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Normal reference value of amniotic fluid index

Llinos A Roberts, Hua Zen Ling, Liona Poon, Kypros H Nicolaides, Nikos A Kametas
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether in a cohort of patients with small for gestational age (SGA) foetuses with estimated fetal weight ≤10th percentile, maternal hemodynamics, fetal biometry and Dopplers at presentation, can predict the subsequent development of abnormal fetal Dopplers or delivery with birthweight <3rd percentile. METHODS: The study population comprised of 86 singleton pregnancies with SGA fetuses presenting at a median gestational age of 32 (range 26-35) weeks...
April 1, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Emeka John Agwu, Anthony C Ugwu, Samuel L Shem, Muhammed Abba
BACKGROUND: Amniotic fluid (AF) is one of the major determinants of fetal biophysical profile and can predict pregnancy outcome. Abnormal value of amniotic fluid index (AFI) may indicate fetal and maternal disorders. PURPOSE: To establish reference standards for AFI for this population after 28 weeks of pregnancy and evaluate the relationship between AFI, the estimated fetal weight (EFWT), and fetal gender. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional estimation of AFI and FWT was done in 385 apparently healthy pregnant women in the gestational age range of 28-42 weeks...
August 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
Seçil Kurtulmuş, Esra Bahar Gür, Deniz Öztekin, Ebru Şahin Güleç, Duygu Okyay, İbrahim Gülhan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in fetal cardiac and peripheral circulation in pregnancies complicated with intrahepatic cholestasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Doppler examination results of 22 pregnant subjects complicated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and 44 healthy controls were compared. The parameters of fetal cardiac circulation were pulmonary artery and aortic (Ao) peak systolic velocity (PSV), pulmonary vein (Pv), peak velocity index (PVI) and pulsatility index (PI), mitral valve (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV), early diastole (E)- and atrial contraction (A)-wave peak velocity ratio (E/A), and isthmus aortic peak systolic velocity (IAo PSV)...
2015: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Shripad Hebbar, Lavanya Rai, Prashant Adiga, Shyamala Guruvare
BACKGROUND: Amniotic fluid index (AFI) is one of the major and deciding components of fetal biophysical profile and by itself it can predict pregnancy outcome. Very low values are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and renal anomalies of fetus, whereas high values may indicate fetal GI anomalies, maternal diabetes mellitus, and so forth. However, before deciding the cut-off standards for abnormal values for a local population, what constitutes a normal range for specific gestational age and the ideal interval of testing should be defined...
2015: Journal of Pregnancy
Ruiqi Yang, He Zhu, Jialing Zhang, Fei Wang, Limei Fan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of prenatal ultrasound in assessing thyroid function in fetuses of hyperthyroidism pregnant women and establish the reference values of fetal thyroid transverse diameter and anteroposterior diameter for different gestational weeks. METHODS: For observation group, 30 cases of pregnant women diagnosed as hyperthyroidism were recruited from our hospital from November 2012 to November 2013. And another 100 cases of pregnant women during 20 to 40 weeks of gestational weeks were selected into control group...
September 23, 2014: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Geum Joon Cho, Hye-Ri Hong, Suhng Wook Kim, Soon Cheol Hong, Min-Jeong Oh, Hai Joon Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between orexin-A level and idiopathic polyhydramnios. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Tertiary-level university hospital. POPULATION: Ten term pregnant women with idiopathic polyhydramnios and, as the control group, 20 pregnant women with normal amniotic fluid levels. METHODS: Amniotic fluid level was measured at admission for delivery using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 2015: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
E Araujo Júnior, Wellington P Martins, David Baptista Silva Pares, Claudio Rodrigues Pires, Sebastião Marques Zanforlin Filho
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the reference range for amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements in a large sample of the Brazilian population. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on 3837 normal singleton pregnancies between 18+0 and 38+6 weeks of pregnancy. The AFI was measured from the largest vertical pockets of amniotic fluid in the four quadrants of the uterine cavity. To assess the correlation between AFI and gestational age (GA), polynomial equations were calculated, with adjustments using the determination coefficient (R2)...
