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Deepa Khare, Nobukata Mitsuda, Seungchul Lee, Won-Yong Song, Daehee Hwang, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Enrico Martinoia, Youngsook Lee, Jae-Ung Hwang
Plants reorganize their root architecture to avoid growth into unfavorable regions of the rhizosphere. In a screen based on chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology, we identified the Arabidopsis thaliana GeBP-LIKE 4 (GPL4) transcription factor as an inhibitor of root growth that is induced rapidly in root tips in response to cadmium (Cd). We tested the hypothesis that GPL4 functions in the root avoidance of Cd by analyzing root proliferation in split medium, in which only half of the medium contained toxic concentrations of Cd...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Yadvinder Malhi, Cécile A J Girardin, Gregory R Goldsmith, Christopher E Doughty, Norma Salinas, Daniel B Metcalfe, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E Silva-Espejo, Jhon Del Aguilla-Pasquell, Filio Farfán Amézquita, Luiz E O C Aragão, Rossella Guerrieri, Françoise Yoko Ishida, Nur H A Bahar, William Farfan-Rios, Oliver L Phillips, Patrick Meir, Miles Silman
Why do forest productivity and biomass decline with elevation? To address this question, research to date generally has focused on correlative approaches describing changes in woody growth and biomass with elevation. We present a novel, mechanistic approach to this question by quantifying the autotrophic carbon budget in 16 forest plots along a 3300 m elevation transect in Peru. Low growth rates at high elevations appear primarily driven by low gross primary productivity (GPP), with little shift in either carbon use efficiency (CUE) or allocation of net primary productivity (NPP) between wood, fine roots and canopy...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
P H Zaidi, K Seetharam, Girish Krishna, L Krishnamurthy, S Gajanan, Raman Babu, M Zerka, M T Vinayan, B S Vivek
An association mapping panel, named as CIMMYT Asia association mapping (CAAM) panel, involving 396 diverse tropical maize lines were phenotyped for various structural and functional traits of roots under drought and well-watered conditions. The experiment was conducted during Kharif (summer-rainy) season of 2012 and 2013 in root phenotyping facility at CIMMYT-Hyderabad, India. The CAAM panel was genotyped to generate 955, 690 SNPs through GBS v2.7 using Illumina Hi-seq 2000/2500 at Institute for Genomic Diversity, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA...
2016: PloS One
Paola Ferrini, Camila A Rezende, Roberto Rinaldi
Catalytic upstream biorefining (CUB) encompasses processes for plant biomass deconstruction through the early-stage conversion of lignin by the action of a hydrogenation catalyst. CUB processes produce lignin as an extensively depolymerised product (i.e., a viscous lignin oil) and render highly delignified pulps. In this report, we examine CUB from the pulp perspective. Notably, Raney Ni plays an indirect role in the processes that occur within the lignocellulose matrix. As there are negligible points of contact between the poplar wood chips and Raney Ni, the catalyst action is limited to the species leached from the matrix into the liquor...
October 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
Xiaoming Huang, Jiadong Zhu, Tamás I Korányi, Michael D Boot, Emiel J M Hensen
Adding value to lignin, the most complex and recalcitrant fraction in lignocellulosic biomass, is highly relevant to costefficient operation of biorefineries. We report the use of homogeneous metal triflates to rapidly release lignin from biomass. Combined with metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis, the process separates woody biomass into few lignin-derived alkylmethoxyphenols and cellulose under mild conditions. Model compound studies show the unique catalytic properties of metal triflates in cleaving lignin-carbohydrate interlinkages...
October 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
Dominic Woolf, Johannes Lehmann, David R Lee
Restricting global warming below 2 °C to avoid catastrophic climate change will require atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Current integrated assessment models (IAMs) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios assume that CDR within the energy sector would be delivered using bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Although bioenergy-biochar systems (BEBCS) can also deliver CDR, they are not included in any IPCC scenario. Here we show that despite BECCS offering twice the carbon sequestration and bioenergy per unit biomass, BEBCS may allow earlier deployment of CDR at lower carbon prices when long-term improvements in soil fertility offset biochar production costs...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Hugo Pereira, Katkam N Gangadhar, Peter S C Schulze, Tamára Santos, Carolina Bruno de Sousa, Lisa M Schueler, Luísa Custódio, F Xavier Malcata, Luísa Gouveia, João C S Varela, Luísa Barreira
Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9-22 μm), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Junjun Ou, Phillip W Stahlman, Mithila Jugulam
BACKGROUND: Plant growth temperature is one of the important factors that can influence postemergent herbicide efficacy and impact weed control. Control of kochia (Kochia scoparia), a major broadleaf weed throughout the North American Great Plains, often is unsatisfactory when either glyphosate or dicamba are applied on hot summer days. We tested effects of plant growth temperature on glyphosate and dicamba phytotoxicity on two Kansas kochia populations (P1 and P2) grown under the following three day/night (d/n) temperature regimes: T1, 17...
