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Pranjul Mishra, Na-Rae Lee, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Minsuk Kim, Byung-Gee Kim, Dong-Yup Lee
BACKGROUND: Recently, there have been several attempts to produce long-chain dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) in various microbial hosts. Of these, Yarrowia lipolytica has great potential due to its oleaginous characteristics and unique ability to utilize hydrophobic substrates. However, Y. lipolytica should be further engineered to make it more competitive: the current approaches are mostly intuitive and cumbersome, thus limiting its industrial application. RESULTS: In this study, we proposed model-guided metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced production of DCAs in Y...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Michael T Guarnieri, Alida T Gerritsen, Calvin A Henard, Eric P Knoshaug
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Kanchana Rueksomtawin Kildegaard, Belén Adiego-Pérez, David Doménech Belda, Jaspreet Kaur Khangura, Carina Holkenbrink, Irina Borodina
Astaxanthin is a red-colored carotenoid, used as food and feed additive. Astaxanthin is mainly produced by chemical synthesis, however, the process is expensive and synthetic astaxanthin is not approved for human consumption. In this study, we engineered the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for de novo production of astaxanthin by fermentation. First, we screened 12 different Y. lipolytica isolates for β-carotene production by introducing two genes for β-carotene biosynthesis: bi-functional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase ( crtYB ) and phytoene desaturase ( crtI ) from the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous ...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Nam Keun Lee, Chun Jin Cheon, Jin-Kyu Rhee
Rhodosporidium toruloides , an oleaginous yeast, can be used as a fast and reliable evaluation tool to screen new natural lipid-lowering agents. Red radish coral sprout extract (RRSE) showed that triglyceride (TG) accumulation was inhibited by 42.6% in 0.1% RRSE-treated R. toruloides .We evaluated the anti-obesity effect of the RRSE in a mouse model. The body weight gain in mice fed high fat diet (HFD) with 0.1 % RRSE (HFD-RRSE) significantly decreased by 60% compared to that of the HFD after the 8-week experimental period...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mou Tang, Wenting Zhou, Yi Liu, Jiabao Yan, Zhiwei Gong
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomeric constituent of chitin, is rarely studied for lipid production by oleaginous species. This study demonstrated that Cryptococcus curvatus had a great capacity to convert GlcNAc into lipid with high yield using a two-stage production process. Optimal inoculum age and inoculation size strongly improved the two-stage lipid production efficiency. More interestingly, this process rendered superior lipid production under non-sterile condition. The acetate liberated from GlcNAc was consumed timely, while the NH4 + released was rarely assimilated...
March 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xiaoyu Wang, Yuan Zhao, Xiaoxue Jiang, Lijun Liu, Xue Li, Huixian Li, Wenyan Liang
Plant polyphenol (PP), a natural polymer from the Larix gmelinii, was selected as the surfactant to synthesize Fe3 O4 . The Fe3 O4 -PP composite was prepared by in-situ self-assembly in solvothermal synthesis, and characterized using FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS, TGA, and VSM. The harvesting efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated under different parameters, including algal organic matter, dosage, and pH. The results showed that the core-shell sphere of Fe3 O4 -PP (∼150 nm) was coated by ∼50 nm PP with a saturated magnetization of 40...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
You-Kwan Oh, Kyung-Ran Hwang, Changman Kim, Jung Rae Kim, Jin-Suk Lee
Biofuels are regarded as one of the most viable options for reduction of CO2 emissions in the transport sector. However, conventional plant-based biofuels (e.g., biodiesel, bioethanol)'s share of total transportation-fuel consumption in 2016 was very low, about 4%, due to several major limitations including shortage of raw materials, low CO2 mitigation effect, blending wall, and poor cost competitiveness. Advanced biofuels such as drop-in, microalgal, and electro biofuels, especially from inedible biomass, are considered to be a promising solution to the problem of how to cope with the growing biofuel demand...
