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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231536/lignin-derived-inhibition-of-monocomponent-cellulases-and-a-xylanase-in-the-hydrolysis-of-lignocellulosics
#1
Miriam Kellock, Jenni Rahikainen, Kaisa Marjamaa, Kristiina Kruus
Non-productive enzyme binding onto lignin is the major inhibitory mechanism, which reduces hydrolysis rates and yields and prevents efficient enzyme recycling in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosics. The detailed mechanisms of binding are still poorly understood. Enzyme-lignin interactions were investigated by comparing the structural properties and binding behaviour of fungal monocomponent enzymes, cellobiohydrolases TrCel7A and TrCel6A, endoglucanases TrCel7B and TrCel5A, a xylanase TrXyn11 and a β-glucosidase AnCel3A, onto lignins isolated from steam pretreated spruce and wheat straw...
February 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231171/application-of-hybrid-genetic-algorithm-routine-in-optimizing-food-and-bioengineering-processes
#2
Jaya Shankar Tumuluru, Richard McCulloch
Optimization is a crucial step in the analysis of experimental results. Deterministic methods only converge on local optimums and require exponentially more time as dimensionality increases. Stochastic algorithms are capable of efficiently searching the domain space; however convergence is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the novelty of the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which combines both stochastic and deterministic routines for improved optimization results. The new hybrid genetic algorithm developed is applied to the Ackley benchmark function as well as case studies in food, biofuel, and biotechnology processes...
November 9, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229208/trichoderma-reesei-xylanase-5-is-defective-in-the-reference-strain-qm6a-but-functional-alleles-are-present-in-other-wild-type-strains
#3
Jonas Ramoni, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Verena Seidl-Seiboth, Bernhard Seiboth
Trichoderma reesei is a paradigm for the regulation and industrial production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Among these, five xylanases, including the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 XYN1 and XYN2, the GH10 XYN3, and the GH30 XYN4 and XYN6, were described. By genome mining and transcriptome analysis, a further putative xylanase, encoded by xyn5, was identified. Analysis of xyn5 from the genome-sequenced reference strain T. reesei QM6a shows that it encodes a non-functional, truncated form of XYN5...
February 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228093/comparative-profiling-of-hepatopancreas-transcriptomes-in-satiated-and-starving-pomacea-canaliculata
#4
Lei Yang, Tian-Yin Cheng, Fei-Yan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Although Pomacea canaliculata is native to South and Central America, it has become one of the most abundant invasive species worldwide and causes extensive damage to agriculture and horticulture. Conventional physical and chemical techniques have been used to eliminate P. canaliculata, but the effects are not ideal. Therefore, it is important to devise a new method based on a greater understanding of the biology of P. canaliculata. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying digestion and absorption in P...
February 22, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226409/effects-of-xylanase-supplementation-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-blood-parameters-fecal-microbiota-fecal-score-and-fecal-noxious-gas-emission-of-weaning-pigs-fed-corn-soybean-meal-based-diet
#5
Ruixia Lan, Tianshui Li, Inho Kim
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial...
February 22, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220423/leeix2-interactors-analysis-and-eix-mediated-responses-measurement
#6
Meirav Leibman-Markus, Silvia Schuster, Adi Avni
Plant-pathogen interactions involve a large number of wide regulatory systems, necessary for plant defense responses against pathogen attack. The fungal protein ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX) elicits defense responses in specific cultivars of tobacco and tomato. The response to EIX is controlled by a single locus encoding for LeEIX2, a leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like-protein (LRR-RLP). As an RLP, LeEIX2 does not possess an obvious cytoplasmic signaling moiety such as a kinase domain. To study LeEIX2 mode of action, it is essential to identify the potential interactors involved after EIX perception...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212656/using-a-vector-pool-containing-variable-strength-promoters-to-optimize-protein-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#7
Rémi Dulermo, François Brunel, Thierry Dulermo, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro, Jérémy Vion, Marion Trassaert, Stéphane Thomas, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Christophe Leplat
BACKGROUND: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an increasingly common biofactory. To enhance protein expression, several promoters have been developed, including the constitutive TEF promoter, the inducible POX2 promotor, and the hybrid hp4d promoter. Recently, new hp4d-inspired promoters have been created that couple various numbers of UAS1 tandem elements with the minimal LEU2 promoter or the TEF promoter. Three different protein-secretion signaling sequences can be used: preLip2, preXpr2, and preSuc2...
