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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786939/an-update-on-enzymatic-cocktails-for-lignocellulose-breakdown
#1
REVIEW
Andreza de Mello Lopes, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho, Leonora Rios de Souza Moreira
Alternative energy sources have received increasing attention in recent years. The possibility of adding value to agricultural wastes, by producing biofuels and other products with economic value from lignocellulosic biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis, has been widely explored. Lignocellulosic biomass, as well as being an abundant residue, is a complex recalcitrant structure that requires a consortium of enzymes for its complete degradation. Pools of enzymes with different specificities acting together usually produce an increase in hydrolysis yield...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786858/ecosystem-heterogeneity-and-diversity-mitigate-amazon-forest-resilience-to-frequent-extreme-droughts
#2
Marcos Longo, Ryan G Knox, Naomi M Levine, Luciana F Alves, Damien Bonal, Plinio B Camargo, David R Fitzjarrald, Matthew N Hayek, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Scott R Saleska, Rodrigo da Silva, Scott C Stark, Raphael P Tapajós, Kenia T Wiedemann, Ke Zhang, Steven C Wofsy, Paul R Moorcroft
The impact of increases in drought frequency on the Amazon forest's composition, structure and functioning remain uncertain. We used a process- and individual-based ecosystem model (ED2) to quantify the forest's vulnerability to increased drought recurrence. We generated meteorologically realistic, drier-than-observed rainfall scenarios for two Amazon forest sites, Paracou (wetter) and Tapajós (drier), to evaluate the impacts of more frequent droughts on forest biomass, structure and composition. The wet site was insensitive to the tested scenarios, whereas at the dry site biomass declined when average rainfall reduction exceeded 15%, due to high mortality of large-sized evergreen trees...
May 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786797/nmr-based-prostate-cancer-metabolomics
#3
Leslie R Euceda, Maria K Andersen, May-Britt Tessem, Siver A Moestue, Maria T Grinde, Tone F Bathen
Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy, and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death among men, worldwide. A major unsolved clinical challenge in prostate cancer is the ability to accurately distinguish indolent cancer types from the aggressive ones. Reprogramming of metabolism is now a widely accepted hallmark of cancer development, where cancer cells must be able to convert nutrients to biomass while maintaining energy production. Metabolomics is the large-scale study of small molecules, commonly known as metabolites, within cells, biofluids, tissues, or organisms...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785766/schizophyllum-commune-an-unexploited-source-for-lignocellulose-degrading-enzymes
#4
REVIEW
Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera, Adriana Mayrel Martha-Paz, Yordanis Pérez-LLano, Elisabet Aranda, Juan Enrique Tacoronte-Morales, María Teresa Pedroso-Cabrera, Katiushka Arévalo-Niño, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol, Ramón Alberto Batista-García
Lignocellulose represents the most abundant source of carbon in the Earth. Thus, fraction technology of the biomass turns up as an emerging technology for the development of biorefineries. Saccharification and fermentation processes require the formulation of enzymatic cocktails or the development of microorganisms (naturally or genetically modified) with the appropriate toolbox to produce a cost-effective fermentation technology. Therefore, the search for microorganisms capable of developing effective cellulose hydrolysis represents one of the main challenges in this era...
May 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785643/estimating-and-mapping-forest-biomass-using-regression-models-and-spot-6-images-case-study-hyrcanian-forests-of-north-of-iran
#5
Mohadeseh Ghanbari Motlagh, Sasan Babaie Kafaky, Asadollah Mataji, Reza Akhavan
Hyrcanian forests of North of Iran are of great importance in terms of various economic and environmental aspects. In this study, Spot-6 satellite images and regression models were applied to estimate above-ground biomass in these forests. This research was carried out in six compartments in three climatic (semi-arid to humid) types and two altitude classes. In the first step, ground sampling methods at the compartment level were used to estimate aboveground biomass (Mg/ha). Then, by reviewing the results of other studies, the most appropriate vegetation indices were selected...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785604/cadmium-phytoextraction-potential-of-king-grass-pennisetum-sinese-roxb-and-responses-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-to-a-cadmium-pollution-gradient
#6
Li Hu, Ru Wang, Xianglin Liu, Bo Xu, Tuanhui Xie, Yunyun Li, Mingkuang Wang, Guo Wang, Yanhui Chen
Screening for tolerant and high biomass producing plants is important for phytoextraction efforts in remediating agricultural soils contaminated by heavy metals. We carried out a greenhouse experiment involving a soil cadmium (Cd) concentration gradient (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg kg-1 ) to assess growth and phytoextraction capacity of king grass (Pennisetum sinese Roxb.) in soils contaminated by Cd and to explore changes in diversity and structure of rhizosphere soil bacterial communities in response to long-term Cd pollution...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785597/removal-of-methylene-blue-dye-from-aqueous-solution-using-immobilized-agrobacterium-fabrum-biomass-along-with-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-biosorbent
#7
Swati Sharma, Abshar Hasan, Naveen Kumar, Lalit M Pandey
A nano-biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) was prepared by encapsulating iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and Agrobacterium fabrum strain SLAJ731, in calcium alginate. The prepared biosorbent was optimized for the maximum adsorption capacity at pH 11, 160 rpm, and 25 °C. Adsorption kinetics was examined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion (IPD) models. The kinetic data agreed to pseudo-second-order model indicating chemisorption of MB, which was also explained by FTIR analysis...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785501/improving-the-acetic-acid-tolerance-and-fermentation-of-acetobacter-pasteurianus-by-nucleotide-excision-repair-protein-uvra
#8
Yu Zheng, Jing Wang, Xiaolei Bai, Yangang Chang, Jun Mou, Jia Song, Min Wang
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widely used in acetic acid fermentation due to their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high tolerance against acetic acid. In Acetobacter pasteurianus, nucleotide excision repair protein UvrA was up-regulated 2.1 times by acetic acid when compared with that without acetic acid. To study the effects of UvrA on A. pasteurianus acetic acid tolerance, uvrA knockout strain AC2005-ΔuvrA, uvrA overexpression strain AC2005 (pMV24-uvrA), and the control strain AC2005 (pMV24), were constructed...
