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Mun Su Rhee, Neha Sawhney, Young Sik Kim, Hyun Jee Rhee, Jason C Hurlbert, Franz J St John, Guang Nong, John D Rice, James F Preston
Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 (Pjdr2) has been studied as a model for development of bacterial biocatalysts for efficient processing of xylans, methylglucuronoxylan, and methylglucuronoarabinoxylan, the predominant hemicellulosic polysaccharides found in dicots and monocots, respectively. Pjdr2 produces a cell-associated GH10 endoxylanase (Xyn10A1) that catalyzes depolymerization of xylans to xylobiose, xylotriose, and methylglucuronoxylotriose with methylglucuronate-linked α-1,2 to the nonreducing terminal xylose...
October 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Timothy D Leathers, Neil P J Price, Pennapa Manitchotpisit, Kenneth M Bischoff
Liamocins are unique heavier-than-water "oils" produced by certain strains of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. Liamocins have antibacterial activity with specificity for Streptococcus sp. Previous studies reported that liamocin yields were highest from strains of A. pullulans belonging to phylogenetic clades 8, 9, and 11, cultured on medium containing sucrose. In this study, 27 strains from these clades were examined for the first time for production of liamocins from agricultural biomass substrates. Liamocin yields were highest from strains in phylogenetic clade 11, and yields were higher from cultures grown on sucrose than from those grown on pretreated wheat straw...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Shubhangi Rastogi, Raman Soni, Jaspreet Kaur, Sanjeev Kumar Soni
A natural variant of Pyrenophora phaeocomes isolated from natural biodiversity was able to grow on various agricultural residues by co-producing laccase, xylanase and mannanase. Solid state fermentation of rice straw induced the highest productivities corresponding to 10,859.51±46.74, 22.01±1.00 and 10.45±0.128IUgds(-1) for laccase, xylanase and mannanase respectively after 4days. Besides producing the ligno-hemicellulolytic enzyme cocktail, 40days cultivation of P. phaeocomes S-1 on rice straw brought about the 63 and 51% degradation of lignin and hemicellulose...
October 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jie Zhou, Jia Ouyang, Qianqian Xu, Zhaojuan Zheng
The main barriers to cost-effective lactic acid production from lignocellulose are the high cost of enzymes and the ineffective utilization of the xylose within the hydrolysate. In the present study, the thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain CC17 was used for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of bagasse sulfite pulp (BSP) to produce l-lactic acid. Unexpectedly, SSF by CC17 required approximately 33.33% less fungal cellulase than did separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). More interestingly, CC17 can co-ferment cellobiose and xylose without any exogenous β-glucosidase in SSF...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Neha Basotra, Baljit Kaur, Marcos Di Falco, Adrian Tsang, Bhupinder Singh Chadha
Mycothermus thermophilus (Syn. Scytalidium thermophilum/Humicola insolens), a thermophilic fungus, is being reported to produce appreciable titers of cellulases and hemicellulases during shake flask culturing on cellulose/wheat-bran/rice straw based production medium. The sequential and differential expression profile of endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases using zymography was studied. Mass spectrometry analysis of secretome (Q-TOF LC/MS) revealed a total of 240 proteins with 92 CAZymes of which 62 glycosyl hydrolases belonging to 30 different families were present...
October 8, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Yachun Su, Liping Xu, Zhuqing Wang, Qiong Peng, Yuting Yang, Yun Chen, Youxiong Que
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane smut, which is caused by Sporisorium scitamineum, has been threatening global sugarcane production. Breeding smut resistant sugarcane varieties has been proven to be the most effective method of controlling this particular disease. However, a lack of genome information of sugarcane has hindered the development of genome-assisted resistance breeding programs. Furthermore, the molecular basis of sugarcane response to S. scitamineum infection at the proteome level was incomplete and combining proteomic and transcriptional analysis has not yet been conducted...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Xiaoyu Wang, Huoqing Huang, Xiangming Xie, Rui Ma, Yingguo Bai, Fei Zheng, Shuai You, Bingyu Zhang, Huifang Xie, Bin Yao, Huiying Luo
A xylanase gene of GH 10, Tlxyn10A, was cloned from Talaromyces leycettanus JCM12802 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified recombinant TlXyn10A was acidic and hyperthermophilic, and retained stable over the pH range of 2.0-6.0 and at 90°C. Sequence analysis of TlXyn10A identified seven residues probably involved in substrate contacting. Three mutants (TlXyn10A_P, _N and _C) were then constructed by substituting some or all of the residues with corresponding ones of hyperthermal Xyl10C from Bispora sp...
