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Timo Schuerg, Jan-Philip Prahl, Raphael Gabriel, Simon Harth, Firehiwot Tachea, Chyi-Shin Chen, Matthew Miller, Fabrice Masson, Qian He, Sarah Brown, Mona Mirshiaghi, Ling Liang, Lauren M Tom, Deepti Tanjore, Ning Sun, Todd R Pray, Steven W Singer
Background: Lignocellulosic biomass is an important resource for renewable production of biofuels and bioproducts. Enzymes that deconstruct this biomass are critical for the viability of biomass-based biofuel production processes. Current commercial enzyme mixtures have limited thermotolerance. Thermophilic fungi may provide enzyme mixtures with greater thermal stability leading to more robust processes. Understanding the induction of biomass-deconstructing enzymes in thermophilic fungi will provide the foundation for strategies to construct hyper-production strains...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
José H Pisa, Adriana P Manfredi, Nora I Perotti, Héctor G Romero, Javier D Breccia, María Alejandra Martínez
Members of Cohnella sp. isolated from a variety of environments have been shown to be glycoside hydrolase producers. Nevertheless, most evaluations of members of this genus are limited to their taxonomic description. The strain AR92, previously identified as belonging to the genus Cohnella, formed a well-supported cluster with C. thailandensis and C. formosensis (>80% bootstrap confidence). Its growth and xylanase production were approached by using a mineral-based medium containing alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse as the main carbon source, which was assayed as a convenient source to produce biocatalysts potentially fitting its degradation...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Silvia Hüttner, Thanh Thuy Nguyen, Zoraide Granchi, Thomas Chin-A-Woeng, Dag Ahrén, Johan Larsbrink, Vu Nguyen Thanh, Lisbeth Olsson
Background: Genome and transcriptome sequencing has greatly facilitated the understanding of biomass-degrading mechanisms in a number of fungal species. The information obtained enables the investigation and discovery of genes encoding proteins involved in plant cell wall degradation, which are crucial for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass in second-generation biorefinery applications. The thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea is an efficient producer of many industrially relevant enzymes and a detailed analysis of its genomic content will considerably enhance our understanding of its lignocellulolytic system and promote the discovery of novel proteins...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Anna Aronsson, Fatma Güler, Maxim V Petoukhov, Susan J Crennell, Dmitri I Svergun, Javier A Linares-Pastén, Eva Nordberg Karlsson
Hydrolysis of arabinoxylan (AX) by glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) xylanases produces xylo- and arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides ((A)XOS) which have shown prebiotic effects. The thermostable GH10 xylanase RmXyn10A has shown great potential to produce (A)XOS. In this study, the structure of RmXyn10A was investigated, the catalytic module by homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis and the arrangement of its five domains by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Substrate specificity was explored in silico by manual docking and molecular dynamic simulations...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Thana Sutthibutpong, Triwit Rattanarojpong, Pongsak Khunrae
Local conformational changes and global unfolding pathways of wildtype xyn11A recombinant and its mutated structures were studied through a series of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, along with enzyme activity assays at three incubation temperatures to investigate the effects of mutations at three different sites to the thermostability. The first mutation was to replace an unstable negatively charged residue at a surface beta turn near the active site (D32G) by a hydrophobic residue. The second mutation was to create a disulfide bond (S100C/N147C) establishing a strong connection between an alpha helix and a distal beta hairpin associated with the thermally sensitive Thumb loop, and the third mutation add an extra hydrogen bond (A155S) to the same alpha helix...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Xiaoyu Wang, Rui Ma, Xiangming Xie, Weina Liu, Tao Tu, Fei Zheng, Shuai You, Jianzhong Ge, Huifang Xie, Bin Yao, Huiying Luo
Thermophilic xylanases with high catalytic efficiency are of great interest in the biofuel, food and feed industries. This study identified a GH11 xylanase gene, Tlxyn11B, in Talaromyces leycettanus JCM12802. Recombinant TlXyn11B produced in Pichia pastoris is distinguished by high specific activity (8259 ± 32 U/mg with beechwood xylan as substrate) and excellent pH stability (from 1.0 to 10.5). The beechwood xylan hydrolysates consisted mainly of xylobiose, xylotriose and xylotetraose, thus TlXyn11B could be used for the production of prebiotic xylooligosaccharide...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bruno L Mello, Anna M Alessi, Diego M Riaño-Pachón, Eduardo R deAzevedo, Francisco E G Guimarães, Melissa C Espirito Santo, Simon McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce, Igor Polikarpov
