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H Sajjadi, Z Jorjoran Shushtari, S Mahboubi, H Rafiey, Y Salimi
OBJECTIVES: Understanding pathways that influence substance use potential (SUP) can help with effective substance use prevention interventions among adolescents. The aim of the present study is to contribute to a better understanding of the SUP of adolescents by examining the mediating role of social network quality in the SUP of Iranian adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Structural equation modeling was conducted to assess the hypothesized model that social network quality would mediate the association of family socio-economic status, a mental health disorder, and family smoking with addiction potential...
February 20, 2018: Public Health
Rodrigo Z Megale, Manuela L Ferreira, Paulo H Ferreira, Vasi Naganathan, Robert Cumming, Vasant Hirani, Louise M Waite, Markus J Seibel, David G Le Couteur, David J Handelsman, Fiona M Blyth
Objectives: to determine whether pain increases the risk of developing the frailty phenotype and whether frailty increases the risk of developing chronic or intrusive pain, using longitudinal data. Design/Setting: longitudinal data from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a prospective population based cohort study. Participants: a total of 1,705 men aged 70 years or older, living in an urban area of New South Wales, Australia...
February 21, 2018: Age and Ageing
Adrian Burgess, Carl Senior, Elisabeth Moores
Higher Education (HE), once the prerogative of a tiny elite, is now accessible to larger numbers of people around the world than ever before yet despite the fact that an understanding of student satisfaction has never been more important for today's universities, the concept remains poorly understood. Here we use published data from the UK's National Student Survey (NSS), representing data from 2.3 million full-time students collected from 2007 to 2016, as a case study of the benefits and limitations of measuring student satisfaction that might have applicability for other countries, particularly those that, like the UK, have experienced significant growth in student numbers...
2018: PloS One
César González-Blanch, Leonardo Adrián Medrano, Roger Muñoz-Navarro, Paloma Ruíz-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio Moriana, Joaquín T Limonero, Florian Schmitz, Antonio Cano-Vindel
The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a widely-used screening tool for depression in primary care settings. The purpose of the present study is to identify the factor structure of the PHQ-9 and to examine the measurement invariance of this instrument across different sociodemographic groups and over time in a sample of primary care patients in Spain. Data came from 836 primary care patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (PsicAP study) and a subsample of 218 patients who participated in a follow-up assessment at 3 months...
2018: PloS One
Kasia Bail, Brian Draper, Helen Berry, Rosemary Karmel, John Goss
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired complications increase length of stay and contribute to poorer patient outcomes. Older adults are known to be at risk for four key hospital-acquired complications (pressure injuries, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and delirium). These complications have been identified as sensitive to nursing characteristics such as staffing levels and level of education. The cost of these complications compared to the cost of admission severity, dementia, other comorbidities or age has not been established...
2018: PloS One
Meredith T Niles, Jonathan D Salerno
Future climate changes will affect smallholder farmers in the developing world, posing threats to household food security. Nevertheless, there remains limited comparable evidence across multiple countries and regions regarding the global extent of climate shocks affecting smallholder food security. We examine data from 5,299 household surveys across 15 countries in Latin America, Africa and South Asia to assess the extent of climate shocks and their association with food insecurity, as well as what strategies may help buffer against climate shocks...
2018: PloS One
Teresa Leão, Inês Campos-Matos, Clare Bambra, Giuliano Russo, Julian Perelman
BACKGROUND: Although socioeconomic inequalities in health have long been observed in Europe, few studies have analysed their recent patterning. In this paper, we examined how educational inequalities in self-reported health have evolved in different European countries and welfare state regimes over the last decade, which was troubled by the Great Recession. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the EU-SILC survey for adults from 26 European countries, from 2005 to 2014 (n = 3,030,595)...
2018: PloS One
Joshua Amo-Adjei, Kofi Aduo-Adjei, Christiana Opoku-Nyamah, Chimaroake Izugbara
The desired results of increasing access and availability of antenatal care (ANC) services may not be realized if the quality of care offered is not adequate. We analyzed the content/quality of antenatal care to determine whether there are socioeconomic (education and wealth) inequalities in the services provided in 59 low and middle income countries in six WHO regions-Africa, East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and South Asia. We aggregated the most recent (2005-2015) Demographic and Health Survey for each country...
