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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446040/characteristics-of-socially-withdrawn-youth-in-france-a-retrospective-study
#1
Nicolas Chauliac, Audrey Couillet, Sophie Faivre, Nassima Brochard, Jean-Louis Terra
BACKGROUND: Poor social interactions have been recognized as a symptom since the beginnings of psychiatry. As far as socially withdrawn youth (SWY) are concerned, studies were mostly conducted on patients seeking care. Our psychiatric outreach team called Psymobile was able to reach SWY patients who were not seeking mental health care. AIMS: To identify the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of SWY patients referred to our Psymobile unit. METHOD: We carried out a retrospective study on the records of patients aged 18-34 years, who were referred to Psymobile for 'withdrawal', between April 2012 and December 2015...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394805/factors-associated-with-fecal-incontinence-in-women-of-childbearing-age-with-crohn-s-disease
#2
Charlène Brochard, Laurent Siproudhis, Jean Levêque, Amélie Grouin, Anne-Laure Mallet, Jean-François Bretagne, Alain Ropert, Guillaume Bouguen
BACKGROUND: Fecal incontinence is common in women with Crohn's disease, but little is known about the impact of childbirth, perianal Crohn's disease, and past surgical history on fecal incontinence. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to consecutive women referred to a tertiary gastroenterology centre with a focus on fecal incontinence and childbirth. These data were cross-referenced with a prospective database of the same patients' own Crohn's disease histories...
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372575/implementing-a-bedside-assessment-of-respiratory-mechanics-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#3
Lu Chen, Guang-Qiang Chen, Kevin Shore, Orest Shklar, Concetta Martins, Brian Devenyi, Paul Lindsay, Heather McPhail, Ashley Lanys, Ibrahim Soliman, Mazin Tuma, Michael Kim, Kerri Porretta, Pamela Greco, Hilary Every, Chris Hayes, Andrew Baker, Jan O Friedrich, Laurent Brochard
BACKGROUND: Despite their potential interest for clinical management, measurements of respiratory mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are seldom performed in routine practice. We introduced a systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in our clinical practice. After the first year of clinical use, we retrospectively assessed whether these measurements had any influence on clinical management and physiological parameters associated with clinical outcomes by comparing their value before and after performing the test...
April 4, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341853/non-cell-autonomous-role-of-dcc-in-the-guidance-of-the-corticospinal-tract-at-the-midline
#4
Quentin Welniarz, Marie-Pierre Morel, Oriane Pourchet, Cécile Gallea, Jean-Charles Lamy, Massimo Cincotta, Mohamed Doulazmi, Morgane Belle, Aurélie Méneret, Oriane Trouillard, Marta Ruiz, Vanessa Brochard, Sabine Meunier, Alain Trembleau, Marie Vidailhet, Alain Chédotal, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze
DCC, a NETRIN-1 receptor, is considered as a cell-autonomous regulator for midline guidance of many commissural populations in the central nervous system. The corticospinal tract (CST), the principal motor pathway for voluntary movements, crosses the anatomic midline at the pyramidal decussation. CST fails to cross the midline in Kanga mice expressing a truncated DCC protein. Humans with heterozygous DCC mutations have congenital mirror movements (CMM). As CMM has been associated, in some cases, with malformations of the pyramidal decussation, DCC might also be involved in this process in human...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341535/as-a-nucleus-enters-a-small-pore-chromatin-stretches-and-maintains-integrity-even-with-dna-breaks
#5
Jerome Irianto, Yuntao Xia, Charlotte R Pfeifer, Roger A Greenberg, Dennis E Discher
As a cell pushes or pulls its nucleus through a small constriction, the chromatin must distort and somehow maintain genomic stability despite ever-present double-strand breaks in the DNA. Here we visualize within a living cell the pore-size dependent deformation of a specific locus engineered into chromosome-1 and cleaved. An mCherry-tagged nuclease targets the submicron locus, causing DNA cleavage and recruiting repair factors such as GFP-53BP1 to a large region around the locus. Aspiration of a cell and its nucleus into a micropipette shows that chromatin aligns and stretches parallel to the pore...