Background: Using globally abundant crop residues as a carbon source for energy generation and renewable chemicals production stand out as a promising solution to reduce current dependency on fossil fuels. In nature, such as in compost habitats, microbial communities efficiently degrade the available plant biomass using a diverse set of synergistic enzymes. However, deconstruction of lignocellulose remains a challenge for industry due to recalcitrant nature of the substrate and the inefficiency of the enzyme systems available, making the economic production of lignocellulosic biofuels difficult...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Shihai Zhang, Junjie Song, Zixiao Deng, Lin Cheng, Min Tian, Wutai Guan
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of combined supplementation of α-galactosidase and xylanase on nutrient digestibility and growth performance in growing pigs. Experiment 1 had a 2 × 2 Latin square design, where eight barrows (45.0 ± 0.52 kg body weight [BW]) were fitted with a simple T-cannula in the distal ileum and received a basal diet without or with supplementation of α-galactosidase (12 U/kg diet) and xylanase (15 AXC/kg diet) within two periods of 10 d. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, pH, viscosity of digesta and digestive enzyme activities were assessed...
December 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Po-Huang Liang, Wen-Ling Lin, Han-Yu Hsieh, Tsung-Yi Lin, Chun-Hsu Chen, Sunil K Tewary, Hsiao-Lin Lee, Shuo-Fu Yuan, Barbara Yang, Jyun-Yu Yao, Meng-Chiao Ho
BACKGROUND: An array of glycoside hydrolases with multiple substrate specificities are required to digest plant cell wall polysaccharides. Cel5E from Clostridium thermocellum and Cel5A from Thermotoga maritima are two glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) enzymes with high sequence and structural similarity, but notably possess different substrate specificities; the former is a bifunctional cellulase/xylanase and the latter is a cellulase/mannanase. A specific loop in TmCel5A, Tmloop, is one of the most structurally divergent regions compared to CtCel5E and interacts with substrates, suggesting the importance for mannan recognition...
November 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiuyun Wu, Zhennan Tian, Xukai Jiang, Qun Zhang, Lushan Wang
XynB from Aspergillus niger ATCC1015 (AnXynB) is a mesophilic glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 xylanase which holds great potentials in a wide variety of industrial applications. In the present study, the catalytic activity and stability of AnXynB were improved by a combination of computational and experimental approaches. Virtual mutation and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the introduction of Glu and Asn altered the interaction network at the - 3 subsite. Interestingly, the double mutant S41N/T43E displayed 72% increase in catalytic activity when compared to the wild type (WT)...
November 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
María Teresa Alvarez-Zúñiga, Alejandro Santiago-Hernández, Johan Rodríguez-Mendoza, Jorge E Campos, Patricia Pavón-Orozco, Sergio Trejo-Estrada, María Eugenia Hidalgo-Lara
The zygomycete fungus Lichtheimia ramosa H71D, isolated from sugarcane bagasse compost, was identified by applying phylogenetic analysis based on the DNA sequence of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS), and subsequent secondary structure analysis of ITS2. L. ramosa H71D was able to grow over a wide range of temperatures (25-45 °C), manifesting optimal growth at 37 °C. A 64 kDa xylanase (named LrXynA) was purified from the culture supernatant of L. ramosa H71D grown on 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), as the only carbon source...
November 2, 2017: AMB Express
T E Askelson, C A Flores, S L Dunn-Horrocks, Y Dersjant-Li, K Gibbs, A Awati, J T Lee, T Duong
Direct-fed microorganisms (DFM) and exogenous enzymes have been demonstrated to improve growth performance in poultry and are potentially important alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). We investigated the administration of a feed additive composed of a DFM product containing spores of 3 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains and an enzyme blend of endo-xylanase, α-amylase, and serine-protease in diets with or without sub-therapeutic antibiotics in broiler chickens over a 42-d growth period. Evaluation of growth performance determined feed efficiency of broiler chickens which were administered the feed additive was comparable to those fed a diet containing AGPs...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Dongyu Wang, Lili Zhang, Haiyue Zou, Lushan Wang
Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungus. In this study, systematic analyses were carried out to study the temperature adaptability of A. fumigatus. A total of 241 glycoside hydrolases and 69 proteases in the secretome revealed the strong capability of A. fumigatus to degrade plant biomass and protein substrates. In total, 129 pathogenesis-related proteins detected in the secretome were strongly correlated with glycoside hydrolases and proteases. The variety and abundance of proteins remained at temperatures of 34°C-45°C...
