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Fabiana Rodrigues Silva Gasparin, Fernando Olinto Carreño, Juliana Moraes Mewes, Eduardo Hideo Gilglioni, Clairce Luzia Salgueiro Pagadigorria, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Karina Sayuri Utsunomiya, Rodrigo Polimeni Constantin, Amanda Tomie Ouchida, Carlos Curti, Ingrid C Gaemers, Ronald Petrus Johannes Oude Elferink, Jorgete Constantin, Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto
The present study was planned to improve our understanding about sex differences in the development of hepatic steatosis in cafeteria diet-induced obesity in young mice. Female (FCaf) and male (MCaf) mice fed a cafeteria diet had similar body weight gain and adiposity index, but FCaf had a more extensive steatosis than MCaf. FCaf livers exhibited a higher non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score, elevated lipid percentage area (+34%) in Sudan III staining and increased TG content (+25%) compared to MCaf...
April 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Margaret J R Heerwagen, Diane L Gumina, Teri L Hernandez, Rachael E Van Pelt, Anita W Kramer, Rachel C Janssen, Dalan R Jensen, Theresa L Powell, Jacob E Friedman, Virginia D Winn, Linda A Barbour
INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest that in addition to glucose, fetal growth is related to maternal triglycerides (TG). To reach the fetus, TG must be hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFA) and transported across the placenta, but regulation is uncertain. Placental lipoprotein lipase (pLPL) hydrolyzes TG, both dietary chylomicron TG (CM-TG) and very-low density lipoprotein TG (VLDL-TG), to FFA. This may promote fetal fat accretion by increasing the available FFA pool for placental uptake...
April 2018: Placenta
Muhammad Bilal Azmi, Shamim A Qureshi, Syed Danish Haseen Ahmed, Hina Akram Mudassir, Fauzia Imtiaz, Sumera Rais, Auwais Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Ahsan
Present work seeks to investigate the biochemical parameters in terms of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydro-methanolic roots extract (HyMREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina in type 1 (alloxan induced) diabetic mice. Animals were divided into seven groups, four control groups, and three were test groups (HyMREt at 50, 100, & 150mg/kg). Each treatment was repeated for 14 days regularly in all seven respective groups and afterwards the body weights, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, and serum lipid levels were determined...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Naveed Hussain, Abu-Saeed Hashmi, Muhammad Wasim, Tauqeer Akhtar, Shagufta Saeed, Toheed Ahmad
To find the cure of world's one of the leading morbid and mortal disorders; diabetes mellitus and its most prevalent complication, 'diabetic-dyslipidemia', is one of the leading health challenges of 21st century. The use of phytomedicine is a glimmer of hope in this scenario. Studies of current decade have shown that methanolic extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa have highly effective therapeutic potentials against the aforesaid disorders, however, which of the extracts has more potential is still unclear...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Elzbieta Pac-Kozuchowska, Paulina Krawiec, Ewelina Grywalska
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum parameters of lipid metabolism, homocysteine, soluble adhesion molecules and common carotid artery wall thickness in children from families with early symptoms of atherosclerosis. METHODS: The first stage included 137 pairs of mothers and newborns, and the second 18 children from the same group (age 18-30 months) and their parents (age 21-46 years) with a history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as 12 age- and sex-matched controls...
April 3, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Akram Ahangarpour, Razieh Shabani, Yaghoob Farbood
Diabetes mellitus is developed by lack of insulin secretion or reduction of tissues sensitivity to insulin, which lead to serious complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect of betulinic acid (BA) on streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic mice. In this experimental study, seventy adult male NMRI mice (20-25 g) were divided randomly into seven groups ( n = 10) of control, sham, diabetes, diabetes + BA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg), and diabetes + metformin (200 mg/kg)...
