linkage exists between common allelic variants of the adrenergic receptor genes and weight gain, as well as changes in body composition. Therefore we aimed to check if body composition and metabolic variables were modulated by the ADRB2 (Gly16Arg and Glu27Gln), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) and ADRA2A (rs553668 G/A) gene polymorphisms in 163 Polish sedentary women (age 19-24; body mass index (BMI) 21...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534771/assessment-of-the-accuracy-of-nutrient-calculations-of-five-popular-nutrition-tracking-applications
#18
Carly Griffiths, Lisa Harnack, Mark A Pereira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of nutrient intake calculations from leading nutrition tracking applications (apps). DESIGN: Nutrient intake estimates from thirty 24 h dietary recalls collected using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) were compared with intake calculations from these recalls entered by the researcher into five free nutrition tracking apps. Apps were selected from the Apple App Store based on consumer popularity from the list of free 'Health and Fitness' apps classified as a nutrition tracking apps...
June 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529400/employment-and-weight-status-the-extreme-case-of-body-concern-in-south-korea
#19
Seung-Yong Han, Alexandra A Brewis, Cindi SturtzSreetharan
For an industrialized nation, obesity rates in South Korea are extremely low. Yet, reflecting an extremely fat-averse, thin-positive society, efforts to lose weight are now reportedly very common. Since the 1980s, South Korea has experienced an increasingly flexible and insecure labor market which was exacerbated by the 1997 economic recession. In this social and economic setting, body shape and weight status, as human capital, may have gained significant bargaining power in the labor market. Consequently, we propose that Koreans, particularly those who are employed in "stable" jobs (i...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506585/feasibility-and-relative-validity-of-a-digital-photo-based-dietary-assessment-results-from-the-nutris-phone-study
#20
Nicole Prinz, Barbara Bohn, Annamarie Kern, Deborah Püngel, Olga Pollatos, Reinhard W Holl
OBJECTIVE: For dietary assessment, mobile devices with a camera can be used as an alternative to hand-written paper records. The Nutritional Tracking Information Smartphone (Nutris-Phone) study aimed to examine relative validity and feasibility of a photo-based dietary record in everyday life. DESIGN: Parallel to the photo-based technique, a weighed record was performed. Participant satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire. A trained nutrition scientist evaluated portion sizes and nutrient content was calculated (DGExpert)...
March 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
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