July 2014: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Thalis Papapostolou, Despina D Briana, Maria Boutsikou, Christos Iavazzo, Karl-Phillip Puchner, Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Antonios Marmarinos, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
OBJECTIVE: To describe associations among maternal/gestational/neonatal characteristics and midpregnancy amniotic fluid concentrations of the main angiogenic markers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF). METHODS: In a cohort of 206 normal full-term pregnancies, midpregnancy amniotic fluid VEGF and PlGF reference values were recorded. Possible associations among the above concentrations and various parameters, such as maternal age and body mass index, race, parity, smoking, gestational age, delivery mode, birth-weight and fetal gender were investigated...
January 2013: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Vanita Suri, Reenu Jain, Neelam Aggarwal, Yogesh K Chawla, K K Kohli
AIM: To study the role of fetal surveillance in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 69 women with obstetric cholestasis were included. Fetal surveillance began at 34 weeks or later at diagnosis and included daily maternal record of fetal movements, biophysical profile (i.e., non-stress test, amniotic fluid volume assessment using the four quadrant amniotic fluid index), and Doppler flow velocimetry. Fetal monitoring was done weekly before 36 weeks and biweekly after that...
December 2012: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Habiba Sharaf Ali
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound assessment of amniotic fluid has important implication in obstetrics care and it has become an integral and important component of pregnancy assessment. Changes in amniotic fluid volume are associated with adverse outcome. Excess volume is associated with foetal anomalies and aneuploidy and less volume is associated with Intra Uterine Growth Retardation, renal anomalies in the second trimester. The objective of this study was to establish a normative scale of Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) throughout gestation in uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, and to identify the lower and upper limits for each gestational week...
July 2009: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Melanie Griffin, George Attilakos, Rosemary Greenwood, Mark Denbow
OBJECTIVE: To determine normal values for amniotic fluid index (AFI) in uncomplicated post-dates singleton pregnancies and compare it to current reference ranges. POPULATION: Four hundred and forty-eight women with singleton, uncomplicated pregnancies, presenting for post-dates assessment (gestation 40+0 to 42+0 weeks) between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2005. METHODS: Ultrasound assessment of liquor to calculate the AFI. RESULTS: The mean and standard deviation for AFI in the sample was 9...
2009: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
W Lee, M Balasubramaniam, R L Deter, S S Hassan, F Gotsch, J P Kusanovic, L F Gonçalves, R Romero
OBJECTIVES: The main goals were to provide normal reference ranges for fractional limb volume as a new index of generalized fetal nutritional status, to evaluate the reproducibility of fractional fetal limb volume measurements during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and to demonstrate technical considerations for this technique. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of gravid women during mid to late pregnancy. Fractional limb volumes were based on either 50% of humeral or femoral diaphysis length...
April 2009: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yu-ning Zhu, Shi-ming Lu, Jian-fei You, Bo Zhu, Mei-yu Yu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the possibilities of a novel real-time PCR assay for rapid prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome in clinical settings. DESIGN AND METHODS: This duplex real-time PCR assay is based on relative quantification of DSCR4 gene on chromosome 21 by using RABIF gene on chromosome 1 as a reference. For each sample, the differences in threshold cycles between DSCR4 and RABIF genes (Delta Ct, DeltaCt) were detected, and a calibrated DeltaCt value (DeltaDeltaCt, DeltaCt (sample)-DeltaCt (internal control)) was analyzed...
May 2009: Clinical Biochemistry
Alain Gagnon, R Douglas Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To review the obstetrical outcomes associated with abnormally elevated or decreased level of one or more of the most frequently measured maternal serum marker analytes used in screening for aneuploidy. To provide guidance to facilitate the management of pregnancies that have abnormal levels of one of more markers and to assess the usefulness of these markers as a screening test. OPTIONS: Perinatal outcomes associated with abnormal levels of maternal serum markers analytes are compared with the outcomes of pregnancies with normal levels of the same analytes or the general population...