April 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Youlin Wang, Weiqing Tang, Pan Yang, Hyunsu Shin, Qingwang Li
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Niemann-Pick C1-like1 (NPC1L1), a crucial cholesterol absorption receptor expressed in human intestine and liver. But in mouse it is only expressed in intestine. Previous studies elucidated that expression of human NPC1L1 in mouse liver led to increase of plasma cholesterol due to activation of absorption from bile. However, hepatic NPC1L1 function was not elucidated in LDL receptor deficient mouse (LDLR-/-) in which LDL was a main lipoprotein as in human. METHODS AND RESULTS: L1-Tg/LDLR-/- mouse was created by crossing liver-specific NPC1L1 transgenic mouse (L1-Tg) with LDLR-/-...
March 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qin Yi, Puyang Sun, Juan Li, Siming Kong, Jinying Tian, Xuechen Li, Yanan Yang, Peicheng Zhang, Yuying Liu, Jingyan Han, Xiaolin Zhang, Fei Ye
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is developed from hepatic steatosis, is increasing worldwide. However, no specific drugs for NAFLD have been approved yet. To observe the effects of Rho , a fraction from Rhodiola crenulate , on non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, three mouse models with characteristics of NAFLD were used including high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO) mice, KKAy mice, and HFD combined with tetracycline stimulated Model-T mice. Hepatic lipid accumulation was determined via histopathological analysis and/or hepatic TG determination...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
K Vijayakumar, R L Rengarajan, R Radhakrishnan, A Vijaya Anand
Background: Plant-based natural extracts cure several diseases in human. However, the extract of Psidium guajava leaf is not yet evaluated on changes of lipid profile in hepatic disease affected rats. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the mitigation effect of the ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction on hepatotoxic rats. Materials and Methods: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) was injected to rats for hepatic disease induction and silymarin drug was used as positive control to compare plant ethanolic extract...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Yohtaro Sato, Nobuaki Arai, Hidemi Yasuda, Yasushi Mizoguchi
The objectives of this study were to assess if Clinofibrate (CF) treatment improved lipid metabolism in dogs, and to clarify whether its efficacy is influenced by canine characteristics. We collected medical records of 306 dogs and performed epidemiological analyses. Lipid values of all lipoproteins were significantly decreased by CF medication, especially VLDL triglyceride (TG) concentration (mean reduction rate=54.82%). However, 17.65% of dogs showed drug refractoriness in relation to TG level, and Toy Poodles had a lower CF response than other breeds (OR=5...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
KyeongJin Kim, Ira J Goldberg, Mark J Graham, Meenakshi Sundaram, Enrico Bertaggia, Samuel X Lee, Li Qiang, Rebecca A Haeusler, Daniel Metzger, Pierre Chambon, Zemin Yao, Henry N Ginsberg, Utpal B Pajvani
Excess plasma triglycerides (TGs) are a key component of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome. We have shown that γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment improves glucose tolerance due to inhibition of hepatic Notch signaling but found additional Notch-independent reduction of plasma TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in GSI-treated, as well as hepatocyte-specific, γ-secretase knockout (L-Ncst) mice, which suggested a primary effect on hepatocyte TRL uptake. Indeed, we found increased VLDL and LDL particle uptake in L-Ncst hepatocytes and Ncst-deficient hepatoma cells, in part through reduced γ-secretase-mediated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) cleavage and degradation...
March 7, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Kisantini Murugesu, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Amirin Sadikun
BACKGROUND: Ethanolic extract of G. procumbens leaves has been previously shown to pos-sess antihyperlipidemic effects. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to prepare caffeoylquinic acids rich and poor fractions of the ethanol-ic extract using resin column technology and compare their antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials. RESULTS: Among the treatment groups, caffeoylquinic acids rich fraction (F2) and chlorogenic acid (CA, one of the major caffeoylquinic acids) showed potent antihyperlipidemic effects, with significant reduc-tions in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) (p<0...
