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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738559/a-novel-dianionic-amino-acid-ionic-liquid-coated-peg-4000-modified-fe3o4-nanocomposite-for-the-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-of-trypsin
#1
Qin Yang, Yuzhi Wang, Hongmei Zhang, Kaijia Xu, Xiaoxiao Wei, Panli Xu, Yigang Zhou
A novel magnetic extractant, PEG 4000 modified Fe3O4nanomaterial that coated with dianionic amino acid ionic liquid (Fe3O4@PEG@DAAAIL), was successfully synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and zeta potentials were used to confirm that the novel nanocomposite was successfully synthesized. Subsequently, the prepared Fe3O4@PEG@DAAAIL nanocomposite was used as the extractant for trypsin coupled with magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE)...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738551/biomass-saccharification-is-largely-enhanced-by-altering-wall-polymer-features-and-reducing-silicon-accumulation-in-rice-cultivars-harvested-from-nitrogen-fertilizer-supply
#2
Zahoor, Dan Sun, Ying Li, Jing Wang, Yuanyuan Tu, Yanting Wang, Zhen Hu, Shiguang Zhou, Lingqiang Wang, Guosheng Xie, Jianliang Huang, Aftab Alam, Liangcai Peng
In this study, two rice cultivars were collected from experimental fields with seven nitrogen fertilizer treatments. All biomass samples contained significantly increased cellulose contents and reduced silica levels, with variable amounts of hemicellulose and lignin from different nitrogen treatments. Under chemical (NaOH, CaO, H2SO4) and physical (hot water) pretreatments, biomass samples exhibited much enhanced hexoses yields from enzymatic hydrolysis, with high bioethanol production from yeast fermentation...
July 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738549/chemical-and-structural-characterization-of-char-development-during-lignocellulosic-biomass-pyrolysis
#3
Lihle D Mafu, Hein W J P Neomagus, Raymond C Everson, Christien A Strydom, Marion Carrier, Gregory N Okolo, John R Bunt
The chemical and structural changes of three lignocellulosic biomass samples during pyrolysis were investigated using both conventional and advanced characterization techniques. The use of ATR-FTIR as a characterization tool is extended by the proposal of a method to determine aromaticity, the calculation of both CH2/CH3 ratio and the degree of aromatic ring condensation ((R/C)u). With increasing temperature, the H/C and O/C ratios, XA and CH2/CH3 ratio decreased, while (R/C)u and aromaticity increased. The micropore network developed with increasing temperature, until the coalescence of pores at 1100°C, which can be linked to increasing carbon densification, extent of aromatization and/or graphitization of the biomass chars...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738529/nitrogen-functionalization-biochars-derived-from-wheat-straws-via-molten-salt-synthesis-an-efficient-adsorbent-for-atrazine-removal
#4
Fan Yang, Lili Sun, Weiling Xie, Qun Jiang, Yan Gao, Wei Zhang, Ying Zhang
N-doped porous carbon sheets (NPCS) resulted from wheat straws are fabricated through using molten salts via the carbonization-functionalization progress, which show unique hierarchical structure, large pore volume and high surface area with affluent micropores. Results indicate that there exist many hierarchical pores consisting of the single carbon sheet with ultrathin nature, owing to the template role of molten salt mixtures at high temperature. Such superior structure can bring about desired performance of adsorption capacity of 82...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738517/modelling-long-term-impacts-of-changes-in-climate-nitrogen-deposition-and-ozone-exposure-on-carbon-sequestration-of-european-forest-ecosystems
#5
Wim de Vries, Maximilian Posch, David Simpson, Gert Jan Reinds
We modelled the effects of past and expected future changes in climate (temperature, precipitation), CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition (N) and ozone (O3) exposure (phytotoxic ozone dose, POD) on carbon (C) sequestration by European forest ecosystems for the period 1900-2050. Tree C sequestration was assessed by using empirical response functions, while soil C sequestration was simulated with the process-based model VSD, combined with the RothC model. We evaluated two empirical growth responses to N deposition (linear and non-linear) and two O3 exposure relationships (linear function with total biomass or net annual increment)...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738512/effects-of-nitrogen-deposition-on-soil-microbial-communities-in-temperate-and-subtropical-forests-in-china
#6
Di Tian, Lai Jiang, Suhui Ma, Wenjing Fang, Bernhard Schmid, Longchao Xu, Jianxiao Zhu, Peng Li, Gianalberto Losapio, Xin Jing, Chengyang Zheng, Haihua Shen, Xiaoniu Xu, Biao Zhu, Jingyun Fang
Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition has aroused large concerns because of its potential negative effects on forest ecosystems. Although microorganisms play a vital role in ecosystem carbon (C) and nutrient cycling, the effect of N deposition on soil microbiota still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the responses of microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) and microbial community composition to 4-5years of experimentally simulated N deposition in temperate needle-leaf forests and subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests in eastern China, using chloroform fumigation extraction and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methods...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738511/litter-thickness-but-not-root-biomass-explains-the-average-and-spatial-structure-of-soil-hydraulic-conductivity-in-secondary-forests-and-coffee-agroecosystems-in-veracruz-mexico
#7
B E Marín-Castro, S Negrete-Yankelevich, D Geissert
Secondary forests and coffee agroecosystems are considered good alternatives for conservation of a high capacity for water filtration in the soil where tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) once grew; however, it is not clear which characteristics of the vegetation modulate the field saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil (Kfs) and whether these characteristics persist in such derived systems. Here, we explore how changes in vegetation between secondary forests and coffee agroecosystems have consequences for the average value and spatial variation of litter thickness and root biomass, and whether these differences can explain the Kfs and its spatial distribution...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738503/integration-of-protein-extraction-with-a-stream-of-byproducts-from-marine-macroalgae-a-model-forms-the-basis-for-marine-bioeconomy