October 23, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
A L Wealleans, M C Walsh, L F Romero, V Ravindran
The efficacy of two exogenous enzyme combinations and a multi-strain Bacillus probiotic (DFM) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and gut microbial composition was investigated in broilers. One-day old Ross 308 chicks were assigned to 36 pens with 22 birds/pen and 6 pens/treatment (Experiment 1) or 36 cages with 8 birds/cage and 6 cages/treatment (Experiment 2). Treatment additives were added to nutritionally complete corn/soy based starter (d 1 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
Peter Falck, Javier A Linares-Pastén, Eva Nordberg Karlsson, Patrick Adlercreutz
An arabinose specific xylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) was used to hydrolyse wheat and rye arabinoxylan, and the product profile showed that it produced arabinose substituted oligosaccharides (AXOS) having 2-10 xylose residues in the main chain but no unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides (XOS). Molecular modelling showed that the active site has an open structure and that the hydroxyl groups of all xylose residues in the active site are solvent exposed, indicating that arabinose substituents can be accommodated in the glycone as well as the aglycone subsites...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mario Cezar Rodrigues Mano, Iramaia Angélica Neri-Numa, Juliana Bueno da Silva, Bruno Nicolau Paulino, Marina Gabriel Pessoa, Gláucia Maria Pastore
Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12...
October 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Qin Li, Baoguo Sun, Xiuting Li, Ke Xiong, Youqiang Xu, Ran Yang, Jie Hou, Chao Teng
A GH10 xylanase Srxyn10 from Streptomyce rochei L10904, and its truncated derivative, Srxyn10M, were investigated. Both displayed great salt-tolerant ability, retaining more than 95% and 91% activity after incubation at 37°C for 1h in 3.0M and 5.0M NaCl, respectively. They exhibited a special hydrolytic property of forming xylobiose as the major product and produced fewer xylose compounds when combined with a reported xylanase while digesting corncob xylans. The mutant, Srxyn10M, was constructed from Srxyn10 by deleting the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ran Qiu, Jian Lu
OBJECTIVES: Exogenous phytase improved the activity of hydrolases to decrease the malting time. RESULTS: Treatment with phytase during barley steeping increased activity of hydrolases (α-/β-amylase, proteinase, β-glucanase and xylanase) in green malt. Maximal activity was observed for α-/β-amylase, β-glucanase and xylanase with 0.8 U phytase/g and proteinase with 1.2 U phytase/g. Phytase promoted acrospire growth of green malt and reduced malting process with 0...
October 12, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Dhaneshwaree Asem, Vincent Vineeth Leo, Ajit Kumar Passari, Mary Vanlalhruaii Tonsing, J Beslin Joshi, Sivakumar Uthandi, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Bhim Pratap Singh
The gastrointestinal (GI) habitat of ruminant and non-ruminant animals sustains a vast ensemble of microbes that are capable of utilizing lignocellulosic plant biomass. In this study, an indigenous swine (Zovawk) and a domesticated goat (Black Bengal) were investigated to isolate bacteria having plant biomass degrading enzymes. After screening and enzymatic quantification of eighty-one obtained bacterial isolates, Serratia rubidaea strain DBT4 and Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain DBT87 were revealed as the most potent strains, showing both cellulase and xylanase production...
2017: PloS One
A Gallo, G Giuberti, S Bruschi, P Fortunati, F Masoero
The study was performed on forages ( = 8), nonforage fibrous feeds ( = 10), and crop residues ( = 2). Samples were characterized for in situ NDF degradability (NDFD) at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 240 h of ruminal incubation. Then, samples were characterized for enzymatic NDFD by adopting a multistep enzymatic method consisting of a preincubation (PreInc) phase followed by enzymatic incubation (EnzInc) steps. In the PreInc phase, samples were incubated in a NaOH solution for 0, 30, 60, or 90 min...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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