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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166649/extended-light-exposure-increases-stem-digestibility-and-biomass-production-of-switchgrass
#1
Chunqiao Zhao, Xifeng Fan, Xincun Hou, Yi Zhu, Yuesen Yue, Juying Wu
Switchgrass is a photoperiod-sensitive energy grass suitable for growing in the marginal lands of China. We explored the effects of extended photoperiods of low-irradiance light (7 μmol·m-2·s-1, no effective photosynthesis) on the growth, the biomass dry weight, the biomass allocation, and, especially, the stem digestibility and cell wall characteristics of switchgrass. Two extended photoperiods (i.e., 18 and 24 h) were applied over Alamo. Extended light exposure (18 and 24 h) resulted in delayed heading and higher dry weights of vegetative organs (by 32...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166533/potential-effects-of-fungicide-and-algaecide-extracts-of-annona-glabra-l-annonaceae-on-the-microalgae-raphidocelis-subcapitata-and-on-the-oomycete-pythium
#2
Giseli S Rocha, Reginaldo S Matsumoto, Ana Teresa Lombardi, Maria Inês S Lima
Annona glabra L. is a semi-deciduous tree that contains several active substances, including secondary metabolites, with antifungal activity. Phytopathogenic strains of the genus Pythium cause billion dollar losses all over the world on natural and crop species. Searching for eco-friendly algaecides and fungicides, we analyzed the effects of acetone extracts of A. glabra leaves on the algae Rhaphidocelis subcapitata (Korshikov) and on the oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson). We evaluated ten extract concentrations for each organism - 0 to 400 mg L-1 for algae and 0-1000 µg disc1 for oomycete...
2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166531/a-polysaccharide-fraction-extracted-from-pleurotus-ostreatus-mycelial-biomass-inhibit-sarcoma-180-tumor
#3
Elisabeth Wisbeck, Jean M Facchini, Endi P Alves, Marcia L L Silveira, Regina M M Gern, Jorge L Ninow, Sandra A Furlan
Fungi of Pleurotus genus have attracted a great interest due to their medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor. These properties are attributed mainly to polysaccharides synthesized by Pleurotus. This work aimed to study the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus in submerged culture, evaluating the influence of the initial concentration of substrate (20 and 40 g/L of glucose) and the pH (4 and 6) on kinetic parameters of production of biomass. The effectiveness of different doses (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) of a mycelium polysaccharide fraction extracted from P...
2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166161/will-invertebrates-require-increasingly-carbon-rich-food-in-a-warming-world
#4
Thomas R Anderson, Dag O Hessen, Maarten Boersma, Jotaro Urabe, Daniel J Mayor
Elevated temperature causes metabolism and respiration to increase in poikilothermic organisms. We hypothesized that invertebrate consumers will therefore require increasingly carbon-rich diets in a warming environment because the increased energetic demands are primarily met using compounds rich in carbon, that is, carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we test this hypothesis using a new stoichiometric model that has carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as currencies. Model predictions did not support the hypothesis, indicating instead that the nutritional requirements of invertebrates, at least in terms of food quality expressed as C∶N ratio, may change little, if at all, at elevated temperature...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165921/impact-of-flue-gas-compounds-on-microalgae-and-mechanisms-for-carbon-assimilation-and-utilization-a-review
#5
Arun Krishna Vuppaladadiyam, Joseph G Yao, Nicholas Florin, Anthe George, Xiaoxiong Wang, Leen Labeeuw, Yuelu Jiang, Ryan W Davis, Ali Abbas, Peter Ralph, Paul S Fennell, Ming Zhao
In order to shift the world to a more sustainable future, it is necessary to phase out the use of fossil fuels and focus on the development of low-carbon alternatives. However, this transition is slow so there still exists a large dependence on fossil-derived power and therefore CO2 release. Owing to the potential for assimilating and utilizing CO2 to generate carbon neutral products such as biodiesel, the application of microalgae technology to capture CO2 from flue gases has gained significant attention over the past decade...