February 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203276/a-biorefinery-scheme-to-fractionate-bamboo-into-high-grade-dissolving-pulp-and-ethanol
#8
Zhaoyang Yuan, Yangbing Wen, Nuwan Sella Kapu, Rodger Beatson, D Mark Martinez
BACKGROUND: Bamboo is a highly abundant source of biomass which is underutilized despite having a chemical composition and fiber structure similar as wood. The main challenge for the industrial processing of bamboo is the high level of silica, which forms water-insoluble precipitates negetively affecting the process systems. A cost-competitive and eco-friendly scheme for the production of high-purity dissolving grade pulp from bamboo not only requires a process for silica removal, but also needs to fully utilize all of the materials dissolved in the process which includes lignin, and cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars as well as the silica...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201934/feeding-value-of-field-beans-vicia-faba-l-var-minor-with-and-without-enzyme-containing-tannase-pectinase-and-xylanase-activities-for-broilers
#9
Jalil Mahmwd Abdulla, Stephen Paul Rose, Alexander Mackay Mackenzie, Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev
Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192217/the-relation-between-xyr1-overexpression-in-trichoderma-harzianum-and-sugarcane-bagasse-saccharification-performance
#10
Priscila da Silva Delabona, Gisele Nunes Rodrigues, Mariane Paludetti Zubieta, Jonas Ramoni, Carla Aloia Codima, Deise Juliana Lima, Cristiane Sanchez Farinas, José Geraldo da Cruz Pradella, Bernhard Seiboth
This work investigates the influence of the positive regulator XYR1 of Trichoderma harzianum on the production of cellulolytic enzymes, using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. Constitutive expression of xyr1 was achieved under the control of the strong Trichoderma reesei pki1 promoter. Five clones with xyr1 overexpression achieved higher xyr1 expression and greater enzymatic productivity when cultivated under submerged fermentation, hence validating the genetic construction for T. harzianum. Clone 5 presented a relative expression of xyr1 26-fold higher than the parent strain and exhibited 66, 37, and 36% higher values for filter paper activity, xylanase activity, and β-glucosidase activity, respectively, during cultivation in a stirred-tank bioreactor...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187376/genome-wide-analysis-of-excretory-secretory-proteins-in-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-provides-potential-targets-for-parasite-control
#11
Shachi Gahoi, Budhayash Gautam
The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita causes significant damage to various economically important crops. Infection is associated with secretion of effector proteins into host cytoplasm and interference with host innate immunity. To combat this infection, the identification and functional annotations of Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins serve as a key to produce durable control measures. The identification of ES proteins through experimental methods are expensive and time consuming while bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective by prioritizing the experimental analysis of potential drug targets for parasitic diseases...
February 1, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187141/role-of-n-linked-glycosylation-in-the-enzymatic-properties-of-a-thermophilic-gh-10-xylanase-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris
#12
Xiaoyu Chang, Bo Xu, Yingguo Bai, Huiying Luo, Rui Ma, Pengjun Shi, Bin Yao
N-Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification commonly occurred in fungi and plays roles in a variety of enzyme functions. In this study, a xylanase (Af-XYNA) of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 from Aspergillus fumigatus harboring three potential N-glycosylation sites (N87, N124 and N335) was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris. The N-glycosylated Af-XYNA (WT) exhibited favorable temperature and pH optima (75°C and pH 5.0) and good thermostability (maintaining stable at 60°C). To reveal the role of N-glycosylation on Af-XYNA, the enzyme was deglycosylated by endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (DE) or modified by site-directed mutagenesis at N124 (N124T)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181082/growth-and-expression-of-relevant-metabolic-genes-of-clostridium-thermocellum-cultured-on-lignocellulosic-residues
#13
Vanessa O Leitão, Eliane F Noronha, Brenda R Camargo, Pedro R V Hamann, Andrei S Steindorff, Betania F Quirino, Marcelo Valle de Sousa, Cirano J Ulhoa, Carlos R Felix
The plant cell wall is a source of fermentable sugars in second-generation bioethanol production. However, cellulosic biomass hydrolysis remains an obstacle to bioethanol production in an efficient and low-cost process. Clostridium thermocellum has been studied as a model organism able to produce enzymatic blends that efficiently degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and also as a fermentative microorganism in a consolidated process for the conversion of lignocellulose to bioethanol. In this study, a C. thermocellum strain (designated B8) isolated from goat rumen was characterized for its ability to grow on sugarcane straw and cotton waste, and to produce cellulosomes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178978/enhanced-extracellular-production-of-recombinant-proteins-in-escherichia-coli-by-co-expression-with-bacillus-cereus-phospholipase-c
#14
Lingqia Su, Qi Jiang, Lingang Yu, Jing Wu
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory has reported a strategy for improving the extracellular production of recombinant proteins through co-expression with Thermobifida fusca cutinase, which increases membrane permeability via its phospholipid hydrolysis activity. However, the foam generated by the lysophospholipid product makes the fermentation process difficult to control in a fermentor. Phospholipase C (PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to produce sn1,2-diacylglycerides and organic phosphate, which do not induce foam formation...