February 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Samuel T Coradetti, Dominic Pinel, Gina Geiselman, Masakazu Ito, Stephen Mondo, Morgann C Reilly, Ya-Fang Cheng, Stefan Bauer, Igor Grigoriev, John M Gladden, Blake A Simmons, Rachel Brem, Adam P Arkin, Jeffrey M Skerker
The basidiomycete yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (a.k.a. Rhodotorula toruloides ) accumulates high concentrations of lipids and carotenoids from diverse carbon sources. It has great potential as a model for the cellular biology of lipid droplets and for sustainable chemical production. We developed a method for high-throughput genetics (RB-TDNAseq), using sequence-barcoded Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA insertions. We identified 1337 putative essential genes with low T-DNA insertion rates. We functionally profiled genes required for fatty acid catabolism and lipid accumulation, validating results with 35 targeted deletion strains...
March 9, 2018: ELife
Eric Poliner, Tomomi Takeuchi, Zhi-Yan Du, Christoph Benning, Eva Farre
Utilization of microalgae has been hampered by limited tools for creating loss-of-function mutants. Furthermore, modified strains for deployment into the field must be free of antibiotic resistance genes and face fewer regulatory hurdles if they are transgene free. The oleaginous microalga, Nannochloropsis oceanica CCMP1779, is an emerging model for microalga lipid metabolism. We present a one-vector episomal CRISPR/Cas9 system for N. oceanica that enables the generation of marker-free mutant lines. The CEN/ARS6 region from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was included in the vector to facilitate its maintenance as circular extrachromosal DNA...
March 8, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Eric Poliner, Eva M Farré, Christoph Benning
Nannochloropsis is a genus of fast-growing microalgae that are regularly used for biotechnology applications. Nannochloropsis species have a high triacylglycerol content and their polar lipids are rich in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid. Placed in the heterokont lineage, the Nannochloropsis genus has a complex evolutionary history. Genome sequences are available for several species, and a number of transcriptomic datasets have been produced, making this genus a facile model for comparative genomics...
March 6, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Jiaxin Chen, Ji Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi, Wenyi Dong
Utilization of microbial oil for biodiesel production has gained growing interest due to the increase in prices and the shortage of the oils and fats traditionally used in biodiesel production. However, it is still in the laboratory study stage due to the high cost of production. Employing organic wastes as raw materials to grow heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms for further lipid production to produce biodiesel has been predicted to be a promising method for reducing costs. However, there are many obstacles including the low biodegradability of organic wastes, low lipid accumulation capacity of heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms while using organic wastes, a great dependence on a high-energy consumption approach for biomass harvesting, utilization of toxic organic solvents for lipid extraction, and large amount of methanol required in trans-esterification and in-situ trans-esterifications...
March 6, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Thanongsak Chaiyaso, Wimada Srisuwan, Charin Techapun, Masanori Watanabe, Shinji Takenaka
The new amylolytic oleaginous red yeast, Sporidiobolus pararoseus KX709872, produced both α-amylase (540 ± 0.09 mU/mL) and amyloglucosidase (23 ± 0.00 mU/mL) and showed good ability to directly convert rice residue from canteen waste to biomass and lipids. Effects of medium composition and cultivation conditions on growth and lipid accumulation for strain KX709872 were investigated under shaking-flask and up-scaling levels. At C:N ratio of 25:1, pH 5.45, 22.36°C, and 199.40 rpm for 7 days, volumetric production of biomass and lipids, lipid content, and lipid productivity reached 17...
