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Zebrafish beta cell

Yanming Li, Qian Zhang, Zhenglin Du, ZhiChao Lu, Shuge Liu, Lu Zhang, Nan Ding, Binghao Bao, Yadong Yang, Qian Xiong, Hai Wang, Zhaojun Zhang, Hongzhu Qu, Haibo Jia, Xiangdong Fang
Previous studies on erythropoiesis revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in erythroid differentiation. Given the abundance of identified miRNAs and the limited understanding of erythroid miRNAs, additional examination is required. Here, two sets of erythroid differentiation miRNome data were analysed to screen for novel erythroid-inhibiting miRNAs. MIR200A was selected based on its pattern of downregulated expression in the miRNome datasets during induction of erythroid differentiation. Overexpression of MIR200A in K562 and TF-1 cells confirmed its inhibitory role in erythroid differentiation...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Edward Málaga-Trillo, Katharina Ochs
Prions and Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides induce synaptic damage via complex mechanisms that include the pathological alteration of intracellular signaling cascades. The host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) acts as a high-affinity cell surface receptor for both toxic species and it can modulate the endocytic trafficking of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and E-cadherin adhesive complexes via Src family kinases (SFKs). Interestingly, SFK-mediated control of endocytosis is a widespread mechanism used to regulate the activity of important transmembrane proteins, including neuroreceptors for major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters...
September 20, 2016: Prion
Jie Yang, Junnai Wang, Zhen Zeng, Long Qiao, Liang Zhuang, Lijun Jiang, Juncheng Wei, Quanfu Ma, Mingfu Wu, Shuangmei Ye, Qinglei Gao, Ding Ma, Xiaoyuan Huang
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates cellular functions and plays key roles in development and carcinogenesis. Smad4 is the central intracellular mediator of TGF-beta signaling and plays crucial roles in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, regulation of the immune system and tumor progression. To clarify the role of smad4 in development, we examined both the pattern of smad4 expression in zebrafish embryos and the effect of smad4 suppression on embryonic development using smad4-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides...
July 28, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Chao Jiang, Bing Qin, Guohua Liu, Xiantao Sun, Houxia Shi, Sijia Ding, Yuan Liu, Meidong Zhu, Xue Chen, Chen Zhao
Dedifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells is a crucial contributing factor to the pathology of retinal degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Herein, we aim to reveal the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in RPE dedifferentiation and seek for potential therapeutic targets. Based on the microarray data, miR-184 was sorted out as the most up-regulated signature along with the differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to RPE cells, suggesting its potential promotive role in RPE differentiation...
July 13, 2016: Oncotarget
R A Kimmel, D Meyer
The vertebrate pancreas is composed of acinar tissue that produces digestive enzymes, a ductal system for transporting those enzymes, and the endocrine islets which produce hormones critical for organism glucose homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted similarities between zebrafish and mammals in organ development, and increasingly reveal that the regulation of metabolic homeostasis is highly conserved as well. Use of zebrafish as a model organism, with its ease of genetic manipulation, high fecundity, and ready access for imaging, has been highly productive for studies of islet cell development...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
T F Schilling, J Sosnik, Q Nie
Morphogens were originally defined as secreted signaling molecules that diffuse from local sources to form concentration gradients, which specify multiple cell fates. More recently morphogen gradients have been shown to incorporate a range of mechanisms including short-range signal activation, transcriptional/translational feedback, and temporal windows of target gene induction. Many critical cell-cell signals implicated in both embryonic development and disease, such as Wnt, fibroblast growth factor (Fgf), hedgehog (Hh), transforming growth factor beta (TGFb), and retinoic acid (RA), are thought to act as morphogens, but key information on signal propagation and ligand distribution has been lacking for most...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Julia Hatzold, Filippo Beleggia, Hannah Herzig, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Wilhelm Bloch, Bernd Wollnik, Matthias Hammerschmidt
The molecular pathways underlying tumor suppression are incompletely understood. Here, we identify cooperative non-cell-autonomous functions of a single gene that together provide a novel mechanism of tumor suppression in basal keratinocytes of zebrafish embryos. A loss-of-function mutation in atp1b1a, encoding the beta subunit of a Na,K-ATPase pump, causes edema and epidermal malignancy. Strikingly, basal cell carcinogenesis only occurs when Atp1b1a function is compromised in both the overlying periderm (resulting in compromised epithelial polarity and adhesiveness) and in kidney and heart (resulting in hypotonic stress)...