November 22, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165857/isolation-of-phage-display-library-derived-scfv-antibody-specific-to-listeria-monocytogenes-by-a-novel-immobilized-method
#6
Nguyen Xuan-Hung, Thu-Le Trinh, Huong Thi-Bich Vu, Huan Quang Le, Anh To Kim
AIMS: To select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibodies from a phage display library by a novel simple and cost-effective immobilization method. METHODS AND RESULTS: Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) was used as biomass support matrix for biopanning of a phage display library to select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibody. Four rounds of positive selection against LECA-immobilized L. monocytogenes and an additional subtractive panning against L...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165394/wxc-%C3%AE-sic-nanocomposite-catalysts-used-in-aqueous-phase-hydrogenation-of-furfural
#7
Jacek Rogowski, Mariusz Andrzejczuk, Joanna Berlowska, Michal Binczarski, Dorota Kregiel, Andrzej Kubiak, Magdalena Modelska, Elzbieta Szubiakiewicz, Andrei Stanishevsky, Jolanta Tomaszewska, Izabela Alina Witonska
This study investigates the effects of the addition of tungsten on the structure, phase composition, textural properties and activities of β-SiC-based catalysts in the aqueous phase hydrogenation of furfural. Carbothermal reduction of SiO₂ in the presence of WO₃ at 1550 °C in argon resulted in the formation of WxC-β-SiC nanocomposite powders with significant variations in particle morphology and content of WxC-tipped β-SiC nano-whiskers, as revealed by TEM and SEM-EDS. The specific surface area (SSA) of the nanocomposite strongly depended on the amount of tungsten and had a notable impact on its catalytic properties for the production of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA)...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165147/enterococcus-hirae-biofilm-formation-on-hospital-material-surfaces-and-effect-of-new-biocides
#8
Silvia Di Lodovico, Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Elisabetta Ancarani, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the bacterial contamination in the hospital environment is of particular concern because the hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), also known as nosocomial infections, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. This work evaluated the capability of Enterococcus hirae to form biofilm on different surfaces and the action of two biocides on the produced biofilms. METHODS: The biofilm formation of E. hirae ATCC 10541 was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces through the biomass quantification and the cell viability at 20 and 37 °C...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164540/phytoplankton-can-bypass-nutrient-reductions-in-eutrophic-coastal-water-bodies
#9
Maximilian Berthold, Ulf Karsten, Mario von Weber, Alexander Bachor, Rhena Schumann
The EU-water framework directive aims at nutrient reductions, since anthropogenically induced eutrophication is a major threat for coastal waters. However, phytoplankton biomass in southern Baltic Sea coastal water bodies (CWB) remains high and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, a CWB data set was analysed regarding changes in phytoplankton biomass and nutrient concentration of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from 2000 to 2014. It was expected to find imbalances between produced phytoplankton biomass and total nutrient concentrations...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164466/bioagents-and-silicon-promoting-fast-early-upland-rice-growth
#10
Thatyane Pereira de Sousa, Alan Carlos Alves de Souza, Marta Cristina Corsi de Filippi, Anna Cristina Lanna, Marcio Vinicius Cortês, Hugo Alves Pinheiro, Gisele Barata da Silva
Upland rice can overcome major challenges through the insertion of silicate fertilization and the presence of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) during its cultivation, as these factors promote an increase in vigor and plant disease resistance. Two consecutive experiments were conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of silicon fertilization combined with the PGPM, Pseudomonas fluorensces, Burkholderia pyrrocinia, and a pool of Trichoderma asperellum, in upland rice seedlings, cultivar BRS Primavera CL: (a) E1, selecting PGPM type and Si doses for rice growth promotion and leaf blast supression, and (b) E2, evaluating physiological characteristics correlated with mechanisms involved in the higher vegetative growth in highlighted treatments from E1...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164366/contrasting-survival-and-physiological-responses-of-sub-arctic-plant-types-to-extreme-winter-warming-and-nitrogen
#11
Stef Bokhorst, Laura Jaakola, Katja Karppinen, Guro K Edvinsen, Hanne K Mæhre, Jarle W Bjerke
Evergreen plants are more vulnerable than grasses and birch to snow and temperature variability in the sub-Arctic. Most Arctic climate impact studies focus on single factors, such as summer warming, while ecosystems are exposed to changes in all seasons. Through a combination of field and laboratory manipulations, we compared physiological and growth responses of dominant sub-Arctic plant types to midwinter warming events (6 °C for 7 days) in combination with freezing, simulated snow thaw and nitrogen additions...
November 21, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163903/hydrogen-generation-from-methanol-at-near-room-temperature
#12
Yangbin Shen, Yulu Zhan, Shuping Li, Fandi Ning, Ying Du, Yunjie Huang, Ting He, Xiaochun Zhou
As a promising hydrogen storage medium methanol has many advantages such as a high hydrogen content (12.5 wt%) and low-cost. However, conventional methanol-water reforming methods usually require a high temperature (>200 °C). In this research, we successfully designed an effective strategy to fully convert methanol to hydrogen for at least 1900 min (∼32 h) at near-room temperature. The strategy involves two main procedures, which are CH3OH → HCOOH → H2 and CH3OH → NADH → H2. HCOOH and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) are simultaneously produced through the dehydrogenation of methanol by the cooperation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163670/how-does-technology-pathway-choice-influence-economic-viability-and-environmental-impacts-of-lignocellulosic-biorefineries
#13
Karthik Rajendran, Ganti S Murthy