2018: PloS One
Megan B Shannon, W Adams, C M Fitzgerald, E R Mueller, L Brubaker, C Brincat
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate patient attendance and preparedness for pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) after comparing standard counseling versus standard counseling plus an educational video. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of 200 patients in a Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery practice was performed in a tertiary care referral center. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 educational modalities after being prescribed PFPT...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Rebecca Rinko, Ian Yu, Emna Bakillah, Lauren Alper, Colleen Delaney, Marisa Su, Melissa Dawson, Edward J Gracely, Kristene E Whitmore
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this trial is to compare patient-reported pain based on the sequence of the pelvic examination and to assess the relationship between pain during the examination and quality of life, self-esteem, and sexual function. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of women presenting for annual gynecologic examinations. Women were assigned to either group A: a Q-tip touch test, speculum examination, then bimanual examination or group B: Q-tip touch test, bimanual examination, then speculum examination...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Jennifer Yeung, Anna Stecher, Catrina C Crisp, Donna Mazloomdoost, Benjamin Smith, Steven D Kleeman, Rachel N Pauls
OBJECTIVES: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASISs) are a devastating postpartum complication; reducing rates is paramount to improving quality of care. In Norway, implementation of a perineal protection program decreased the incidence of OASIS by 48%. We sought to assess impact on OASIS rates following a similar program. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study was performed in an academic hospital system. The periods of analysis were November 2014 through October 2015 for the preintervention arm and November 2015 through October 2016 for the postintervention arm...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Xiumin Liang, Ling Zhou, Jiarui Zheng, Shaoqin Li, Hongzhuan Luo, Yuyan Yang, Liyuan Yang, Ting Tan, Jun Yu, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: Health utility (HU) is essential to understanding the effects of HIV infection as a chronic disease. No HU data on pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Yunnan Province are available. This study aims to construct a database on HU and explore factors associated with HU by pregnant women living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who were enrolled in the Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in Yunnan Province...
July 3, 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
S Keel, J Foreman, J Xie, H R Taylor, M Dirani
PurposeTo describe the prevalence and associations of presenting near vision impairment (NVI) in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.MethodsA sample of 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected Australian sites were examined as part of the population-based National Eye Health Survey (NEHS). Binocular presenting NVI was defined as near vision worse than N8 (20/50).ResultsIn total, 4817 participants (99.6% of the total sample, comprising 3084 non-Indigenous Australians and 1733 Indigenous Australians) had complete data on near visual acuity...
February 23, 2018: Eye
Michał Bronikowski, Małgorzata Bronikowska, Janusz Maciaszek, Agata Glapa
BACKGROUND: Decline in physical activity (PA), specifically in adolescents raises concerns. Setting goals and strategies are often used to increase the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), recently introducing also modern technological devices for achieving different goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different goal strategies in increasing PA of youth. It was expected that there would be positive relationships between support and goal strategy which would contribute to increase MVPA...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Binru Han, Xi Chen, Qiuping Li
AIM: To investigate the feasibility of the case mix index and compare the allocation of nursing human resources between two departments of a hospital with different case mix indexes in China. BACKGROUND: The case mix index is used to assess the resource allocation of all cases in two departments of a hospital. Its values can determine the resource allocation required to diagnose and treat the patients. METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from 23 different departments in 2015 and analysed retrospectively from October to November, 2016...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Jared W Magnani, Courtney L Schlusser, Everlyne Kimani, Bruce L Rollman, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Timothy W Bickmore
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent heart rhythm condition that has significant associated morbidity and requires chronic treatment. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to enhance multiple aspects of AF care, including education, monitoring of symptoms, and encouraging and tracking medication adherence. We have previously implemented and tested relational agents to improve outcomes in chronic disease and sought to develop a smartphone-based relational agent for improving patient-centered outcomes in AF...
July 2017: JMIR Cardio
Ratana Sapbamrer
The agricultural system in Thailand has shifted from a traditional to a commercial agricultural system. Pesticides have been imported into Thailand to increase agricultural productivity, resulting in adverse health effects for farmers and consumers. However, the scientific data available in Thailand are limited and inconsistent. Thus, this article reviews research studies regarding pesticide use, poisoning, and knowledge and unsafe occupational practices in Thailand over the last decade. This article also makes recommendations for future policies...
January 1, 2018: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
Bayaki Saka, Boris Tchounga, Didier K Ekouevi, Céphas Sehonou, Essèboè Sewu, Augustin Dokla, Angèle Maboudou, Yao Kassankogno, Vincent Palokinam Pitche
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV (PLWHA) prevent and delay access to prevention and treatment services. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of stigma and discrimination experienced by PLWHA in Togo and to identify the associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among PLWHA in Togo in order to collect data on stigma or discrimination experiences. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associated factors...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Fatoumata Hane
INTRODUCTION: Many countries have developed disease surveillance systems to deal with epidemics, but although health information systems have existed for more than two decades, constraints and biases in data collection limit the relevance of policy decisions and strategies in the field of health, as priority has been given to education and health in developing countries. Donor support has led to the development of systems for the production of statistics, designed, among other things, to more clearly target interventions in terms of educational objectives, action and credibility and enable health systems to continue to benefit from external funding...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Marion Guégan, Elisabeth Rivollier
OBJECTIVE: While waiting for health insurance coverage, unaccompanied foreign minors (UFM) can attend PASS healthcare access clinics in French hospitals. The aim of this study was to identify UFM's representations and perceptions of the French health care system. METHODS: This qualitative study was based on a series of individual, semi-structured interviews of UFMs attending a PASS clinic. The methodology was approved by the French data protection authority and an ethics committee...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
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