February 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320442/analysis-of-monocyte-infiltration-in-mptp-mice-reveals-that-microglial-cx3cr1-protects-against-neurotoxic-over-induction-of-monocyte-attracting-ccl2-by-astrocytes
#6
Vincent R Parillaud, Guillaume Lornet, Yann Monnet, Anne-Laure Privat, Andrei T Haddad, Vanessa Brochard, Amaury Bekaert, Camille Baudesson de Chanville, Etienne C Hirsch, Christophe Combadière, Stéphane Hunot, Christian S Lobsiger
BACKGROUND: Evidence from mice suggests that brain infiltrating immune cells contribute to neurodegeneration, and we previously identified a deleterious lymphocyte infiltration in Parkinson's disease mice. However, this remains controversial for monocytes, due to artifact-prone techniques used to distinguish them from microglia. Our aim was to reassess this open question, by taking advantage of the recent recognition that chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 can differentiate between inflammatory monocytes and microglia, enabling to test whether CCR2(+) monocytes infiltrate the brain during dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration and whether they contribute to neuronal death...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306327/fifty-years-of-research-in-ards-respiratory-mechanics-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#7
William R Henderson, Lu Chen, Marcelo B P Amato, Laurent J Brochard
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a multifactorial lung injury that continues to be associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Mechanical ventilation, while lifesaving, is associated with new iatrogenic injury. Current best practice involves the use of small tidal volumes, low plateau and driving pressures, and high levels of positive end expiratory pressure. Collectively, these interventions are termed "lung protective ventilation". Recent investigations suggest that individualized measurements of pulmonary mechanical variables rather than population based ventilation prescriptions may be used to set the ventilator with the potential to improve outcomes beyond those achieved with standard lung protective ventilation...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271555/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-presenting-as-secondary-syphilis-with-polymorphous-erythema-and-knee-arthritis
#8
LETTER
J Brochard, L Khatchatourian, P Woaye-Hune, C Biron, M Lefebvre, M Denis-Musquer, P Grange, N Dupin, F Raffi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257702/gene-resistance-to-transcriptional-reprogramming-following-nuclear-transfer-is-directly-mediated-by-multiple-chromatin-repressive-pathways
#9
Jerome Jullien, Munender Vodnala, Vincent Pasque, Mami Oikawa, Kei Miyamoto, George Allen, Sarah Anne David, Vincent Brochard, Stan Wang, Charles Bradshaw, Haruhiko Koseki, Vittorio Sartorelli, Nathalie Beaujean, John Gurdon
Understanding the mechanism of resistance of genes to reactivation will help improve the success of nuclear reprogramming. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast nuclei with normal or reduced DNA methylation in combination with chromatin modifiers able to erase H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and H2AK119ub1 from transplanted nuclei, we reveal the basis for resistance of genes to transcriptional reprogramming by oocyte factors. A majority of genes is affected by more than one type of treatment, suggesting that resistance can require repression through multiple epigenetic mechanisms...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251732/3d-high-definition-anorectal-manometry-values-obtained-in-asymptomatic-volunteers-fecal-incontinence-and-chronic-constipation-results-of-a-prospective-multicenter-study-nomad
#10
F Mion, A Garros, C Brochard, V Vitton, A Ropert, M Bouvier, H Damon, L Siproudhis, S Roman
BACKGROUND: 3D-high definition anorectal manometry (3DARM) may aid the diagnosis of functional anorectal disorders, but data comparing asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects are scarce. We aimed to describe 3DARM values in asymptomatic volunteers and those with fecal incontinence (FI) or chronic constipation (CC), and identify which variables differentiate best these groups. METHODS: Asymptomatic subjects were stratified by sex, age, and parity. Those with FI or CC were included according to anorectal symptom questionnaires...
March 2, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229523/pathophysiology-of-fecal-incontinence-in-obese-patients-a-prospective-case-matched-study-of-201-patients
#11
C Brochard, A Vénara, A Bodère, A Ropert, G Bouguen, L Siproudhis
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an emerging risk factor for fecal incontinence (FI). The aim of this study was to characterize pathophysiologic mechanisms of FI in obese patients compared with non-obese patients in a prospective case-matched study. METHODS: The general characteristics and data of the anorectal manometry and endosonography of patients who were evaluated for FI at a single institution from 2005 to 2015 were prospectively assessed. Fecal incontinence was defined by a Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) >4...
February 23, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178424/reply-selection-bias-in-study-participants-with-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure
#12
Dan Adler, Laurent Brochard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152992/absence-of-multiplicative-interactions-between-occupational-lung-carcinogens-and-tobacco-smoking-a-systematic-review-involving-asbestos-crystalline-silica-and-diesel-engine-exhaust-emissions
#13
Mohamad El Zoghbi, Pascale Salameh, Isabelle Stücker, Patrick Brochard, Fleur Delva, Aude Lacourt
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. METHODS: Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time...
February 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137269/a-diaphragmatic-electrical-activity-based-optimization-strategy-during-pressure-support-ventilation-improves-synchronization-but-does-not-impact-work-of-breathing
#14
Francois Beloncle, Lise Piquilloud, Nuttapol Rittayamai, Christer Sinderby, Hadrien Rozé, Laurent Brochard
BACKGROUND: Poor patient-ventilator synchronization is often observed during pressure support ventilation (PSV) and has been associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and poor outcome. Diaphragmatic electrical activity (Eadi) recorded using specialized nasogastric tubes is a surrogate of respiratory brain stem output. This study aimed at testing whether adapting ventilator settings during PSV using a protocolized Eadi-based optimization strategy, or Eadi-triggered and -cycled assisted pressure ventilation (or PSVN) could (1) improve patient-ventilator interaction and (2) reduce or normalize patient respiratory effort as estimated by the work of breathing (WOB) and the pressure time product (PTP)...