May 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785498/survival-of-planktonic-and-sessile-cells-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-and-lactobacillus-reuteri-upon-exposure-to-simulated-fasting-state-gastrointestinal-conditions
#9
Kyle B Klopper, Elanna Bester, Shelly M Deane, Gideon M Wolfaardt, Leon M T Dicks
In this study, we report on the formation and resilience of Lactobacillus reuteri HFI-LD5 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HFI-K2 biofilms cultivated in a CO2 evolution measurement system (CEMS) and exposed to biologically relevant, fasting-state gastrointestinal fluids under continuous flow conditions. For comparative purposes, planktonic and sessile populations of L. reuteri HFI-LD5 and L. rhamnosus HFI-K2 were each exposed to fasting-state gastric fluid (FSGF, pH 2.0) for 2 h, fasting-state intestinal fluid (FSIF, pH 7...
May 21, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785340/comparing-the-catch-composition-profitability-and-discard-survival-from-different-trammel-net-designs-targeting-common-spiny-lobster-palinurus-elephas-in-a-mediterranean-fishery
#10
Gaetano Catanese, Hilmar Hinz, Maria Del Mar Gil, Miquel Palmer, Michael Breen, Antoni Mira, Elena Pastor, Amalia Grau, Andrea Campos-Candela, Elka Koleva, Antoni Maria Grau, Beatriz Morales-Nin
In the Balearic Islands, different trammel net designs have been adopted to promote fisheries sustainability and reduce discards. Here, we compare the catch performance of three trammel net designs targeting the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in terms of biomass, species composition and revenue from commercial catches and discards. Designs differ in the netting fiber type (standard polyfilament, PMF, or a new polyethylene multi-monofilament, MMF) and the use of a guarding net or greca , a mesh piece intended to reduce discards...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785208/developing-cellulolytic-yarrowia-lipolytica-as-a-platform-for-the-production-of-valuable-products-in-consolidated-bioprocessing-of-cellulose
#11
Zhong-Peng Guo, Julien Robin, Sophie Duquesne, Michael Joseph O'Donohue, Alain Marty, Florence Bordes
Background: Both industrial biotechnology and the use of cellulosic biomass as feedstock for the manufacture of various commercial goods are prominent features of the bioeconomy. In previous work, with the aim of developing a consolidated bioprocess for cellulose bioconversion, we conferred cellulolytic activity of Yarrowia lipolytica , one of the most widely studied "nonconventional" oleaginous yeast species. However, further engineering this strain often leads to the loss of previously introduced heterologous genes due to the presence of multiple LoxP sites when using Cre -recombinase to remove previously employed selection markers...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785207/promiscuous-activities-of-heterologous-enzymes-lead-to-unintended-metabolic-rerouting-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-engineered-to-assimilate-various-sugars-from-renewable-biomass
#12
Eun Ju Yun, Eun Joong Oh, Jing-Jing Liu, Sora Yu, Dong Hyun Kim, Suryang Kwak, Kyoung Heon Kim, Yong-Su Jin
Background: Understanding the global metabolic network, significantly perturbed upon promiscuous activities of foreign enzymes and different carbon sources, is crucial for systematic optimization of metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we studied the effects of promiscuous activities of overexpressed enzymes encoded by foreign genes on rerouting of metabolic fluxes of an engineered yeast capable of assimilating sugars from renewable biomass by profiling intracellular and extracellular metabolites...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785206/life-cycle-assessment-of-residual-lignocellulosic-biomass-based-jet-fuel-with-activated-carbon-and-lignosulfonate-as-co-products
#13
Francesca Pierobon, Ivan L Eastin, Indroneil Ganguly
Background: Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785041/dark-septate-endophytes-isolated-from-a-xerophyte-plant-promote-the-growth-of-ammopiptanthus-mongolicus-under-drought-condition
#14
Xia Li, Xueli He, Lifeng Hou, Ying Ren, Shaojie Wang, Fang Su
Dark septate endophytes (DSE) may facilitate plant growth and stress tolerance in stressful ecosystems. However, little is known about the response of plants to non-host DSE fungi isolated from other plants, especially under drought condition. This study aimed to seek and apply non-host DSE to evaluate their growth promoting effects in a desert species, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, under drought condition. Nine DSE strains isolated from a super-xerophytic shrub, Gymnocarpos przewalskii, were identified and used as the non-host DSE...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784957/metabolic-reprogramming-in-leaf-lettuce-grown-under-different-light-quality-and-intensity-conditions-using-narrow-band-leds
#15