Background: The need for liquid fuels in the transportation sector is increasing, and it is essential to develop industrially sustainable processes that simultaneously address the tri-fold sustainability metrics of technological feasibility, economic viability, and environmental impacts. Biorefineries based on lignocellulosic feedstocks could yield high-value products such as ethyl acetate, dodecane, ethylene, and hexane. This work focuses on assessing biochemical and biomass to electricity platforms for conversion of Banagrass and Energycane into valuable fuels and chemicals using the tri-fold sustainability metrics...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163629/high-throughput-field-phenotyping-of-leaves-leaf-sheaths-culms-and-ears-of-spring-barley-cultivars-at-anthesis-and-dough-ripeness
#14
Gero Barmeier, Urs Schmidhalter
To optimize plant architecture (e.g., photosynthetic active leaf area, leaf-stem ratio), plant physiologists and plant breeders rely on destructively and tediously harvested biomass samples. A fast and non-destructive method for obtaining information about different plant organs could be vehicle-based spectral proximal sensing. In this 3-year study, the mobile phenotyping platform PhenoTrac 4 was used to compare the measurements from active and passive spectral proximal sensors of leaves, leaf sheaths, culms and ears of 34 spring barley cultivars at anthesis and dough ripeness...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163578/transpiration-response-and-growth-in-pearl-millet-parental-lines-and-hybrids-bred-for-contrasting-rainfall-environments
#15
Susan Medina, S K Gupta, Vincent Vadez
Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F1-hybrids, 18 F1-hybrids and then 40 F1-hybrids). In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163565/genotypic-variation-in-nitrogen-utilization-efficiency-of-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-under-contrasting-n-supply-in-pot-and-field-experiments
#16
Huiying He, Rui Yang, Yajun Li, Aisheng Ma, Lanqin Cao, Xiaoming Wu, Biyun Chen, Hui Tian, Yajun Gao
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) characteristically has high N uptake efficiency and low N utilization efficiency (NUtE, seed yield/shoot N accumulation). Determining the NUtE phenotype of various genotypes in different growth conditions is a way of finding target traits to improve oilseed rape NUtE. The aim of this study was to compare oilseed rape genotypes grown on contrasting N supply rates in pot and field experiments to investigate the genotypic variations of NUtE and to identify indicators of N efficient genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163410/modeling-reveals-the-role-of-aging-and-glucose-uptake-impairment-in-l1a1-listeria-monocytogenes-biofilm-life-cycle
#17
Eva Balsa-Canto, Carlos Vilas, Alejandro López-Núñez, Maruxa Mosquera-Fernández, Romain Briandet, Marta L Cabo, Carlos Vázquez
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can persist in food processing plants by forming biofilms on abiotic surfaces. The benefits that bacteria can gain from living in a biofilm, i.e., protection from environmental factors and tolerance to biocides, have been linked to the biofilm structure. Different L. monocytogenes strains build biofilms with diverse structures, and the underlying mechanisms for that diversity are not yet fully known. This work combines quantitative image analysis, cell counts, nutrient uptake data and mathematical modeling to provide a mechanistic insight into the dynamics of the structure of biofilms formed by L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162826/carrageenan-catabolism-is-encoded-by-a-complex-regulon-in-marine-heterotrophic-bacteria
#18
Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Aurélie Préchoux, François Thomas, Tatiana Rochat, Robert Larocque, Yongtao Zhu, Mark Stam, Sabine Génicot, Murielle Jam, Alexandra Calteau, Benjamin Viart, David Ropartz, David Pérez-Pascual, Gaëlle Correc, Maria Matard-Mann, Keith A Stubbs, Hélène Rogniaux, Alexandra Jeudy, Tristan Barbeyron, Claudine Médigue, Mirjam Czjzek, David Vallenet, Mark J McBride, Eric Duchaud, Gurvan Michel
Macroalgae contribute substantially to primary production in coastal ecosystems. Their biomass, mainly consisting of polysaccharides, is cycled into the environment by marine heterotrophic bacteria using largely uncharacterized mechanisms. Here we describe the complete catabolic pathway for carrageenans, major cell wall polysaccharides of red macroalgae, in the marine heterotrophic bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans. Carrageenan catabolism relies on a multifaceted carrageenan-induced regulon, including a non-canonical polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) and genes distal to the PUL, including a susCD-like pair...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162713/capsular-polysaccharide-interferes-with-biofilm-formation-by-pasteurella-multocida-serogroup-a
#19
Briana Petruzzi, Robert E Briggs, W Edward Swords, Cristina De Castro, Antonio Molinaro, Thomas J Inzana
Pasteurella multocida is an important multihost animal and zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing respiratory and multisystemic diseases, bacteremia, and bite wound infections. The glycosaminoglycan capsule of P. multocida is an essential virulence factor that protects the bacterium from host defenses. However, chronic infections (such as swine atrophic rhinitis and the carrier state in birds and other animals) may be associated with biofilm formation, which has not been characterized in P. multocida Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was inversely related to capsule production and was confirmed with capsule-deficient mutants of highly encapsulated strains...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162107/production-of-highly-efficient-cellulase-mixtures-by-genetically-exploiting-the-potentials-of-trichoderma-reesei-endogenous-cellulases-for-hydrolysis-of-corncob-residues
#20
Yuanchao Qian, Lixia Zhong, Jia Gao, Ningning Sun, Yifan Wang, Guoyong Sun, Yinbo Qu, Yaohua Zhong
BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei is one of the most important fungi utilized for cellulase production. However, its cellulase system has been proven to be present in suboptimal ratio for deconstruction of lignocellulosic substrates. Although previous enzymatic optimization studies have acquired different types of in vitro synthetic mixtures for efficient lignocellulose hydrolysis, production of in vivo optimized cellulase mixtures by industrial strains remains one of the obstacles to reduce enzyme cost in the biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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