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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231637/preen-oil-and-bird-fitness-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#1
Gregorio Moreno-Rueda
The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Even for functions that are considered valid by most researchers, real evidence is scarce. Although it seems clear that preen oil contributes to plumage maintenance, we do not know whether this is due to a role in reducing mechanical abrasion or in reducing feather degradation by keratinophilic organisms...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228091/exploring-the-transcriptome-of-non-model-oleaginous-microalga-dunaliella-tertiolecta-through-high-throughput-sequencing-and-high-performance-computing
#2
Lina Yao, Kenneth Wei Min Tan, Tin Wee Tan, Yuan Kun Lee
BACKGROUND: RNA-Seq technology has received a lot of attention in recent years for microalgal global transcriptomic profiling. It is widely used in transcriptome-wide analysis of gene expression., particularly for microalgal strains with potential as biofuel sources. However, insufficient genomic or transcriptomic information of non-model microalgae has limited the understanding of their regulatory mechanisms and hampered genetic manipulation to enhance biofuel production. As such, an optimal microalgal transcriptomic database construction is a subject of urgent investigation...
February 22, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220353/exploitation-of-genus-rhodosporidium-for-microbial-lipid-production
#3
REVIEW
Jingyang Xu, Dehua Liu
Oleaginous microorganisms are receiving significant attention worldwide for their utility in biodiesel production and the potentiality to produce some specialty-type lipids. There is an increasing interest in isolation/adaption of robust microbe strains and design of innovative fermentation processes to make microbial lipid production a more efficient and economically feasible bio-process. Currently, the genus Rhodosporidium has been considered an important candidate, for the reason that several strains belonging to this genus have shown excellent capabilities of lipid accumulation, broad adaptabilities to various substrates, and co-production of some carotenoids...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220186/efficient-gene-targeting-in-non-homologous-end-joining-deficient-lipomyces-starkeyi-strains
#4
Yoshifumi Oguro, Harutake Yamazaki, Satoshi Ara, Yosuke Shida, Wataru Ogasawara, Masamichi Takagi, Hiroaki Takaku
Microbial lipids are sustainable feedstock for the production of oleochemicals and biodiesel. Oleaginous yeasts have recently been proposed as alternative lipid producers to plants and animals to promote sustainability in the chemical and fuel industries. The oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi has great industrial potential as an excellent lipid producer. However, improvement of its lipid productivity is essential for the cost-effective production of oleochemicals and fuels. Genetic and metabolic engineering of L...
February 20, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218992/differently-localized-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferases-crucial-for-triacylglycerol-biosynthesis-in-the-oleaginous-alga-nannochloropsis
#5
Takashi Nobusawa, Koichi Hori, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
Production of renewable bioenergy will be necessary to meet rising global fossil fuel demands. Members of the marine microalgae genus Nannochloropsis produce large amounts of oils (triacylglycerols; TAGs), and this genus is regarded as one of the most promising for biodiesel production. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies on Nannochloropsis have provided a foundation for understanding its oleaginous trait, but the mechanism underlying oil accumulation remains to be clarified. Here we report Nannochloropsis knockout strains of four extraplastidic lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAT1-4), which catalyze a major de novo biosynthetic step of TAGs and membrane lipids...