#8
Tejal K Gajaria, Poornima Suthar, Ravi S Baghel, Nikunj B Balar, Preeti Sharnagat, Vaibhav A Mantri, C R K Reddy
The present study describes an advanced biorefinery model for marine macroalgae that assumes significant importance in the context of marine bio-economy. The method investigated in this study integrates the extraction of crude proteins with recovery of minerals rich sap, lipids, ulvan and cellulose from fresh biomass of Ulva lactuca. The protein content extracted was 11±2.12% on dry weight basis with recovery efficiency of 68.75±4.01%. The amino acid composition of crude protein fraction showed iso-leucine as the most abundant amino acid with 16...
July 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738305/contamination-characteristics-and-source-apportionment-of-methylated-pahs-in-agricultural-soils-from-yangtze-river-delta-china
#9
Weixiao Chen, Xinyi Wu, Haiyun Zhang, Jianteng Sun, Wenxin Liu, Lizhong Zhu, Xiangdong Li, Daniel C W Tsang, Shu Tao, Xilong Wang
Alkylated PAHs (APAHs) have been shown to be more toxic and persistent than their non-alkylated parent compounds. However, little is known about the extent of soil contamination by these pollutants. To help understand agricultural soil pollution by these compounds at a regional scale, a total of 18 methylated PAHs (MPAHs, a major class of APAHs) in 243 soil samples were analyzed. These soil samples were collected from 11 sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, a representative fast developing area in China...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738202/predicting-carbon-benefits-from-climate-smart-agriculture-high-resolution-carbon-mapping-and-uncertainty-assessment-in-el-salvador
#10
Sean Patrick Kearney, Nicholas C Coops, Kai M A Chan, Steven J Fonte, Pablo Siles, Sean M Smukler
Agroforestry management in smallholder agriculture can provide climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits and has been promoted as 'climate-smart agriculture' (CSA), yet has generally been left out of international and voluntary carbon (C) mitigation agreements. A key reason for this omission is the cost and uncertainty of monitoring C at the farm scale in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes. A largely overlooked alternative is to monitor C at more aggregated scales and develop C contracts with groups of land owners, community organizations or C aggregators working across entire landscapes (e...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738142/metabolomics-reveals-cu-oh-2-nanopesticide-activated-antioxidative-pathways-and-decreased-beneficial-antioxidants-in-spinach-leaves
#11
Lijuan Zhao, Yuxiong Huang, Adeyemi S Adeleye, Arturo A Keller
While the use of nanopesticides in modern agriculture continues to increase, their effects on crop plants are still poorly understood. Here, 4-week-old spinach plants grown in an artificial medium were exposed via foliar spray to Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide (0.18 and 18 mg/plant) or Cu ions (0.15 and 15 mg/plant) for 7 days. A gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was applied to assess metabolic alterations induced by Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide in spinach leaves. Exposure to Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide and copper ions induced alterations in the metabolite profiles of spinach leaves...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737376/insight-into-c-di-gmp-regulation-in-anammox-aggregation-in-response-to-alternating-feed-loadings
#12
Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu, Xi Tang, Chao Wang, Zhao Niu, Ying Feng
Substrate concentrations generally fluctuate in wastewaters. However, how anammox biomass behaves to overcome the stress of alternating feed loadings remains unclear. Here, we combined long-term reactor operation, batch tests, 16S rRNA transcript sequencing, and metabolomics analysis to investigate the aggregation of anammox biomass under the regulation of c-di-GMP, a key second messenger, in response to alternating feed loadings. We demonstrated that the aggregation process was significantly faster under alternating loadings and was significantly correlated with higher levels of c-di-GMP and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736147/novel-multifunctional-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-in-co-compost-of-palm-oil-industry-waste
#13
Clament Fui Seung Chin, Yoshihide Furuya, Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin, Norhayati Ramli, Mohd Ali Hassan, Yukihiro Tashiro, Kenji Sakai
Previously, a unique co-compost produced by composting empty fruit bunch with anaerobic sludge from palm oil mill effluent, which contributed to establishing a zero-emission industry in Malaysia. Little was known about the bacterial functions during the composting process and fertilization capacity of this co-compost. We isolated 100 strains from the co-compost on 7 types of enumeration media and screened 25 strains using in vitro tests for 12 traits, grouping them according to three functions: plant growth promoting (fixation of nitrogen; solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and silicate; production of 3-indoleacetic acid, ammonia, and siderophore), biocontrolling (production of chitinase and anti-Ganoderma activity), and composting (degradation of lignin, xylan, and cellulose)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736146/lipid-accumulation-potential-of-oleaginous-yeasts-a-comparative-evaluation-using-food-waste-leachate-as-a-substrate
#14
Davidraj Johnravindar, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Kumarasamy Murugesan, Jonathan W C Wong
In present study, the efficiency of three oleaginous yeasts i.e., Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis and Cryptococcus curvatus were compared for their lipid assimilation capacities using three different FW-leachates as a medium. The FW-leachates were collected from dry anaerobic digesters and diluted to achieve carbohydrate content of 25gL(-1) prior to yeast inoculations. Around 5% of yeast cultures were individually mixed in three different FW-leachate mediums and incubated under 30°C and 150rpm agitation for 6days...
