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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#1
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2000 and July 22, 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448790/drinking-and-driving-behavior-at-stop-signs-and-red-lights
#2
Jingyan Wan, Changxu Wu, Yiqi Zhang, Rebecca J Houston, Chang Wen Chen, Panya Chanawangsa
Alcohol is one of the principal risk factors for motor vehicle crashes. One factor that contributes to vehicle crashes is noncompliance with stop signs and red lights. The present experiment investigated the effects of alcohol and drinking patterns on driving behavior at stop signs and red lights. 28 participants participated in drinking and simulated driving sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.08% BAC) or a placebo. Simulated driving tasks measured participants' driving performance at stop signs and red lights in response to each dose...
April 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448079/relationship-between-breakfast-skipping-and-obesity-among-elderly-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-heijo-kyo-study
#3
N Otaki, K Obayashi, K Saeki, M Kitagawa, N Tone, N Kurumatani
OBJECTIVE: Breakfast skipping is reported to be associated with obesity in children and younger populations; however, few studies report the association among elderly. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between breakfast skipping and obesity prevalence among elderly. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community-dwelling elderly in Nara, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 1052 elderly participants (mean age: 71...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447197/role-of-zinc-in-the-development-progression-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Craig McClain, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Matthew Cave
Many variables, aside from the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, play a role in the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). One critical factor that can be modified is diet/nutrition. We have made major recent advances in our understanding of the interactions of nutrition and ALD. In this article, we review advances made in zinc metabolism/therapy for ALD. There is major zinc dyshomeostasis with ALD which is mediated, in part, by poor intake and absorption, increased excretion, and altered zinc transporters, especially ZIP14...
April 26, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446808/possible-combinatorial-effects-of-current-smoking-and-alcohol-intake-on-chronic-kidney-disease-in-a-japanese-nationwide-cross-sectional-survey
#5
Kouichi Tamura, Toru Dejima, Yukiko Morita, Satoshi Hirade, Hiromichi Wakui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445130/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-mlh1-predict-poor-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-chinese-population
#6
Xiaonian Zhu, Wei Liu, Xiaoqiang Qiu, Zhigang Wang, Chao Tan, Chunhua Bei, Linyuan Qin, Yuan Ren, Shengkui Tan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant cancer causing deleterious health effect worldwide, especially in China. So far clinical cure rate and long-term survival rate of HCC remains low. Most HCC patients after cancer resection have recurrence or metastasis within 5 years. This study aims to explore the genetic association of mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) polymorphisms with HCC risk and prognosis. Four candidate MLH1 polymorphisms, rs1800734, rs10849, rs3774343 and rs1540354 were studied from a hospital-based case-control study including 1,036 cases (HCC patients) and 1,036 controls (non-HCC patients) in Guangxi, China...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444711/are-we-justified-in-suggesting-change-to-caffeine-alcohol-and-carbonated-drink-intake-in-lower-urinary-tract-disease-report-from-the-ici-rs-2015
#7
REVIEW
Dudley Robinson, Ann Hanna-Mitchell, Angie Rantell, Gans Thiagamoorthy, Linda Cardozo
AIMS: There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. While fluid intake is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of alcohol, caffeine, carbonated drinks, and artificial sweeteners are less well understood and evidence from epidemiological studies is mixed and sometimes contradictory. The aim of this paper is to appraise the available evidence on the effect of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction in addition to suggesting proposals for further research...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443702/turmeric-supplementation-improves-serum-glucose-indices-and-leptin-levels-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases
#8
Roya Navekar, Maryam Rafraf, Aida Ghaffari, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Manouchehr Khoshbaten
OBJECTIVE: Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442364/effects-of-repeated-cocaine-exposure-and-withdrawal-on-voluntary-ethanol-drinking-and-the-expression-of-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-mesocorticolimbic-system-of-p-rats
#9
Alaa M Hammad, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Sujan C Das, Youssef Sari
Glutamatergic neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuits plays a major role in the reinforcing properties of both ethanol and cocaine. Glutamate homeostasis is regulated by several glutamate transporters, including glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1), cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT), and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). Cocaine exposure has been shown to induce a dysregulation in glutamate homeostasis and a decrease in the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In this study, alcohol preferring (P) rats were exposed to free-choice of ethanol (15% and 30%) and/or water for five weeks...
April 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438247/the-utility-of-the-alcohol-use-disorders-identification-test-audit-for-the-analysis-of-binge-drinking-in-university-students
#10
María T Cortés Tomás, José A Giménez Costa, Patricia Motos-Sellés, María D Sancerni Beitia, Fernando Cadaveira Mahía
BACKGROUND: The increasingly precise conceptualization of Binge Drinking (BD), along with the rising incidence of this pattern of intake amongst young people, make it necessary to review the usefulness of instruments used to detect it. Little evidence exists regarding effectiveness of the AUDIT, AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 in the detection of BD. This study evaluates their utility in a sample of university students, revealing the most appropriate cut-off points for each sex. METHODS: All students self-administered the AUDIT and completed a self-report of their alcohol consumption...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436559/dopamine-d1-or-d2-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-central-nervous-system
#11
Xiaoyan Wei, Tengfei Ma, Yifeng Cheng, Cathy C Y Huang, Xuehua Wang, Jiayi Lu, Jun Wang
Dopamine signals mainly through D1 receptors (D1Rs) and D2 receptors (D2Rs); D1R-expressing or D2R-expressing neurons contribute to distinct reward and addictive behaviors. Traditionally, transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under D1R or D2R promoters are used for fluorescent verification in electrophysiology studies, whereas Cre mice are employed for behavioral research. However, it is unknown whether the same neuronal populations are targeted in GFP and Cre mice. Additionally, while D1Rs and D2Rs are known to be expressed in different striatal neurons, their expression patterns outside the striatum remain unclear...