2016: ELife
Yingli Shi, Jianhai Xiang, Guangzhou Zhou, Tetsuzan Benny Ron, Hsin-I Tong, Wen Kang, Si Sun, Yuanan Lu
A newly isolated Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) beta-actin promoter SbaP and its derivative compact construct SbaP (ENX) have recently been demonstrated to promote ectopic gene expression in vitro and in vivo. To further explore the potential transduction application, this newly isolated shrimp promoter SbaP was comparatively tested with cytomegalovirus (CMV), simian virus 40 (SV40), polyhedrin (Polh), and white spot syndrome virus immediate early gene 1 (WSSV ie1) four constitutive promoters and a beta-actin promoter (TbaP) from tilapia fish to characterize its promoting function in eight different cell lines...
June 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Mai Abdel Mouti, Christopher Dee, Sarah E Coupland, Adam F L Hurlstone
Mutations affecting Gαq proteins are pervasive in uveal melanoma (UM), suggesting they 'drive' UM pathogenesis. The ERK1/2-MAPK pathway is critical for cutaneous melanoma development and consequently an important therapeutic target. Defining the contribution of ERK1/2-MAPK signalling to UM development has been hampered by the lack of an informative animal model that spontaneously develops UM. Towards this end, we engineered transgenic zebrafish to express oncogenic GNAQQ209P in the melanocyte lineage. This resulted in hyperplasia of uveal melanocytes, but with no evidence of malignant progression, nor perturbation of skin melanocytes...
May 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Eric Samarut, Abdelhamid Bekri, Pierre Drapeau
How is the initial set of neurons correctly established during the development of the vertebrate central nervous system? In the embryo, glycine and GABA are depolarizing due the immature chloride gradient, which is only reversed to become hyperpolarizing later in post-natal development. We previously showed that glycine regulates neurogenesis via paracrine signaling that promotes calcium transients in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their differentiation into interneurons within the spinal cord of the zebrafish embryo...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Barbara Verstraeten, Jolanda van Hengel, Ann Huysseune
We analyzed the protein distribution of two cadherin-associated molecules, plakoglobin and β-catenin, during the different stages of tooth development and tooth replacement in zebrafish. Plakoglobin was detected at the plasma membrane already at the onset of tooth development in the epithelial cells of the tooth. This pattern remained unaltered during further tooth development. The mesenchymal cells only showed plakoglobin from cytodifferentiation onwards. Plakoglobin 1a morpholino-injected embryos showed normal tooth development with proper initiation and differentiation...
2016: PloS One
Bo-Kai Wu, Rey-Yue Yuan, Huang-Wei Lien, Chin-Chun Hung, Pung-Pung Hwang, Rita Pei-Yeh Chen, Chun-Che Chang, Yung-Feng Liao, Chang-Jen Huang
BACKGROUND: The axonal tau protein is a tubulin-binding protein, which plays important roles in the formation and stability of the microtubule. Mutations in the tau gene are associated with familial forms of frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome-17 (FTDP-17). Paired helical filaments of tau and extracellular plaques containing beta-amyloid are found in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. RESULTS: Transgenic models, including those of zebrafish, have been employed to elucidate the mechanisms by which tau protein causes neurodegeneration...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Lihua Ye, Morgan A Robertson, Teresa L Mastracci, Ryan M Anderson
As one of the key nutrient sensors, insulin signaling plays an important role in integrating environmental energy cues with organism growth. In adult organisms, relative insufficiency of insulin signaling induces compensatory expansion of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta (β) cells. However, little is known about how insulin signaling feedback might influence neogenesis of β cells during embryonic development. Using genetic approaches and a unique cell transplantation system in developing zebrafish, we have uncovered a novel role for insulin signaling in the negative regulation of pancreatic progenitor cell differentiation...
