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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926942/the-semi-synthetic-peptide-lin-sb056-1-in-combination-with-edta-exerts-strong-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-conditions-mimicking-cystic-fibrosis-sputum
#1
Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Lucia Grassi, Semih Esin, Ilaria Serra, Mariano A Scorciapino, Andrea C Rinaldi, Giovanna Batoni
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The ability of the bacterium to form biofilms and the presence of a thick and stagnant mucus in the airways of CF patients largely contribute to antibiotic therapy failure and demand for new antimicrobial agents able to act in the CF environment. The present study investigated the anti-P. aeruginosa activity of lin-SB056-1, a recently described semi-synthetic antimicrobial peptide, used alone and in combination with the cation chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926919/co-pyrolysis-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-and-microalgae-products-characteristics-and-interaction-effect
#2
Wei Chen, Yingquan Chen, Haiping Yang, Mingwei Xia, Kaixu Li, Xu Chen, Hanping Chen
Co-pyrolysis of biomass has a potential to change the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil. In this work, co-pyrolysis of bamboo, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, and Nannochloropsis sp. (NS), a microalgae, was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at a range of mixing ratio of NS and bamboo, to find out whether the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil was improved. A significant improvement on bio-oil after co-pyrolysis of bamboo and NS was observed that bio-oil yield increased up to 66.63wt% (at 1:1) and the content of long-chain fatty acids in bio-oil also dramatically increased (the maximum up to 50...
September 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926913/enhanced-methanogenic-degradation-of-cellulose-containing-sewage-via-fungi-methanogens-syntrophic-association-in-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor
#3
Rong Chen, Yulun Nie, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Qigui Niu, Qian Li, Yu-You Li
An anaerobic membrane bioreactor was configured for methanogenic degradation of cellulose-containing sewage. The degradation performance and microbial changes were evaluated under five hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results indicated the methane production was largely enhanced with 92.6% efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) converting to methane and 80% proportion of methane in produced biogas, meanwhile the biomass yield presented the fewest at the shortest HRT 8h. Enhanced methane production with decreased biomass yield was attributed to an association between fungi and methanogens...
September 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926911/enhanced-biosynthesis-of-3-4-dihydroxybutyric-acid-by-engineered-escherichia-coli-in-a-dual-substrate-system
#4
Haijun Gao, Yu Gao, Runan Dong
3,4-Dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA), a versatile platform four carbon (C4) chemical, can be used as a precursor in the production of many commercially important chemicals. Here, a dual-substrate biosynthesis system was developed for 3,4-DHBA production via a synthetic pathway established in an engineered Escherichia coli, and using xylose as a synthetic substrate and glucose as a cell growth substrate. The deletion of genes xylA, yjhH and yagE and others encoding for alcohol dehydrogenases in E. coli is essential for the production of 3,4-DHBA...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926907/research-on-the-quick-and-efficient-recovery-of-1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium-chloride-after-biomass-pretreatment-with-ionic-liquid-aqueous-alcohol-system
#5
Xiaocong Liang, Yan Fu, Jie Chang
Membrane-based methodology electrodialysis (ED) was employed for the quick and efficient recovery of ionic liquid AmimCl from the aqueous solutions after biomass pretreatment with AmimCl-aqueous methanol/ethanol systems. IL recovery performance was relatively stable as the variation of IL-alcohol systems employed in the pretreatment process. IL recovery ratio (R) of 66%-71%, IL recovery performance of specific energy consumption (Sp) of 429-467g/kwh and IL transport rate (Tr) of 5.3-8.2g/(m(2)min) were obtained by single ED treatment...
August 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926816/phycoremediation-of-landfill-leachate-with-the-chlorophyte-chlamydomonas-sp-sw15arl-and-evaluation-of-toxicity-pre-and-post-treatment
#6
Andrea Paskuliakova, Ted McGowan, Steve Tonry, Nicolas Touzet
Landfill leachate treatment is an ongoing challenge in the wastewater management of existing sanitary landfill sites due to the complex nature of leachates and their heavy pollutant load. There is a continuous interest in treatment biotechnologies with expected added benefits for resource recovery; microalgal bioremediation is seen as promising in this regard. Toxicity reduction of landfill leachate subsequent to phycoremediation was investigated in this study. The treatment eventuated from the growth of the ammonia tolerant microalgal strain Chlamydomonas sp...