October 3, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Golla Ramanjaneyulu, Bontha Rajasekhar Reddy
Xylanses are hydrolytic enzymes with wide applications in several industries like biofuels, paper and pulp, deinking, food, and feed. The present study was aimed at hitting at high yield xylanase producing fungi from natural resources. Two highest xylanase producing fungal isolates-Q12 and L1 were picked from collection of 450 fungal cultures for the utilization of xylan. These fungal isolates-Q12 and L1 were identified basing on ITS gene sequencing analysis as Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 (KT119615) and Fusarium strain BRR R6 (KT119619), respectively with construction of phylogenetic trees...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dal Rye Kim, Hee Kyung Lim, Kee In Lee, In Taek Hwang
The model 3-D structure of xylanase KRICT PX3 (JF320814) identified by DNA sequence analysis revealed a catalytic domain and CBM4-9 which functions as a xylan binding domain (XBD). To identify its role in xylan hydrolysis, six expression plasmids were constructed encoding the N-terminal CBM plus the catalytic domain or different glycosyl hydrolases, and the biochemical properties of the recombinant enzymes were compared to the original structure of PX3 xylanase. All six of the recombinant xylanases with the addition of CBM in the pIVEX-GST expression vector showed no improved PX3 hydrolytic activity...
November 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Kwabena O Duedu, Christopher E French
Effective degradation of cellulose requires multiple classes of enzyme working together. However, naturally occurring cellulases with multiple catalytic domains seem to be rather rare in known cellulose-degrading organisms. A fusion protein made from Cellulomonas fimi exo- and endo- glucanases, Cex and CenA which improves breakdown of cellulose is described. A homologous carbohydrate binding module (CBM-2) present in both glucanases was fused to give a fusion protein CxnA. CxnA or unfused constructs (Cex+CenA, Cex, or CenA) were expressed in Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii...
November 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Shengwen Duan, Xiangyuan Feng, Lifeng Cheng, Yuande Peng, Ke Zheng, Zhengchu Liu
Among industrial fiber crops, jute is ranked second to cotton in terms of yield and planting area worldwide. The traditional water retting and chemical semi-degumming methods restrict the development of the jute industry. Jute fiber can be extracted from jute bast through mechanical rolling (preprocessing), culture of bacteria, soaking fermentation (liquor ratio = 10, inoculum size = 1 %, temperature = 35 °C, and time = 15 h), inactivation, washing, and drying. Pectobacterium sp. DCE-01 secretes key degumming enzymes: pectinase, mannase, and xylanase, which match well the main non-cellulosic components of jute bast...
December 2016: AMB Express
Guilherme L Pinheiro, Allan C de Azevedo-Martins, Rodolpho M Albano, Wanderley de Souza, Susana Frases
The giant snail Achatina fulica is considered an invasive species in most territories in which it was introduced, due to its ability to process a large amount of lignocellulose as a consequence of the presence of a cellulolytic-associated microflora. Streptomyces are well known as crucial agents in the decomposition of complex polymers in soil environments and also as cellulolytic symbionts commonly associated with herbivore insects. Here, we employed a combination of genomic and biochemical tools for a detailed evaluation of the cellulolytic potential of Streptomyces sp...
October 4, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
V G Schramm, J F Durau, L N E Barrilli, J O B Sorbara, A J Cowieson, A P Félix, A Maiorka
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizability of corn and a corn/soy-based diet with the inclusion or not of xylanase and/or phytase in broilers. In the trial, 1,120 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, consisting of 16 treatments, with 10 replicates of 7 birds each. Treatments were evaluated following a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 × 2), with 4 xylanase levels (zero, 50, 100, or 150 fungal β-xylanase units/kg; FXU), 2 phytase levels (zero or 1,000 phytase units/kg; FTU), and 2 diets (corn/soy or pure corn)...
October 2, 2016: Poultry Science
Muthusamy Sanjivkumar, TamilSelvan Silambarasan, Arunachalam Palavesam, Grasian Immanuel
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the xylanolytic properties of an actinobacterium Streptomyces olivaceus (MSU3) isolated from the sediment sample of mangrove environment. It showed highest xylanase activity on initial screening in Breg's mineral salts medium supplemented with 0.5% xylan. Further the organism expressed maximum xylanase production at optimized culture conditions of pH 7, temperature 30 °C with 2.5% of inoculum size at 72 h of incubation, the nutrient sources like sucrose (2%) and yeast extract (3%) have observed as best carbon and nitrogen sources respectively...