March 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Darshan S Kelley, Yuriko Adkins, Kevin D Laugero
Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health benefits of both sweet and tart cherries, including products made from them (juice, powder, concentrate, capsules); all referred to as cherries here. We found 29 (tart 20, sweet 7, unspecified 2) published human studies which examined health benefits of consuming cherries...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Marc A Tuazon, Sara C Campbell, Dylan J Klein, Sue A Shapses, Keith R Anacker, Tracy G Anthony, Mehmet Uzumcu, Gregory C Henderson
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. METHODS: Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Katsuyuki Nakajima, Akira Tanaka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and chylomicron remnants were previously proposed as the most atherogenic lipoproteins for the causal lipoproteins of atherosclerosis. However, there are still controversies on these hypothesizes. Therefore, we have proposed a new hypothesis based on our recent findings of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) in postprandial plasma. RECENT FINDINGS: Plasma RLP-C and RLP-TG increased significantly after fat load...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Sudichhya Shrestha, Ben J Wu, Liam Guiney, Philip J Barter, Kerry-Anne Rye
Most of the cholesterol in plasma is in an esterified form that is generated in potentially cardioprotective high density lipoproteins (HDLs). Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates bidirectional transfers of cholesteryl esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG) between plasma lipoproteins. Since CE originates in HDLs, and TG enters the plasma as a component of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), activity of CETP results in a net mass transfer of CE from HDLs to VLDLs and low density lipoproteins (LDLs), and of TG from VLDLs to LDLs and HDLs...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Dipendra Raj Pandeya, Ajay Rajbhandari, Manoj Nepal, Ezeldine K Abdalhabib, Mahesh Bhatta, Sudha Sen Malla, Laxmi Upadhyay, Mohammed H Saiem Al Dahr
Significant efforts have been made to study cancer at the biochemical and cellular level and identify factors associated with progression. The aim of this hospital based randomized comparative study at the Nepalese Army Institute of Health science hospital was to assess factors in 52 people diagnosed with different types of cancer and 56 normal control persons. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Bimit Mahat, Étienne Chassé, Clare Lindon, Jean-François Mauger, Pascal Imbeault
Circulating fatty acids are a major systemic energy source in the fasting state as well as a determinant of hepatic triglyceride (TG)-rich very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production. Upon acute hypoxia, sympathetic arousal induces adipose tissue lipolysis, resulting in an increase in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Animal studies suggest that TG clearance may also be strongly reduced under hypoxia, though this effect has been shown to be dependent on temperature. Whether the hypoxia-induced rise in blood fatty acid concentrations effects fasting TG levels in humans under thermoneutral conditions remains unknown...
February 21, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Meryem Bakour, Najoua Soulo, Nawal Hammas, Hinde El Fatemi, Abderrazak Aboulghazi, Amal Taroq, Abdelfattah Abdellaoui, Noori Al-Waili, Badiaa Lyoussi
Oxidative stress is an important etiology of chronic diseases and many studies have shown that natural products might alleviate oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis. The study aims to evaluate the effect of Argan oil and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced liver, brain and kidney tissue toxicity as well as biochemical changes in wistar rats. The antioxidant content of Argan oil and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil was studied with the use of gas chromatography. The animals received daily by gavage, for 21 days, either distilled water, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, Argan oil, H₂O₂ alone, H₂O₂ and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, or H₂O₂ and Argan oil...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ping-Ping He, Ting Jiang, Xin-Ping OuYang, Ya-Qin Liang, Jie-Qiong Zou, Yan Wang, Qian-Qian Shen, Li Liao, Xi-Long Zheng
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the triglyceride (TG) core of circulating TG-rich lipoproteins including chylomicrons (CM), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). A variety of parenchymal cells can synthesize and secrete LPL. Recent studies have demonstrated that complicated processes are involved in LPL biosynthesis, secretion and transport. The enzyme activity of LPL is regulated by many factors, such as apolipoproteins, angiopoietins, hormones and miRNAs...
February 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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