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Inflammasome neurodegeneration

F Guerriero, C Sgarlata, M Francis, N Maurizi, A Faragli, S Perna, M Rondanelli, M Rollone, G Ricevuti
Due to an increasingly aging population, Alzheimer disease (AD) represents a crucial issue for the healthcare system because of its widespread prevalence and the burden of its care needs. Several hypotheses on AD pathogenesis have been proposed and current therapeutical strategies have shown limited effectiveness. In the last decade, more evidence has supported a role for neuroinflammation and immune system dysregulation in AD. It remains unclear whether astrocytes, microglia and immune cells influence disease onset, progression or both...
October 7, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Je-Wook Yu, Myung-Shik Lee
The NLRP3 inflammasome is assembled and activated in certain types of myeloid cells upon sensing microbe-derived toxins or host-derived danger signals. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by endogenous ligands has been discovered in various disorders, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout, reperfusion injury of the heart, neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease, chronic kidney diseases, and macular degeneration of the eyes. Despite the potential significance of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of several diseases, details on the activation mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome by a variety of stimulators have yet to be reported...
September 7, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Yang Pan, Bo Shen, Qin Gao, Jun Zhu, Jingde Dong, Li Zhang, Yingdong Zhang
Neuroinflammation has been recognized as a factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that peripheral inflammation, besides neuroinflammation, functions as a modulator of disease progression and neuropathology in several neurodegenerative diseases. However, detailed correlations among peripheral inflammation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration remain unknown. In the present study, we prepared a peripheral inflammation model with lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW264...
May 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
Nikolett Lénárt, David Brough, Ádám Dénes
The role of inflammation in neurological disorders is increasingly recognised. Inflammatory processes are associated with the aetiology and clinical progression of migraine, psychiatric conditions, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, dementia and neurodegeneration, such as seen in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Both central and systemic inflammatory actions have been linked with the development of brain diseases, suggesting that complex neuro-immune interactions could contribute to pathological changes in the brain across multiple temporal and spatial scales...
October 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Alba Jimenez-Pacheco, Miguel Diaz-Hernandez, Marina Arribas-Blázquez, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Luis A Olivos-Oré, Antonio R Artalejo, Mariana Alves, Michael Letavic, M Teresa Miras-Portugal, Ronan M Conroy, Norman Delanty, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Anindya Bhattacharya, Tobias Engel, David C Henshall
UNLABELLED: Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and maintenance of temporal lobe epilepsy, but the underlying cell and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The P2X7 receptor is an ionotropic receptor predominantly expressed on the surface of microglia, although neuronal expression has also been reported. The receptor is activated by the release of ATP from intracellular sources that occurs during neurodegeneration, leading to microglial activation and inflammasome-mediated interleukin 1β release that contributes to neuroinflammation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
M-L Wong, A Inserra, M D Lewis, C A Mastronardi, L Leong, J Choo, S Kentish, P Xie, M Morrison, S L Wesselingh, G B Rogers, J Licinio
The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress...
June 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Annalisa Marcuzzi, Elisa Piscianz, Marina Zweyer, Roberta Bortul, Claudia Loganes, Martina Girardelli, Gabriele Baj, Lorenzo Monasta, Claudio Celeghini
Deregulation of the cholesterol pathway is an anomaly observed in human diseases, many of which have in common neurological involvement and unknown pathogenesis. In this study we have used Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) as a disease-model in order to investigate the link between the deregulation of the mevalonate pathway and the consequent neurodegeneration. The blocking of the mevalonate pathway in a neuronal cell line (Daoy), using statins or mevalonate, induced an increase in the expression of the inflammasome gene (NLRP3) and programmed cell death related to mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wen Hu, Yaodong Zhang, Wenning Wu, Yanyan Yin, Dake Huang, Yuchan Wang, Weiping Li, Weizu Li
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. Chronic glucocorticoids (GCs) exposure has deleterious effects on the structure and function of neurons and is associated with development and progression of AD. However, little is known about the proinflammatory effects of chronic GCs exposure on neurodegeneration in brain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic dexamethasone (DEX) treatment (5mg/kg, s...
February 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hong-Ri Zhang, Jing-Hua Peng, Xiao-Bing Cheng, Bao-Zhong Shi, Mao-Ying Zhang, Ru-Xiang Xu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the inflammatory response in response to amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). Previous studies have suggested that paeoniflorin (PF) shows anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in inflammation-related diseases. However, the impacts of PF on AD have not been investigated. In the present study, we showed that a 4-week treatment with PF could significantly inhibit Aβ burden, Aβ-induced over activation of astrocytes and microglia, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, and upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain...
August 2015: Neurochemical Research
Mi-Young Son, Jae Eun Kwak, Binna Seol, Da Yong Lee, Hyejin Jeon, Yee Sook Cho
GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene. Insufficient β-gal activity leads to abnormal accumulation of GM1 gangliosides in tissues, particularly in the central nervous system, resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Here, we report an in vitro human GM1 model, based on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Neural progenitor cells differentiated from GM1 patient-derived iPSCs (GM1-NPCs) recapitulated the biochemical and molecular phenotypes of GM1, including defective β-gal activity and increased lysosomes...