June 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736145/the-thermochemical-conversion-of-non-lignocellulosic-biomass-to-form-biochar-a-review-on-characterizations-and-mechanism-elucidation
#15
REVIEW
De-Chang Li, Hong Jiang
Biochar obtained from non-lignocellulosic biomass (NLBM) has attracted wide interests in various fields like pollutants removal, catalysis, and energy storage. However, the thermochemical conversion processes from NLBM to non-lignocellulosic biochar (NLBC) have not been well summarized until now. To fill the knowledge gap, this review presents a systematical summary of NLBM characteristics, thermochemical behaviors of main components (e.g., C, O, N, P and metals), characterization methods for NLBC and conversion process, and the main applications of NLBC...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735316/biochar-rhizosphere-interactions-a-review
#16
Sławomir Głuszek, Lidia Sas Paszt, Beata Sumorok, Ryszard Kozera
Biochar is a solid material of biological origin obtained from the biomass carbonization, designed as a mean to reduce greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in soils for a long time. Biochar has a wide spectrum of practical utilization and is applied as a promising soil improver or fertilizer in agriculture, or as a medium for soil or water remediation. Preparations of biochar increase plant growth and yielding when applied into soil and also improve plant growth conditions, mainly bio, physical and chemical properties of soil...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735312/effect-of-lyophilization-on-survivability-and-growth-kinetic-of-trichoderma-strains-preserved-on-various-agriculture-by-products
#17
Danuta Witkowska, Katarzyna Buska-Pisarek, Wojciech Łaba, Michał Piegza, Anna Kancelista
Growth of four Trichoderma strains were tested on lignocellulosic by-products in solid state fermentation (SSF). The strains were also analyzed for their survival rate and growth after lyophilization on these carriers. All applied monocomponent and bicomponent media were substrates for the production and preservation of Trichoderma biomass. However, the maximum number of colony forming units (CFU/g dm) was acquired on bicomponent media based on dried grass and beet pulp or grass with corn cobs, when compared to monocomponent media...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735210/moisture-content-prediction-in-poultry-litter-using-artificial-intelligence-techniques-and-monte-carlo-simulation-to-determine-the-economic-yield-from-energy-use
#18
José Octavio Rico-Contreras, Alberto Alfonso Aguilar-Lasserre, Juan Manuel Méndez-Contreras, Jhony Josué López-Andrés, Gabriela Cid-Chama
The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735047/sesamol-exhibits-potent-antimycobacterial-activity-underlying-mechanisms-and-impact-on-virulence-traits
#19
Sandeep Hans, Sharda Sharma, Saif Hameed, Zeeshan Fatima
OBJECTIVES: Novel strategies to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in Tuberculosis (TB) still remain a concern. Usage of natural compounds nowadays to surmount the increasing burden of MDR-TB has shown promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial potential of sesamol (Ses) a natural phenolic compound against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate for MTB and its underlying mechanism of action along with its effect on mycobacterial virulence traits. METHODS: Cell surface phenotypes were estimated microscopically and spectrophotometrically respectively...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734589/phosphorus-and-cu-2-removal-by-periphytic-biofilm-stimulated-by-upconversion-phosphors-doped-with-pr-3-li
#20
Yan Zhu, Jianhong Zhang, Ningyuan Zhu, Jun Tang, Junzhuo Liu, Pengfei Sun, Yonghong Wu, Po Keung Wong
Upconversion phosphors (UCPs) can convert visible light into luminescence, such as UV, which can regulate the growth of microbes. Based on these fundamentals, the community composition of periphytic biofilms stimulated by UCPs doped with Pr(3+)-Li(+) was proposed to augment the removal of phosphorus (P) and copper (Cu). Results showed that the biofilms with community composition optimized by UCPs doped with Pr(3+)-Li(+) had high P and Cu(2+) removal rates. This was partly due to overall bacterial and algal abundance and biomass increases...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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