April 24, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435742/immobilisation-induced-hypercalcemia-following-spinal-cord-injury-affecting-the-kidney-function-in-two-young-native-greenlanders
#12
Michael V Linstow, Fin Biering-Sørensen
INTRODUCTION: Immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia following SCI affecting the kidney function, is a rare but potentially serious condition. We report immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia affecting the kidney function in two young native Greenlanders with spinal cord injury (SCI). CASE PRESENTATIONS: Two 15- and 24-year-old male native Greenlanders, both with traumatic C5 SCI were admitted to our spinal cord unit. They were non-smokers without history of daily alcohol intake pre- or immediately post-injury...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434611/alcohol-intake-and-risk-of-rosacea-in-us-women
#13
Suyun Li, Eunyoung Cho, Aaron M Drucker, Abrar A Qureshi, Wen-Qing Li
BACKGROUND: The epidemiologic association between alcohol and rosacea is unclear and inconsistent based on the previous cross-sectional or case-control studies. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a cohort study to determine the association between alcohol intake and the risk of rosacea in women. METHODS: A total of 82,737 women were included from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2005). Information on alcohol intake was collected every 4 years during follow-up...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433466/orosensory-responsiveness-and-alcohol-behaviour
#14
Margaret Thibodeau, Martha Bajec, Gary Pickering
Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widespread through much of the world, and significantly impacts human health and well-being. We sought to determine the contribution of orosensation ('taste') to several alcohol intake measures by examining general responsiveness to taste and somatosensory stimuli in a convenience sample of 435 adults recruited from six cohorts. Each cohort was divided into quantiles based on their responsiveness to sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, metallic, and astringent stimuli, and the resulting quantiles pooled for analysis (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA)...
April 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433104/wilson-disease-symptomatic-liver-therapy
#15
Jan Pfeiffenberger, Karl-Heinz Weiss, Wolfgang Stremmel
Wilson disease leads to symptomatic impairment of liver function or liver cirrhosis. Strict adherence to decoppering agents is essential in these patients. Secondary prevention of additional hepatic damage by avoidance of other toxic substances (e.g., alcohol, drugs) and sufficient calorie intake is recommended. Routine examinations in cirrhotic patients include screening for signs of portal hypertension (esophagus varices), development of ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Where varices are present, primary or secondary preventive interventions may include treatment with nonselective beta-blockers or variceal ligation, similar to the approach in patients with liver cirrhosis due to other etiologies...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431971/influence-of-stress-associated-with-chronic-alcohol-exposure-on-drinking
#16
REVIEW
Howard C Becker
Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429924/dietary-choice-and-health-behaviors-in-eastern-chinese-women-a-descriptive-population-based-survey-and-review-of-public-health-data
#17
Feng Wang, Fei Wang, Lixiang Yu, Zhigang Yu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urbanization in China has increased the prevalence of high-fat and low-fiber diets, and of adverse health behaviors associated with an increased risk of diet-related, non-communicable diseases (DR-NCDs) in eastern Chinese women. This study aimed to characterize the dietary intake and health behaviors in eastern Chinese women. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data of 122,058 women aged 25 to 70 who completed a multi-staged, stratified, cluster sampling epidemiological survey in eastern China in 2008, including self-report of diet and lifestyle information (sleep, physical activity, work, etc...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429582/obesity-and-addiction-can-a-complication-of-surgery-help-us-understand-the-connection
#18
REVIEW
V Ivezaj, L E Stoeckel, N M Avena, S C Benoit, A Conason, J F Davis, A N Gearhardt, R Goldman, J E Mitchell, C N Ochner, K K Saules, K J Steffen, E Stice, S Sogg
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disease that has proven difficult to treat. An increased understanding of aetiological mechanisms is critical to the development of more effective obesity prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of empirical evidence has demonstrated parallels between obesity, overeating and substance abuse, including shared behavioural, psychological and neurophysiological factors implicated in the excessive intake of both food and substances of abuse. Several different lines of research have recently emerged that hold the potential to shed light on the connection between obesity, food reward and addiction, with studies examining changes in alcohol use/misuse after weight loss surgery providing a particularly interesting perspective on these interrelationships...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426815/using-controlled-attenuation-parameter-combined-with-ultrasound-to-survey-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Yi-Hao Yen, Jin-Bor Chen, Ben-Chung Cheng, Jung-Fu Chen, Kuo-Chin Chang, Po-Lin Tseng, Cheng-Kun Wu, Ming-Chao Tsai, Ming-Tsung Lin, Tsung-Hui Hu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for measuring hepatic steatosis (HS). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in hemodialysis patients. METHOD: We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis, as well as patients with normal renal function who served as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426670/mice-expressing-a-hyper-sensitive-form-of-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-show-modestly-enhanced-alcohol-preference-and-consumption
#20
David J Marcus, Angela N Henderson-Redmond, Maciej Gonek, Michael L Zee, Jill C Farnsworth, Randa A Amin, Mary-Jeanette Andrews, Brian J Davis, Ken Mackie, Daniel J Morgan
We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol...
2017: PloS One
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