January 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Hong-Ling Peng, Yi-Fang Yi, Shun-Ke Zhou, Si-Si Xie, Guang-Sen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasia, and arteriovenous malformations. The efficacy of traditional treatments for HHT is very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic role of thalidomide in HHT patients and the effect in FLI-EGFP transgenic zebrafish model. METHODS: HHT was diagnosed according to Shovlin criteria. Five HHT patients were treated with thalidomide (100 mg/d)...
November 20, 2015: Chinese Medical Journal
Robin A Kimmel, Stefan Dobler, Nicole Schmitner, Tanja Walsen, Julia Freudenblum, Dirk Meyer
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by disrupted glucose homeostasis due to loss or dysfunction of insulin-producing beta cells. In this work, we characterize pancreatic islet development and function in zebrafish mutant for pdx1, a gene which in humans is linked to genetic forms of diabetes and is associated with increased susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes. Pdx1 mutant zebrafish have the key diabetic features of reduced beta cells, decreased insulin and elevated glucose. The hyperglycemia responds to pharmacologic anti-diabetic treatment and, as often seen in mammalian diabetes models, beta cells of pdx1 mutants show sensitivity to nutrient overload...
2015: Scientific Reports
Aurélie P Ghaye, David Bergemann, Estefania Tarifeño-Saldivia, Lydie C Flasse, Virginie Von Berg, Bernard Peers, Marianne L Voz, Isabelle Manfroid
BACKGROUND: In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors...
2015: BMC Biology
Chen-Hui Chen, Alexander F Merriman, Jeremiah Savage, Jason Willer, Taylor Wahlig, Nicholas Katsanis, Viravuth P Yin, Kenneth D Poss
The first critical stage in salamander or teleost appendage regeneration is creation of a specialized epidermis that instructs growth from underlying stump tissue. Here, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutations that impair this process in amputated zebrafish fins. Positional cloning and complementation assays identified a temperature-sensitive allele of the ECM component laminin beta 1a (lamb1a) that blocks fin regeneration. lamb1a, but not its paralog lamb1b, is sharply induced in a subset of epithelial cells after fin amputation, where it is required to establish and maintain a polarized basal epithelial cell layer...
August 2015: PLoS Genetics
Andrés Kamaid, Tonatiuh Molina-Villa, Valentín Mendoza, Cristina Pujades, Ernesto Maldonado, Juan Carlos Ispizua Belmonte, Fernando López-Casillas
Angiogenesis is an essential requirement for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Its deregulation is a key feature of numerous pathologies and many studies have shown that members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family of proteins play important roles in angiogenesis during development and disease. Betaglycan (BG), also known as TGF-β receptor type III, is a TGF-β co-receptor essential for mice embryonic development but its role in angiogenesis has not been described. We have cloned the cDNA encoding zebrafish BG, a TGF-β-binding membrane proteoglycan that showed a dynamic expression pattern in zebrafish embryos, including the notochord and cells adjacent to developing vessels...
July 15, 2015: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
C A Shea, R A Rolfe, P Murphy
Construction of a functional skeleton is accomplished through co-ordination of the developmental processes of chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and synovial joint formation. Infants whose movement in utero is reduced or restricted and who subsequently suffer from joint dysplasia (including joint contractures) and thin hypo-mineralised bones, demonstrate that embryonic movement is crucial for appropriate skeletogenesis. This has been confirmed in mouse, chick, and zebrafish animal models, where reduced or eliminated movement consistently yields similar malformations and which provide the possibility of experimentation to uncover the precise disturbances and the mechanisms by which movement impacts molecular regulation...
July 2015: Bone & Joint Research
K V Dolgushin, N V Petrova, E S Iudinkova, S V Razin, O V Iarovaia
In the domain model of eukaryotic genome organization, the functional unit of the genome, along with the relevant regulatory elements, is considered to be a gene or a gene family. In hot-blooded vertebrate animals, the domains of a- and b-globin genes are positioned at different chromosomes and are organized and regulated in different fashion. In cold-blooded animals, in particular in tropical fish Danio rerio, a- and b globin genes are located in a common gene cluster. However, the joint a/b-globin gene cluster is subdivided into two development stage-specific subdomains, the adult one and the embryonic-larval one...
May 2015: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
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