October 2008: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Szu-Ching Lu, Chiung-Hsin Chang, Chen-Hsiang Yu, Fong-Ming Chang
OBJECTIVE: Amniotic fluid index (AFI) is a very useful index for assessing fetal well-being. In 1998, a study of AFI in mainland China showed that AFI values in normal pregnancies were less than those in Western populations. Therefore, we attempt to investigate whether fetal AFI in our population is less than that in Western populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed our computerized ultrasound database for fetal AFI from January 1991 to December 2002. For the 12-year study period, only the fetuses that fit the following criteria were included: (1) gestational age ranging from 14 to 41 weeks; (2) singletons, and (3) average-for-gestational-age as evaluated by ultrasound examination...
September 2007: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
S M Lee, S K Park, S S Shim, J K Jun, J S Park, H C Syn
OBJECTIVES: Measurement of fetal urine production may provide a means of evaluating amniotic fluid volume, which is difficult to measure directly, and predicting fetal hypoxia. Although there have been some reports on fetal urine production, most of these have used two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography to measure bladder volume. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography is, however, known to be superior to 2D ultrasonography in some organ volume measurements. Thus, we undertook this study to measure bladder volumes using 3D ultrasonography and to establish a nomogram of fetal urine production rate (UPR) according to gestational age (GA)...
September 2007: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Jacek Zamłyński, Piotr Bodzek, Anita Olejek, Grzegorz Mańka, Krzysztof Grettka, Barbara Kobylec-Zamłyńska
INTRODUCTION: In spite of confirming an association between type I diabetes of pregnancy with hydramnios, in the most recent studies there is still no clarity about which of the maternal or foetal metabolic parameters linked with amniotic fluid volume play the most important role. AIM: To determine which of the maternal or foetal metabolic parameters has the closest association with amniotic fluid volume. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was performed in two groups: normal healthy pregnant women (n=43) and group of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (n=17) and their newborns...
July 2005: Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego
B Jaba, A S Mohiuddin, S N Dey, N A Khan, S I Talukder
Ultrasonographic assessment of amniotic fluid has important implications because documentation of abnormalities of amniotic fluid volume may provide valuable information to enhance fetal health assessment. But in our country no study was conducted to establish normal values of amniotic fluid volume. So, this study was designed to find out normal values of amniotic fluid volume at various stages of gestation. The study was conducted in the department of Radiology and Imaging, BIRDEM in collaboration with the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, BIRDEM from 1(st) July, 2001 to 30(th) June, 2002...
July 2005: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Avi Ben-Haroush, Yariv Yogev, Yoav Peled, Jacob Bar, Moshe Hod, Josef Pardo
PURPOSE: Since abnormal conditions of the fetal digestive tract may alter both amniotic fluid volume and fetal gastric volume, we sought to determine whether amniotic fluid volume is correlated with fetal gastric volume in normal pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 280 fetal gastric size measurements were made prospectively from routine sonographic examinations of women with normal singleton pregnancies between 16 and 42 weeks of gestation. The fetal stomach was defined as the largest area including the pyloric site on transverse or oblique real-time sonographic scans...
March 2005: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Suvarna S Khadilkar, Sabita S Desai, Sadhana M Tayade, Chittaranjan N Purandare
AIM: To obtain a gestational reference range for the amniotic fluid index (AFI) among Indian women. METHODS: An analysis of AFI estimations was undertaken in 517 Indian women with normal pregnancy between 16 and 42 weeks of gestation. It was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted in a university teaching hospital. Women with fetal anomalies, pregnancy-induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other maternal complications were excluded from the study. The median, the 5th and the 95th percentile values were calculated for each gestational week and these values were compared with other studies...
June 2003: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
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