February 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217743/regulation-of-nitrogen-metabolism-by-gata-zinc-finger-transcription-factors-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#6
Kyle R Pomraning, Erin L Bredeweg, Scott E Baker
Fungi accumulate lipids in a manner dependent on the quantity and quality of the nitrogen source on which they are growing. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, growth on a complex source of nitrogen enables rapid growth and limited accumulation of neutral lipids, while growth on a simple nitrogen source promotes lipid accumulation in large lipid droplets. Here we examined the roles of nitrogen catabolite repression and its regulation by GATA zinc finger transcription factors on lipid metabolism in Y...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213136/systematic-development-of-a-two-stage-fed-batch-process-for-lipid-accumulation-in-rhodotorula-glutinis
#7
Eric Lorenz, Dennis Runge, Anna-Maria Marbà-Ardébol, Maximilian Schmacht, Ulf Stahl, Martin Senz
The application of oleaginous yeast cells as feed supplement, for instance in aqua culture, can be a meaningful alternative for fish meal and oil additives. Therefore, a two-stage fed-batch process split into growth and lipogenesis phase was systematically developed to enrich the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Rh-00301 with high amounts of lipids at industrial relevant biomasses. Thereby, the different carbon sources glucose, sucrose and glycerol were investigated concerning their abilities to serve as a suited raw material for growth and/or lipid accumulation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194497/erratum-to-development-of-a-sufficient-and-effective-procedure-for-transformation-of-an-oleaginous-yeast-rhodosporidium-toruloides-dmku3-tk16
#8
Yung-Yu Tsai, Takao Ohashi, Takenori Kanazawa, Pirapan Polburee, Ryo Misaki, Savitree Limtong, Kazuhito Fujiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188651/the-torc1-sch9-rim15-signaling-pathway-represses-yeast-to-hypha-transition-in-response-to-glycerol-availability-in-the-oleaginous-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica
#9
Shu-Heng Liang, Heng Wu, Rui-Rui Wang, Qiang Wang, Tao Shu, Xiang-Dong Gao
The yeast-to-hypha dimorphic transition is important for survival under nutrient starvation in fungi. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica grows in the oval-shaped yeast form in glycerol media whereas it adopts a filamentous form in glucose media. It is not clear why this yeast responds differently to glycerol and glucose. Here, we show that glycerol blocks dimorphic transition even in the presence of glucose whereas glycerol depletion induces filamentous growth, suggesting that dimorphic transition is repressed in response to glycerol availability...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188644/rnai-based-targeted-gene-knockdown-in-the-model-oleaginous-microalgae-nannochloropsis-oceanica
#10
Li Wei, Yi Xin, Qintao Wang, Juan Yang, Hanhua Hu, Jian Xu
Microalgae are promising feedstock for renewable fuels such as biodiesel, yet development of industrial oleaginous strains has been hindered by the paucity and inefficiency of reverse genetics tools. Here we established an efficient RNAi-based targeted gene-knockdown method for Nannochloropsis spp., which are emerging model organisms for industrial microalgal oil production. The method achieved a 40-80% success rate in Nannochloropsis oceanica strain IMET1. When transcript level of one carbonic anhydrase (CA) was inhibited by 62-83% via RNAi, mutant cells exhibited photosynthetic oxygen evolution (POE) rates that were 68-100% higher than wild-type (WT) at pH 6...
November 7, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169024/a-sustainable-use-of-ricotta-cheese-whey-for-microbial-biodiesel-production
#11
Eleonora Carota, Silvia Crognale, Alessandro D'Annibale, Anna Maria Gallo, Silvia Rita Stazi, Maurizio Petruccioli
The increasing demand of plant oils for biodiesel production has highlighted the need for alternative strategies based either on non-food crops or agro-industrial wastes that do not compete with food and feed production. In this context, the combined use of wastewater and oleaginous microorganisms could be a valuable production option. Ricotta cheese whey (RCW), one of the major byproducts of the dairy industry, is produced in very high and steadily increasing amounts and, due to its high organic load, its disposal is cost-prohibitive...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168314/cocoa-butter-like-lipid-production-ability-of-non-oleaginous-and-oleaginous-yeasts-under-nitrogen-limited-culture-conditions
#12
Yongjun Wei, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN...
