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alcohol intake

K Warfa, I Drake, P Wallström, G Engström, E Sonestedt
Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables)...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
György Miklós Buzás
Although fructose was discovered in 1794, it was realised in recent decades only that its malabsorption can lead to intestinal symptoms while its excessive consumption induces metabolic disturbances. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in most fruits and vegetables. Dietary intake of fructose has gradually increased in the past decades, especially because of the consumption of high fructose corn syrup. With its 16.4 kg/year consumption, Hungary ranks secondly after the United States. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine by facilitated transport mediated by glucose transporter proteins-2 and -5, and arrives in the liver cells...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Mauro Serafini, Elisabetta Toti
The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world's health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to "obesigen" consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Camilla Kristoffersen, Rasmus B Jensen, Ekaterina Avershina, Dag Austbø, Anne-Helene Tauson, Knut Rudi
Knowledge on dynamic interactions in microbiota is pivotal for understanding the role of bacteria in the gut. We herein present comprehensive dynamic models of the horse cecal microbiota, which include short-chained fatty acids, carbohydrate metabolic networks, and taxonomy. Dynamic models were derived from time-series data in a crossover experiment in which four cecum-cannulated horses were fed a starch-rich diet of hay supplemented with barley (starch intake 2 g kg(-1) body weight per day) and a fiber-rich diet of only hay...
October 21, 2016: Microbes and Environments
Daisuke Ikeda, Makiko Sugawa, Kazuo Kawahara
Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT), which was introduced by the Japanese Red Cross Society in October 1999, began to be performed for screening of blood transfusion formulations in Japan in August 2014. In this study, the precision of immunological screenings of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBcAb, and HBsAb), hepatitis C (HCVAb), and human immunodeficiency (HIVAb) virus antigens in donated blood were evaluated. In addition, the sensitivity of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test for detection of the hepatitis B and C viruses was re-evaluated...
2016: Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
Nnamdi G Nelson, Faten A Suhaidi, Ross S DeAngelis, Nu-Chu Liang
Ethanol can be a food source but its effects on energy balance and contribution to obesity remain inconclusive. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on energy intake and body weight would depend on the administration dose, pattern and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) time-course. Experiment 1 examined changes in food intake, diet preference, and body weight after saline or ethanol (1 and 3g/Kg) injection (IP). Experiment 2 compared the effects in rats that received either 3g/Kg/day ethanol administered all at once (EtOH_S) or in 2 1...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ryoko Tajima, Takeshi Kimura, Ayaka Enomoto, Kaede Yanoshita, Aki Saito, Satomi Kobayashi, Katsunori Masuda, Kaoruko Iida
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through lifestyle modification is an important public health issue. Carbohydrate intake from soft drinks has received particular interest. Owing to differences in dietary habits, however, major contributors to the intake of dietary carbohydrates, such as rice, bread, and noodles, might have more influence on NAFLD prevalence in East Asian countries than consumption of soft drinks. We examined the relationship of the intake of rice, bread, and noodles, as well as overall carbohydrate intake, with NAFLD prevalence in middle-aged Japanese...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Susan J Carson, Jacqueline Burns
DesignCohort studyCohort selectionParticipants were recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population with the preferred ages of 35 to 65 years in women and 40 to 65 years in men.Exposure measurementSmoking was assessed using a questionnaire from which pack years of smoking were calculated. Educational attainment, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, alcohol consumption and vitamin or mineral supplements were assessed from measurements and questionnaires. Tooth loss was also assessed by questionnaire returned between 2004 and 2006...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Yurii B Shvetsov, Brook E Harmon, Reynolette Ettienne, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Carol J Boushey
The alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score is an adaptation of the original Mediterranean diet score. Raw (aMED) and energy-standardised (aMED-e) versions have been used. How the diet scores and their association with health outcomes differ between the two versions is unclear. We examined differences in participants' total and component scores and compared the association of aMED and aMED-e with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. As part of the Multiethnic Cohort, 193 527 men and women aged 45-75 years from Hawaii and Los Angeles completed a baseline FFQ and were followed up for 13-18 years...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Dorit Ron
We previously reported that the kinase AKT is activated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents in response to excessive consumption of alcohol. One of the important downstream targets of AKT is the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin in Complex 1 (mTORC1), which was also activated by alcohol intake. mTORC1 controls dendritic protein translation, and we showed that the mTORC1-dependent translational machinery is activated in the NAc in response to alcohol intake. Importantly, systemic or intra-NAc inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 pathway attenuated alcohol-drinking behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sunil Sirohi, Arriel Van Cleef, Jon F Davis
Binge eating and binge alcohol intake are behavioral manifestations of pathological feeding and alcohol use disorder (AUD), respectively. Binge-feeding and AUD have high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, which could have important implications for the management of these conditions. Importantly, these behaviors share many common features suggesting a singular etiology. However, the nature by which binge-feeding affects the development or maintenance of AUD is unclear. The present study examined the impact of a binge-feeding from a nutritionally complete high-fat diet (HFD) on initiation and maintenance of alcohol intake, anxiolytic behavior and central genetic changes in brain regions that control alcohol-reinforced behaviors...