March 6, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Xiaoyu Ma, Ming Gao, Zhen Gao, Juan Wang, Min Zhang, Yingqun Ma, Qunhui Wang
Microalga-derived biodiesel plays a crucial role in the sustainable development of biodiesel in recent years. Literature related to microalga-derived biodiesel had an increasing trend with the expanding research outputs. Based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) of the Web of Science, a bibliometric analysis was conducted to characterize the body of knowledge on microalga-derived biodiesel between 1993 and 2016. From the 30 most frequently used author keywords, the following research hotspots are extracted: lipid preparation from different microalga species, microalga-derived lipid and environmental applications, lipid-producing microalgae cultivation, microalgae growth reactor, and microalga harvest and lipid extraction...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Eun Ju Yun, James Lee, Do Hyoung Kim, Jungyeon Kim, Sooah Kim, Yong-Su Jin, Kyoung Heon Kim
Lipid production by oleaginous Yarrowia lipolytica depends highly on culture environments, such as carbon sources, carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios, types of media, and cellular growth phases. In this study, the effects of media and carbon sources on lipid and metabolite production were investigated by profiling fatty acids and intracellular metabolites of Y. lipolytica grown in various media. The highest total fatty acid yield 114.04 ± 6.23 mg/g dry cell weight was achieved by Y. lipolytica grown in minimal medium with glycerol (SCG) in the exponential phase...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
F Iasimone, G Zuccaro, V D'Oriano, G Franci, M Galdiero, D Pirozzi, V De Felice, F Pirozzi
A mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi and wastewater native microalgae (mostly Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp.) was performed to enhance lipid and biomass production from urban wastewaters. A 400 L raceway pond, operating outdoors, was designed and used for biomass cultivation. Microalgae and yeast were inoculated into the cultivation pond with a 2:1 inoculum ratio. Their concentrations were monitored for 14 continuous days of batch cultivation. Microalgal growth presented a 3-day initial lag-phase, while yeast growth occurred in the first few days...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Anchalee Sirikhachornkit, Anongpat Suttangkakul, Supachai Vuttipongchaikij, Piyada Juntawong
Nitrogen deprivation (-N) has been used as a technique to promote lipid accumulation in various microalgae. Scenedesmus acutus is a promising oleaginous green microalga that can be cultivated in organic wastewater for biodiesel production. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms controlling S. acutus lipid accumulation in response to -N remain unidentified. Physiological study determined that -N reduced cell growth and photosynthetic pigments. On the other hand, it promoted carbohydrate and neutral lipid accumulation...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xinyi Zan, Xin Tang, Linfang Chu, Yuanda Song
Although the multiple roles of lipases have been reported in yeasts and microalgae, the functions of lipases have not been studied in oleaginous filamentous fungi. Lipase Lip6 has been reported in the oleaginous filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides with the consensus lipase motif GXSXG and the typical acyltransferase motif of H-(X)4-D. To demonstrate that Lip6 might play dual roles as a lipase and an acyltransferase, we performed site-directed mutagenesis in the lipase motif and the acyltransferase motif of Lip6...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hyun Uk Cho, Jong Moon Park
Biodiesel is a biodegradable and renewable fuel. A large amount of research has considered microbial oil production using oleaginous microorganisms, but the commercialization of microbial lipids produced in this way remains uncertain due to the high cost of feedstock or low lipid yield. Microbial lipids can be typically produced by microalgae, yeasts, and bacteria; the lipid yields of these microorganisms can be improved by using sufficient concentrations of organic carbon sources. Therefore, combining low-cost organic compounds contained in organic wastes with cultivation of oleaginous microorganisms can be a promising approach to obtain commercial viability...
February 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sravan Kumar Yellapu, Bharti, Rajwinder Kaur, Lalit R Kumar, Bhagyashree Tiwari, Xiaolei Zhang, Rajeshwar D Tyagi
With increasing global population and depleting resources, there is an apparent demand for radical unprecedented innovation to satisfy the basal needs of lives. Hence, non-conventional renewable energy resources like biodiesel have been worked out in past few decades. Biofuel (e.g. Biodiesel) serves to be the most sustainable answer to solve "food vs. fuel crisis". In biorefinery process, lipid extraction from oleaginous microbial lipids is an integral part as it facilitates the release of fatty acids...
February 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yanbin Liu, Chong Mei John Koh, Sihui Amy Yap, Minge Du, Mya Myintzu Hlaing, Lianghui Ji
BACKGROUND: Rhodotorula toruloides is an outstanding producer of lipids and carotenoids. Currently, information on the key metabolic pathways and their molecular basis of regulation remains scarce, severely limiting efforts to engineer it as an industrial host. RESULTS: We have adapted Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) as a gene-tagging tool for the identification of novel genes in R. toruloides. Multiple factors affecting transformation efficiency in several species in the Pucciniomycotina subphylum were optimized...
February 21, 2018: BMC Microbiology
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