Kazuyoshi Kitazaki, Atsushi Fukushima, Ryo Nakabayashi, Yozo Okazaki, Makoto Kobayashi, Tetsuya Mori, Tomoko Nishizawa, Sebastian Reyes-Chin-Wo, Richard W Michelmore, Kazuki Saito, Kazuhiro Shoji, Miyako Kusano
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an artificial light source used in closed-type plant factories and provide a promising solution for a year-round supply of green leafy vegetables, such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Obtaining high-quality seedlings using controlled irradiation from LEDs is critical, as the seedling health affects the growth and yield of leaf lettuce after transplantation. Because key molecular pathways underlying plant responses to a specific light quality and intensity remain poorly characterised, we used a multi-omics-based approach to evaluate the metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming of leaf lettuce seedlings grown under narrow-band LED lighting...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784790/the-biomass-distribution-on-earth
#16
Yinon M Bar-On, Rob Phillips, Ron Milo
A census of the biomass on Earth is key for understanding the structure and dynamics of the biosphere. However, a global, quantitative view of how the biomass of different taxa compare with one another is still lacking. Here, we assemble the overall biomass composition of the biosphere, establishing a census of the ≈550 gigatons of carbon (Gt C) of biomass distributed among all of the kingdoms of life. We find that the kingdoms of life concentrate at different locations on the planet; plants (≈450 Gt C, the dominant kingdom) are primarily terrestrial, whereas animals (≈2 Gt C) are mainly marine, and bacteria (≈70 Gt C) and archaea (≈7 Gt C) are predominantly located in deep subsurface environments...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783194/quantitative-investigation-of-hydraulic-mixing-energy-input-during-batch-mode-anaerobic-digestion-and-its-impact-on-performance
#17
James McLeod, Z Othman, Rajarathinam Parthasarathy
The relationship between mixing energy input and biogas production was investigated by anaerobically digesting sewage sludge in lab scale, hydraulically mixed, batch mode digesters at six different specific energy inputs. The goal was to identify how mixing energy influenced digestion performance at quantitative levels to help explain the varying results in other published works. The results showed that digester homogeneity was largely uninfluenced by energy input, whereas cumulative biogas production and solids destruction were...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783193/quorum-sensing-molecules-in-activated-sludge-could-trigger-microalgae-lipid-synthesis
#18
Chaofan Zhang, Qingcheng Li, Liang Fu, Dandan Zhou, John C Crittenden
Cultivating microalgae using wastewater is an economical strategy to produce biofuel; however, microbial contamination has to be controlled strictly. Microalgae lipid accumulation can be triggered by environmental pressures, and here, we studied whether microbial contamination is the pressure for microalgae. We hypothesized this pressure was forced via cell-to-cell communication with quorum sensing molecules (QSMs). In this work, we verified the impacts of QSMs produced by activated sludge (wastewater-born microbial consortiums) on both lipid content and biomass production of the microalgae Chlorophyta sp...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783170/impact-of-long-term-salinity-exposure-in-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactors-treating-phenolic-wastewater-performance-robustness-and-endured-microbial-community
#19
Julian D Muñoz Sierra, Margreet J Oosterkamp, Wei Wang, Henri Spanjers, Jules B van Lier
Industrial wastewaters are becoming increasingly associated with extreme conditions such as the presence of refractory compounds and high salinity that adversely affect biomass retention or reduce biological activity. Hence, this study evaluated the impact of long-term salinity increase to 20 gNa+ .L-1 on the bioconversion performance and microbial community composition in anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating phenolic wastewater. Phenol removal efficiency of up to 99.9% was achieved at 14 gNa+ .L-1 . Phenol conversion rates of 5...
May 7, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783132/characterization-of-biomass-waste-torrefaction-under-conventional-and-microwave-heating
#20
Shih-Hsin Ho, Congyu Zhang, Wei-Hsin Chen, Ying Shen, Jo-Shu Chang
To evaluate the potential of microwave heating for biomass torrefaction, the torrefaction performances and energy utilization of coffee grounds and microalga residue, under conventional and microwave heating were investigated and compared with each other. For the two biomass samples, the dehydrogenation of the coffee grounds was more sensitive to torrefaction severity, whereas the microalga residue consumed more energy under the same torrefaction conditions. Microwave heating under lower torrefaction severity had a higher energy efficiency...
May 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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