September 28, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
J L P Daniel, O C M Queiroz, K G Arriola, C R Staples, J J Romero, J H Shin, J R Paschoaloto, L G Nussio, A T Adesogan
The objective of this study was to examine effects of adding fibrolytic enzymes to diets containing bermudagrass ensiled after 4 or 7 wk of regrowth on the diet digestibility, ruminal fermentation and performance of lactating cows, and the interaction of the treatments. In experiment 1, 64 Holstein cows (22 ± 4 d in milk) were assigned to an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement and a 56-d duration. Treatments were diets containing 4 or 7 wk regrowth bermudagrass silage without or with an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme cocktail...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Shuai Zhao, Yu-Si Yan, Qi-Peng He, Lin Yang, Xin Yin, Cheng-Xi Li, Li-Chun Mao, Lu-Sheng Liao, Jin-Qun Huang, Shang-Bo Xie, Qing-Dong Nong, Zheng Zhang, Lei Jing, Ya-Ru Xiong, Cheng-Jie Duan, Jun-Liang Liu, Jia-Xun Feng
BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Penicillium oxalicum is a potential alternative to Trichoderma reesei for industrial production of a complete cellulolytic enzyme system for a bio-refinery. Comparative omics approaches can support rational genetic engineering and/or breeding of filamentous fungi with improved cellulase production capacity. In this study, comparative genomic, transcriptomic and secretomic profiling of P. oxalicum HP7-1 and its cellulase and xylanase hyper-producing mutant EU2106 were employed to screen for novel regulators of cellulase and xylanase gene expression...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Letícia M F Sena, Camila G Morais, Mariana R Lopes, Renata O Santos, Ana P T Uetanabaro, Paula B Morais, Marcos J S Vital, Marcos A de Morais, Marc-André Lachance, Carlos A Rosa
Sixteen yeast isolates identified as belonging to the genus Sugiyamaella were studied in relation to D-xylose fermentation, xylitol production, and xylanase activities. The yeasts were recovered from rotting wood and sugarcane bagasse samples in different Brazilian regions. Sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of large subunit rRNA gene showed that these isolates belong to seven new species. The species are described here as Sugiyamaella ayubii f.a., sp. nov...
September 29, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
N Pérez-Rodríguez, D Outeiriño, A Torrado Agrasar, J M Domínguez
Ferulic acid esterases (FAE) possess a large variety of biotechnological applications mainly based on their ability to release ferulic acid from lignocellulosic matrixes. The use of vine trimming shoots (VTS), an agricultural waste, as substrate for the generation of this kind of esterases represents an attractive alternative to change the consideration of VTS from residue to resource. Furthermore, xylanase, cellobiase, and cellulase activities were quantified. Six microorganisms were screened for FAE production by solid-state fermentation, and the effects of the additional supplementation and substrate size were also tested...
September 28, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Dongdong Zhang, Yi Wang, Dan Zheng, Peng Guo, Wei Cheng, Zongjun Cui
Three bacterial strains with extracellular xylanase activity were isolated from the microbial consortium XDC-2. The aerobic strain A7, belonging to Bacillus sp., was combined with the anaerobe Clostridium sp. strain AA3 and/or Bacteroides sp. strain AA4 to obtain an efficient natural xylanolytic complex enzyme. The synthetic microbial community M1 consisting of strains Bacillus and Clostridium showed enhanced extracellular xylanase activity and production, and higher lignocelluloses degradation capability than any of the pure cultures and other synthetic microbial communities...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Javier A Linares-Pastén, Anna Aronsson, Eva Nordberg Karlsson
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) have gained increased interest as prebiotics during the last years. XOS and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) can be produced from major fractions of biomass including agricultural by-products and other low cost raw materials. Endo-xylanases are key enzymes for the production of (A)XOS from xylan. As the xylan structure is broadly diverse due to different substitutions, diverse endo-xylanases have evolved for its degradation. In this review structural and functional aspects are discussed, focusing on the potential applications of endo-xylanases in the production of differently substituted (A)XOS as emerging prebiotics, as well as their implication in the processing of the raw materials...
September 23, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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