September 2015: Journal of Pathology
Chen-Chen Tan, Jian-Guo Zhang, Meng-Shan Tan, Hua Chen, Da-Wei Meng, Teng Jiang, Xiang-Fei Meng, Ying Li, Zhen Sun, Meng-Meng Li, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often characterized pathologically by severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Understanding the mechanisms of neuron death is key to preventing the neurodegeneration associated with TLE. However, the involvement of neuronal loss to the epileptogenic process has yet to be fully determined. Recent studies have shown that the activation of NLRP1 can generate a functional caspase-1-containing inflammasome in vivo to drive the proinflammatory programmed cell death termed 'pyroptosis', which has a key role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders...
2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bernhard T Baune
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to describe the current understanding of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration and evaluate the value of various anti-inflammatory treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammation plays important roles in common disease such as dementia and depression. Underlying mechanisms including the role of inflammasomes in these diseases have been recently described. Interventions using Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, NSAIDs and targeted antagonists (e...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Tiantian Zhu, Liuqiang Zhang, Shuang Ling, Ju Duan, Fei Qian, Yiming Li, Jin-Wen Xu
Chronic inflammation is associated with various chronic illnesses including immunity disorders, cancer, neurodegeneration, and vascular diseases. Iridoids are compounds with anti-inflammatory properties. However their anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that scropolioside B, isolated from a Tibetan medicine (Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth.), blocked expressions of TNF, IL-1, and IL-32 through NF-κB pathway. Scropolioside B inhibited NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 1...
2014: Mediators of Inflammation
George Trendelenburg
Analogous to Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors represent a class of pattern recognition receptors, which are cytosolic and constitute part of different inflammasomes. These large protein complexes are activated not only by different pathogens, but also by sterile inflammation or by specific metabolic conditions. Mutations can cause hereditary autoinflammatory systemic diseases, and inflammasome activation has been linked to many multifactorial diseases, such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. Increasing data also support an important role in different central nervous diseases such as stroke...
December 2014: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Gyongyi Szabo, Dora Lippai
Chronic excessive alcohol consumption results in inflammation in multiple organs, including the brain. While the contribution of neuroinflammation to alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction and behavioral alterations is established, the mechanisms by which alcohol triggers inflammation in the brain are only partially understood. There are acute and long-term alterations in brain function due to intercellular and intracellular changes of different cell types as a result of alcohol consumption. This review focuses on the alcohol-induced proinflammatory cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system...
2014: International Review of Neurobiology
Shana E Terrill-Usery, Michael J Mohan, Michael R Nichols
Neuroinflammation is a characteristic feature of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Significant inflammatory markers such as activated microglia and cytokines can be found surrounding the extracellular senile plaques predominantly composed of amyloid-β protein (Aβ). Several innate immune pathways, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the NLRP3 inflammasome, have been implicated in AD inflammation. Aβ plays a primary role in activating these pathways which likely contributes to the progressive neurodegeneration in AD...
November 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anna Rubartelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Frontiers in Immunology
Paola Maura Tricarico, Annalisa Marcuzzi, Elisa Piscianz, Lorenzo Monasta, Sergio Crovella, Giulio Kleiner
Mevalonic aciduria, a rare autosomal recessive disease, represents the most severe form of the periodic fever, known as Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency. This disease is caused by the mutation of the MVK gene, which codes for the enzyme mevalonate kinase, along the cholesterol pathway. Mevalonic aciduria patients show recurrent fever episodes with associated inflammatory symptoms, severe neurologic impairments, or death, in early childhood. The typical neurodegeneration occurring in mevalonic aciduria is linked both to the intrinsic apoptosis pathway (caspase-3 and -9), which is triggered by mitochondrial damage, and to pyroptosis (caspase-1)...
2013: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Juan Xiong, Tammy Kielian
Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in CLN3. Regions of microglial activation precede and predict areas of neuronal loss in JNCL; however, the functional role of activated microglia remains to be defined. The inflammasome is a key molecular pathway for activating pro-IL-1β in microglia, and IL-1β is elevated in the brains of JNCL patients and can induce neuronal cell death. Here, we utilized primary microglia isolated from CLN3(Δex7/8) mutant and wild-type (WT) mice to examine the impact of CLN3 mutation on microglial activation and inflammasome function...
October 2013: Journal of Neurochemistry
Cristina Dias, Allison McDonald, Murat Sincan, Rosemarie Rupps, Thomas Markello, Ramona Salvarinova, Rui F Santos, Kamal Menghrajani, Chidi Ahaghotu, Darren P Sutherland, Edgardo S Fortuno, Tobias R Kollmann, Michelle Demos, Jan M Friedman, David P Speert, William A Gahl, Cornelius F Boerkoel
Inflammation is an important contributor to pediatric and adult neurodegeneration. Understanding the genetic determinants of neuroinflammation provides valuable insight into disease mechanism. We characterize a disorder of recurrent immune-mediated neurodegeneration. We report two sisters who presented with neurodegeneration triggered by infections. The proband, a previously healthy girl, presented at 22.5 months with ataxia and dysarthria following mild gastroenteritis. MRI at onset showed a symmetric signal abnormality of the cerebellar and peritrigonal white matter...
November 2013: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
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