September 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926809/spatial-distribution-of-glomalin-related-soil-protein-and-its-relationship-with-sediment-carbon-sequestration-across-a-mangrove-forest
#7
Qiang Wang, Haoliang Lu, Jingyan Chen, Hualong Hong, Jingchun Liu, Junwei Li, Chongling Yan
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi produce a recalcitrant glycoprotein, (glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP)), which can contribute to soil carbon sequestration. Here we made a first study to characterize the spatial distribution of GRSP fractions in a mangrove forest at Zhangjiang Estuary, Southeastern China and to explore potential contributions of GRSP to sediment organic carbon (SOC) in this forest. We identified GRSP fractions in surface sediments, as well as those at a depth of 50 cm. The contents of easily extractable GRSP (EE-GRSP), total GRSP (T-GRSP), GRSP in particulate organic matter (POM-GRSP) and GRSP in pore water (PW-GRSP) ranged between 1...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926703/effect-of-non-ionic-surfactants-on-dispersion-and-polar-interactions-in-the-adsorption-of-cellulases-onto-lignin
#8
Feng Jiang, Chen Qian, Alan R Esker, Maren Roman
Residual lignin in pretreated biomass impedes enzymatic hydrolysis. Non-ionic surfactants are known to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. This study investigates the effect of a non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80, on the adsorption of cellulases onto model lignin substrates. Lignin substrates were prepared by spin coating of flat substrates with three different types of lignin: organosolv lignin, kraft lignin, and milled wood lignin...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926698/quantification-of-lignin-and-its-structural-features-in-plant-biomass-using-13-c-lignin-as-internal-standard-for-pyrolysis-gc-sim-ms
#9
Gijs van Erven, Ries de Visser, Donny W H Merkx, Willem Strolenberg, Peter De Gijsel, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
Understanding mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric analysis after sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Hence, our research aimed at specific lignin quantification with concurrent characterization of its structural features. Hereto, for the first time, a polymeric (13)C lignin was used as internal standard (IS) for lignin quantification via analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (py-GC-SIM-MS)...
September 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925867/lignocellulosic-biomass-derived-functional-materials-synthesis-and-applications-in-biomedical-engineering
#10
Lei Zhang, Xinwen Peng, Linxin Zhong, Weitian Chua, Zhihua Xiang, Runcang Sun
The pertinent issue of resources shortage arising from global climate change in the recent years has accentuated the importance of materials that are environmental friendly. Despite the merits of current material like cellulose as the most abundant natural polysaccharide on earth, the incorporation of lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to value-add the recent development of cellulose-derivatives in drug delivery systems. Lignocellulosic biomass, with a hierarchical structure, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925259/pinus-pinaster-knot-a-source-of-polyphenols-against-plasmopara-viticola
#11
Julien Gabaston, Tristan Richard, Stéphanie Cluzet, Antonio Palos Pinto, Marie-Cécile Dufour, Marie-France Coriocostet, Jean-Michel Merillon
Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster by-products was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided in four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene) and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola as well as the main compounds...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924742/characterization-of-pm2-5-in-delhi-role-and-impact-of-secondary-aerosol-burning-of-biomass-and-municipal-solid-waste-and-crustal-matter
#12
Pavan K Nagar, Dhirendra Singh, Mukesh Sharma, Anil Kumar, Viney P Aneja, Mohan P George, Nigam Agarwal, Sheo P Shukla
Delhi is one among the highly air polluted cities in the world. Absence of causal relationship between emitting sources of PM2.5 and their impact has resulted in inadequate actions. This research combines a set of innovative and state-of-the-art analytical techniques to establish relative predominance of PM2.5 sources. Air quality sampling at six sites in summer and winter for 40 days (at each site) showed alarmingly high PM2.5 concentrations (340 ± 135 μg/m(3)). The collected PM2.5 was subjected to chemical speciation including ions, metals, organic and elemental carbons which followed application of chemical mass balance technique for source apportionment...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924453/a-novel-and-efficient-fungal-delignification-strategy-based-on-versatile-peroxidase-for-lignocellulose-bioconversion
#13
Wen Kong, Xiao Fu, Lei Wang, Ahmad Alhujaily, Jingli Zhang, Fuying Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang, Hongbo Yu
BACKGROUND: The selective lignin-degrading white-rot fungi are regarded to be the best lignin degraders and have been widely used for reducing the saccharification recalcitrance of lignocellulose. However, the biological delignification and conversion of lignocellulose in biorefinery is still limited. It is necessary to develop novel and more efficient bio-delignification systems. RESULTS: Physisporinus vitreus relies on a new versatile peroxidase (VP)-based delignification strategy to remove enzymatic recalcitrance of corn stover efficiently, so that saccharification of corn stover was significantly enhanced to 349...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924452/greenhouse-gas-performance-of-biochemical-biodiesel-production-from-straw-soil-organic-carbon-changes-and-time-dependent-climate-impact
#14