February 8, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174620/complete-genome-sequence-of-thermus-brockianus-ge-1-reveals-key-enzymes-of-xylan-xylose-metabolism
#15
Christian Schäfers, Saskia Blank, Sigrid Wiebusch, Skander Elleuche, Garabed Antranikian
Thermus brockianus strain GE-1 is a thermophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium that was isolated from the Geysir geothermal area, Iceland. Like other thermophiles, Thermus species are often used as model organisms to understand the mechanism of action of extremozymes, especially focusing on their heat-activity and thermostability. Genome-specific features of T. brockianus GE-1 and their properties further help to explain processes of the adaption of extremophiles at elevated temperatures...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173691/characterization-of-the-wild-type-and-truncated-form-of-a-neutral-gh10-xylanase-from-coprinus-cinereus-roles-of-c-terminal-basic-amino-acid-rich-extension-in-its-sds-resistance-thermostability-and-activity
#16
Hang Hu, Kaixiang Chen, Lulu Li, Liangkun Long, Shaojun Ding
A neutral xylanase (Ccxyn) was identified from Coprinus cinereus. It has a single GH10 catalytic domain with a basic amino acid-rich extension (PVRRK) at C-terminus. In this study, the wild-type (Ccxyn) and C-terminus truncated xylanase (CcXynΔ5C) were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and their characteristics were comparatively analyzed with aims to examine the effect of this extension on the enzyme function. The circular dichorism (CD) analysis indicated that both enzymes in general had a similar structure, but CcXynΔ5C contained less α-helices (42...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152204/functional-applications-of-lignocellulolytic-enzymes-in-the-fruit-and-vegetable-processing-industries
#17
Sazzad Hossen Toushik, Kyung-Tai Lee, Jin-Sung Lee, Keun-Sung Kim
Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin (carbohydrate), and lignin (noncarbohydrate) polymers are the main substrates of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. They are present in large amounts in the primary cell wall and dietary fibers of major fruits and vegetables. During processing of fruits and vegetables to the corresponding final food products, lignocellulosic substrates are hydrolyzed by different lignocellulolytic enzymes. Currently, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases, xylanases, pectinases, and laccases are extensively used during the processing of fruits and vegetables, in applications like texturizing and flavoring of products in the food industries...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152017/genetic-toolbox-for-controlled-expression-of-functional-proteins-in-geobacillus-spp
#18
Ivan Pogrebnyakov, Christian Bille Jendresen, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen
Species of genus Geobacillus are thermophilic bacteria and play an ever increasing role as hosts for biotechnological applications both in academia and industry. Here we screened a number of Geobacillus strains to determine which industrially relevant carbon sources they can utilize. One of the strains, G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93, was then chosen to develop a toolbox for controlled gene expression over a wide range of levels. It includes a library of semi-synthetic constitutive promoters (76-fold difference in expression levels) and an inducible promoter from the xylA gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143479/droplet-based-microfluidic-high-throughput-screening-of-heterologous-enzymes-secreted-by-the-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica
#19
Thomas Beneyton, Stéphane Thomas, Andrew D Griffiths, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Antoine Drevelle, Tristan Rossignol
BACKGROUND: Droplet-based microfluidics is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to microtiter plate techniques for enzymatic high-throughput screening (HTS), especially for exploring large diversities with lower time and cost footprint. In this case, the assayed enzyme has to be accessible to the substrate within the water-in-oil droplet by being ideally extracellular or displayed at the cell surface. However, most of the enzymes screened to date are expressed within the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli cells, which means that a lysis step must take place inside the droplets for enzyme activity to be assayed...
January 31, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130302/distinct-growth-and-secretome-strategies-by-two-taxonomically-divergent-brown-rot-fungi
#20
Gerald N Presley, Jonathan S Schilling
: Brown rot fungi are wood-degrading fungi that employ both oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms to degrade wood. Hydroxyl radicals that facilitate the oxidative component are powerful non-selective oxidants and are incompatible with hydrolytic enzymes unless they are spatially segregated in wood. Differential gene expression has been implicated in Postia placenta to segregate these reactions, but it is unclear if this two-step mechanism varies in other brown rot fungi with different traits and life history strategies, and that occupy different niches in nature...
January 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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