October 17, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Zi Lin, Zheng-Feng Wu, Cui-Hua Jiang, Qing-Wen Zhang, Sheng Ouyang, Chun-Tao Che, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis (HS) is the early stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease which is caused by impaired hepatic lipid homeostasis. Cyclocarya paliurus, an herbal tea consumed in China, has been demonstrated to ameliorate abnormal lipid metabolism for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the regulative effect of chloroform extract from Cyclocarya paliurus (ChE) on treatment of HS, as well as key factors involved in hepatic lipid metabolism...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Efsun Kaabudak, Eda Koksal
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation is to test the validity and reliability the assessment methods for the true beverage consumption of adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out 291 healthy volunteers. The beverage intake questionnaire (BIQ) was prepared in combination with a new one which is developed based on basic principles and the existing one developed for the beverages consumed the most with respect to frequency and amount by Turkish populations...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Leidy Johanna Ocampo Arroyave, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Helen Gonçalves
This study focuses on trends and inequalities in health risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study compared two birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,281 adolescents from the 1982 cohort and 4,106 from the 1993 cohort, followed in 2001 and 2011, respectively. The study recorded alcohol intake, illegal drug use, smoking, sexual initiation < 16 years, lack of condom use, and multiple sex partners. Total prevalence rates were calculated for each cohort, stratified by gender and per capita income, besides absolute and relative measures of inequality...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
I O Oliveira, L P Silva, M C Borges, O M Cruz, J W Tessmann, J V S Motta, F K Seixas, B L Horta, D P Gigante
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a key intermediate in methionine metabolism. A high plasma concentration of Hcy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among other determinants. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interactions between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity) on Hcy concentrations in a young Brazilian population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population comprised 3803 individuals from the Pelotas Birth Cohort, aged 22-23 years...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shivaram Prasad Singh, Pradeep Kumar Padhi, Jimmy Narayan, Ayaskanta Singh, Girish Kumar Pati, Preetam Nath, Prasant Kumar Parida, Sunil Mishra
AIM: The aim of this study is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of alcohol use on patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and their families. METHODS: The demographic and socioeconomic data were collected from hospitalized ALD patients and attendants using a self designed non validated questionnaire and analyzed. RESULTS: Study subjects included 100 consecutive ALD patients (all males). Sixty percent were between 30 and 50 years. Most were married (96 %), literate (63 %), either businessmen (37 %) or employed (30 %) and belonged to middle socioeconomic class...
October 19, 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Emma Stait, Michael Calnan
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, differential consumption patterns in health-related behaviours have increasingly been highlighted as playing an important role in explaining persistent and widening health inequalities. This period has also seen government public health policies in England place a greater emphasis on changing 'lifestyle' behaviours, in an attempt to tackle social inequalities in health. The aim of this study was to empirically examine the variation in health-related behaviour in relation to socio-economic position, in the English adult population, to determine the nature of this relationship and whether it has changed over time...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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