February 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155157/nile-red-staining-of-neutral-lipids-in-yeast
#13
Kerry Ann Rostron, Clare Louise Lawrence
Determination of cellular neutral lipid levels in yeast is important for both the biotechnology industry and biomedical research. However, many of the currently available methods are labor intensive and time consuming. Here we describe a rapid and repeatable method for the detection of neutral lipids, which can be utilized in both oleaginous and non-oleaginous yeast species. The method utilizes the fluorescent dye, Nile red, which enables neutral lipid levels to either be visualized via microscopy or quantified using a 96-well plate assay...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149324/exploring-eukaryotic-formate-metabolisms-to-enhance-microbial-growth-and-lipid-accumulation
#14
Zhiguo Liu, Tolutola Oyetunde, Whitney D Hollinshead, Anna Hermanns, Yinjie J Tang, Wei Liao, Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: C1 substrates (such as formate and methanol) are promising feedstock for biochemical/biofuel production. Numerous studies have been focusing on engineering heterologous pathways to incorporate C1 substrates into biomass, while the engineered microbial hosts often demonstrate inferior fermentation performance due to substrate toxicity, metabolic burdens from engineered pathways, and poor enzyme activities. Alternatively, exploring native C1 pathways in non-model microbes could be a better solution to address these challenges...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144888/characterization-and-robust-nature-of-newly-isolated-oleaginous-marine-yeast-rhodosporidium-spp-from-coastal-water-of-northern-china
#15
Qiuzhen Wang, Yan Cui, Biswarup Sen, Wenmeng Ma, Rose Lynn Zheng, Xianhua Liu, Guangyi Wang
A total of ten marine yeast strains isolated from Bohai Sea, Northern China were identified to be members of three genera Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Cryptococcus. Two representative strains Rhodosporidium TJUWZ4 and Cryptococcus TJUWZA11 with high lipid content based on Nile red staining method were further characterized. A wide range of culture conditions (C and N sources, pH, temperature, salinity and C/N ratio) were tested to characterize the biomass and lipid production (yield and productivity) of these strains...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141499/streptomyces-jeddahensis-sp-nov-an-oleaginous-bacterium-isolated-from-desert-soil
#16
Annika Röttig, Ewelina Atasayar, Jan Philipp Meier-Kolthoff, Cathrin Spröer, Peter Schumann, Jennifer Schauer, Alexander Steinbüchel
A novel strain, G25T, was isolated from desert soil collected near Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. It can accumulate nearly 65% fatty acids of its cell dry weight, grows on a broad range of carbon sources, and tolerates temperatures of up to 50°C. According to its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain G25T is most closely related to Streptomyces massasporeus DSM 40035T, Streptomyces hawaiiensis DSM 40042T, Streptomyces indiaensis DSM 43803T, Streptomyces luteogriseus DSM 40483T, and Streptomyces purpurascens DSM 40310T. Conventional DNA:DNA hybridization (DDH) values ranged from 18...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133594/online-flow-cytometry-an-interesting-investigation-process-for-monitoring-lipid-accumulation-dimorphism-and-cells-growth-in-the-oleaginous-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica-jmy-775
#17
Doria Naila Bouchedja, Sabine Danthine, Tambi Kar, Patrick Fickers, Abdelghani Boudjellal, Frank Delvigne
This study aims to understand and better control the main biological mechanisms and parameters modulating the various phenomena affecting Yarrowia lipolytica JMY775 and its lipids accumulation. The results obtained in this study stress forward that the use of an original tool, consisting of coupling bioreactors to online flow cytometry, is highly efficient. Throughout 48 h of culturing, this emerging process allowed an online continuous observation of the effects of pH and/or aeration on the cell growth and dimorphism and lipid accumulation by Y...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130766/converting-chemical-oxygen-demand-cod-of-cellulosic-ethanol-fermentation-wastewater-into-microbial-lipid-by-oleaginous-yeast-trichosporon-cutaneum
#18
Juan Wang, Mingshan Hu, Huizhan Zhang, Jie Bao
Cellulosic ethanol fermentation wastewater is the stillage stream of distillation column of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth with high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD is required to reduce before the wastewater is released or recycled. Without any pretreatment nor external nutrients, the cellulosic ethanol fermentation wastewater bioconversion by Trichosporon cutaneum ACCC 20271 was carried out for the first time. The major components of the wastewater including glucose, xylose, acetic acid, ethanol, and partial of phenolic compounds could be utilized by T...
January 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130036/construction-of-a-biobrick%C3%A2-compatible-vector-system-for-rhodococcus
#19
James Ellinger, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert
Throughout the past decade, the field of synthetic biology has grown rapidly. By using assembly platforms such as BioBricks™, scientists can quickly and easily build gene circuits or multi-step pathways. One limitation, however, is that most of these parts were designed and characterized with Escherichia coli as the target chassis. As a consequence, there exists a lack of standardized and well characterized or BioBrick™ compatible plasmid backbones that replicate in other potential non-model chassis organisms...
January 24, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118388/ftir-spectroscopy-for-evaluation-and-monitoring-of-lipid-extraction-efficiency-for-oleaginous-fungi
#20
Kristin Forfang, Boris Zimmermann, Gergely Kosa, Achim Kohler, Volha Shapaval
To assess whether Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could be used to evaluate and monitor lipid extraction processes, the extraction methods of Folch, Bligh and Lewis were used. Biomass of the oleaginous fungi Mucor circinelloides and Mortierella alpina were employed as lipid-rich material for the lipid extraction. The presence of lipids was determined by recording infrared spectra of all components in the lipid extraction procedure, such as the biomass before and after extraction, the water and extract phases...
2017: PloS One
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