January 31, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108768/severe-hypercapnia-and-outcome-of-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-moderate-or-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#15
Nicolas Nin, Alfonso Muriel, Oscar Peñuelas, Laurent Brochard, José Angel Lorente, Niall D Ferguson, Konstantinos Raymondos, Fernando Ríos, Damian A Violi, Arnaud W Thille, Marco González, Asisclo J Villagomez, Javier Hurtado, Andrew R Davies, Bin Du, Salvatore M Maggiore, Luis Soto, Gabriel D'Empaire, Dimitrios Matamis, Fekri Abroug, Rui P Moreno, Marco Antonio Soares, Yaseen Arabi, Freddy Sandi, Manuel Jibaja, Pravin Amin, Younsuck Koh, Michael A Kuiper, Hans-Henrik Bülow, Amine Ali Zeggwagh, Antonio Anzueto, Jacob I Sznajder, Andres Esteban
PURPOSE: To analyze the relationship between hypercapnia developing within the first 48 h after the start of mechanical ventilation and outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of three prospective non-interventional cohort studies focusing on ARDS patients from 927 intensive care units (ICUs) in 40 countries. These patients received mechanical ventilation for more than 12 h during 1-month periods in 1998, 2004, and 2010...
February 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074228/ventilation-induced-lung-injury-exists-in-spontaneously-breathing-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-yes
#16
EDITORIAL
Laurent Brochard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029545/highly-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-methods-for-urinary-biological-monitoring-of-occupational-exposure-to-cyclophosphamide-ifosfamide-and-methotrexate-antineoplastic-drugs-and-routine-application
#17
Mireille Canal-Raffin, Karim Khennoufa, Béatrice Martinez, Yves Goujon, Celia Folch, Dominique Ducint, Karine Titier, Patrick Brochard, Catherine Verdun-Esquer, Mathieu Molimard
Highly sensitive ESI-LC-MS/MS methods were developed for urinary biological monitoring of occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP), ifosfamide (IF), and methotrexate (MTX), which are hazardous antineoplastic drugs frequently handled by healthcare professionals. Extraction methods consisted of liquid/liquid extraction for simultaneous urinary CP and IF assays, and of solid phase extraction for the urinary MTX assay. A good linearity (r2>0.997), precision (CV<14.6%), and accuracy (bias<9.9%) were achieved for all compounds...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027085/bispectral-index-can-reliably-detect-deep-sedation-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-prospective-multicenter-validation-study
#18
Zhu-Heng Wang, Han Chen, Yan-Lin Yang, Zhong-Hua Shi, Qing-Hua Guo, Yu-Wei Li, Li-Ping Sun, Wei Qiao, Guan-Hua Zhou, Rong-Guo Yu, Kai Yin, Xuan He, Ming Xu, Laurent J Brochard, Jian-Xin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Excessively deep sedation is prevalent in mechanically ventilated patients and often considered suboptimal. We hypothesized that the bispectral index (BIS), a quantified electroencephalogram instrument, would accurately detect deep levels of sedation. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 90 critically ill mechanically ventilated patients who were receiving sedation. The BIS was monitored for 24 hours and compared with the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) evaluated every 4 hours...
December 22, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987468/neurotomy-of-the-rectus-femoris-nerve-short-term-effectiveness-for-spastic-stiff-knee-gait-clinical-assessment-and-quantitative-gait-analysis
#19
R Gross, J Robertson, F Leboeuf, O Hamel, S Brochard, B Perrouin-Verbe
BACKGROUND: Stiff knee gait is a troublesome gait disturbance related to spastic paresis, frequently associated with overactivity of the rectus femoris muscle in the swing phase of gait. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the short-term effects of rectus femoris neurotomy for the treatment of spastic stiff-knee gait in patients with hemiparesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An Intervention study (before-after trial) with an observational design was carried out in a university hospital...
November 19, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973930/comorbidities-and-subgroups-of-patients-surviving-severe-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-in-the-icu
#20
Dan Adler, Jean-Louis Pépin, Elise Dupuis-Lozeron, Katerina Espa-Cervena, Roselyne Merlet-Violet, Hajo Muller, Jean-Paul Janssens, Laurent Brochard
RATIONALE: No methodical assessment of the lung, cardiac and sleep function of patients surviving an acute hypercapnic respiratory failure episode requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) has been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively investigate the prevalence and impact of comorbidities in patients treated by mechanical ventilator support (invasive or non-invasive) for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in the ICU. METHODS: Seventy-eight consecutive patients admitted for an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure underwent an assessment of lung, cardiac and sleep function by pulmonary function tests, transthoracic echocardiography and polysomnography 3 months after ICU discharge...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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