Hanna Karlsson, Serina Ahlgren, Mats Sandgren, Volkmar Passoth, Ola Wallberg, Per-Anders Hansson
BACKGROUND: Use of bio-based diesel is increasing in Europe. It is currently produced from oilseed crops, but can also be generated from lignocellulosic biomass such as straw. However, removing straw affects soil organic carbon (SOC), with potential consequences for the climate impact of the biofuel. This study assessed the climate impacts and energy balance of biodiesel production from straw using oleaginous yeast, with subsequent biogas production from the residues, with particular emphasis on SOC changes over time...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924448/comparison-of-visible-imaging-thermography-and-spectrometry-methods-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-heterodera-schachtii-inoculation-on-sugar-beets
#15
Samuel Joalland, Claudio Screpanti, Frank Liebisch, Hubert Vincent Varella, Alain Gaume, Achim Walter
BACKGROUND: Phenotyping technologies are expected to provide predictive power for a range of applications in plant and crop sciences. Here, we use the disease pressure of Beet Cyst Nematodes (BCN) on sugar beet as an illustrative example to test the specific capabilities of different methods. Strong links between the above and belowground parts of sugar beet plants have made BCN suitable targets for use of non-destructive phenotyping methods. We compared the ability of visible light imaging, thermography and spectrometry to evaluate the effect of BCN on the growth of sugar beet plants...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924237/structural-transformation-of-biochar-black-carbon-by-c60-superstructure-environmental-implications
#16
Minori Uchimiya, Joseph J Pignatello, Jason C White, Szu-Tung Hu, Paulo J Ferreira
Pyrogenic carbon is widespread in soil due to wildfires, soot deposition, and intentional amendment of pyrolyzed waste biomass (biochar). Interactions between engineered carbon nanoparticles and natural pyrogenic carbon (char) are unknown. This study first employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to interpret the superstructure composing aqueous fullerene C60 nanoparticles prepared by prolonged stirring of commercial fullerite in water (nC60-stir). The nC60-stir was a superstructure composed of face-centered cubic (fcc) close-packing of near-spherical C60 superatoms...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923734/biomass-derived-hierarchically-porous-and-heteroatom-doped-carbons-for-supercapacitors
#17
Xiaonan Kang, Hui Zhu, Chuanyi Wang, Kang Sun, Jiao Yin
In this research, Rapeseed dregs (RDs), as a byproduct of agriculture (derived from processing of rapeseed for oil production), were originally employed asa new carbonaceous precursor to synthesize hierarchically porous and heteroatom-doped activated carbons (ACs) with the activation of ZnCl2 at various high temperatures. A variety of measurements have been adopted to systemically characterize the RD-derived ACs. The micro-morphology, pore structures and surface chemistry property were fully investigated by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, XPS and IR, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923600/fungal-strains-isolation-identification-and-application-for-the-recovery-of-zn-ii-ions
#18
Kiran Aftab, Kalsoom Akhtar, Abida Kausar, Shazia Khaliq, Numrah Nisar, Huma Umbreen, Munawar Iqbal
Fungal biomass proves to be highly efficient for the treatment of wastewater as well as recovery of metal ions from wastewater. Present investigation was aimed to evaluate the efficiency of indigenous fungal isolates for the sequestration of Zn(II) ions aqueous solution. Among twenty five fungal isolates, Aspergillus oryzae SV/09 (AO SV/09), Aspergillus flavus NA9 (AF NA9) and Paecilomyces formosus DTO 63f4 (PF DTO-63f4) were identified by gene sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The AO SV/09, AF NA9 and PF DTO-63f4 showed promising efficiency for the biosorption of Zn(II) ions...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923340/seasonal-variation-spatial-distribution-and-source-apportionment-for-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-at-nineteen-communities-in-xi-an-china-the-effects-of-suburban-scattered-emissions-in-winter
#19
Jingzhi Wang, Junji Cao, Zhibao Dong, Benjamin Guinot, Meiling Gao, Rujin Huang, Yongming Han, Yu Huang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Zhenxing Shen
Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of PM2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at urban residential, commercial area, university, suburban region, and industry in Xi'an, during summer and winter time at 2013. Much higher levels of total PAHs were obtained in winter. Spatial distributions by kriging interpolations principle showed that relative high PAHs were detected in western Xi'an in both summer and winter, with decreasing trends in winter from the old city wall to the 2(nd)-3rd ring road except for the suburban region and industry...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923122/feed-in-summer-rest-in-winter-microbial-carbon-utilization-in-forest-topsoil
#20
Lucia Žifčáková, Tomáš Větrovský, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Adina Howe, Petr Baldrian
BACKGROUND: Evergreen coniferous forests contain high stocks of organic matter. Significant carbon transformations occur in litter and soil of these ecosystems, making them important for the global carbon cycle. Due to seasonal allocation of photosynthates to roots, carbon availability changes seasonally in the topsoil. The aim of this paper was to describe the seasonal differences in C source utilization and the involvement of various members of soil microbiome in this process. RESULTS: Here, we show that microorganisms in topsoil encode a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and auxiliary enzymes...
September 18, 2017: Microbiome
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