October 21, 2016: Pest Management Science
Li-Xia Zhu, Qian Xiao, Yu-Fang Shen, Shi-Qing Li
Application of maize straw and biochar can potentially improve soil fertility and sequester carbon (C) in the soil, but little information is available about the effects of maize straw and biochar on the mineralization of soil C and nitrogen (N). We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment with five treatments of a cultivated silty loam, biochar produced from maize straw and/or maize straw: soil only (control), soil + 1 % maize straw (S), soil + 4 % biochar (B1), soil + 4 % biochar + 1 % maize straw (B1S), and soil + 8 % biochar + 1 % maize straw (B2S)...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ivana Nedeljkovic, Kumiko Yoshihara, Jan De Munck, Wim Teughels, Bart Van Meerbeek, Kirsten L Van Landuyt
BACKGROUND: In spite of contradicting results, the high susceptibility of composites for secondary caries is still often associated with the bacterial growth-stimulating effect of released methacrylate monomers. However, most studies that showed this effect were performed with techniques having inherent limitations (spectrophotometry). OBJECTIVES: Therefore, our objective was to determine the effect of four methacrylate monomers (2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA)) on the growth of two caries-associated bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and sobrinus, and one non-cariogenic species, Streptococcus sanguinis, using TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify bacterial DNA...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Sunday A Adebusoye
Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, previously isolated on polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures, was found to aerobically utilize a wide spectrum of substituted aromatic compounds including 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro- and 4-bromobenzoic acids as a sole carbon and energy source. Other chlorobenzoic acid (CBA) congeners such as 2-, 3-, 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-CBA were all rapidly transformed to respective chlorocatechols (CCs). Under aerobic conditions, strain SK-3 grew readily on 4-CBA to a maximum concentration of 5 mM above which growth became impaired and yielded no biomass...
October 20, 2016: Biodegradation
M Li, H E Muñoz, A Schmidt, B Guo, C Lei, K Goda, D Di Carlo
Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has recently been attracting attention as a potential renewable source for the production of biofuels, livestock feed, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. Research has focused on strain isolation, productivity improvement, nutrient and resource allocation, and co-product production, key steps that ultimately determine the economic viability and compatibility of the biomass produced. To achieve these characteristics, approaches to select E. gracilis mutants with desirable properties, such as high wax ester content, high growth rate, and high environmental tolerance for biodiesel and biomass production, are needed...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
James J Lischeske, Nathan C Crawford, Erik Kuhn, Nicholas J Nagle, Daniel J Schell, Melvin P Tucker, James D McMillan, Edward J Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/days continuous reactor...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Whitney D Hollinshead, Sarah Rodriguez, Hector Garcia Martin, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Kenneth L Sale, Jay D Keasling, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Yinjie J Tang
BACKGROUND: Glycolysis breakdowns glucose into essential building blocks and ATP/NAD(P)H for the cell, occupying a central role in its growth and bio-production. Among glycolytic pathways, the Entner Doudoroff pathway (EDP) is a more thermodynamically favorable pathway with fewer enzymatic steps than either the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP) or the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). However, Escherichia coli do not use their native EDP for glucose metabolism. RESULTS: Overexpression of edd and eda in E...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Marcel D Torode, Kirk L Barnett, Sarah L Facey, Uffe N Nielsen, Sally A Power, Scott N Johnson
Climate change is predicted to result in altered precipitation patterns, which may reshape many grassland ecosystems. Rainfall is expected to change in a number of different ways, ranging from periods of prolonged drought to extreme precipitation events, yet there are few community wide studies to accurately simulate future changes. We aimed to test how above- and below-ground grassland invertebrate populations were affected by contrasting future rainfall scenarios. We subjected a grassland community to potential future rainfall scenarios including ambient, increased amount (+50% of ambient), reduced amount (-50% of ambient), reduced frequency (no water for 21 days, followed by the total ambient rainfall applied in a single application) and summer drought (no rainfall for 13 weeks during the growing season)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jongkeun Lee, Joonrae Roger Kim, Seulki Jeong, Jinwoo Cho, Jae Young Kim
In order to investigate the long-term stability on the performance of the anaerobic digestion process, a laboratory-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was operated for 1100 days with sunflower harvested in a heavy metal contaminated site. Changes of microbial communities during digestion were identified using pyrosequencing. According to the results, soluble heavy metal concentrations were lower than the reported inhibitory level and the reactor performance remained stable up to OLR of 2.0g-VS/L/day at HRT of 20days...
October 17, 2016: Waste Management
Yue Wang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Chieh-Lun Cheng, Wan-Qian Guo, Dillirani Nagarajan, Nan-Qi Ren, Duu-Jong Lee, Jo-Shu Chang
Although microalgae can serve as an appropriate alternative feedstock for biofuel production, the high microalgal cultivation cost has been a major obstacle for commercializing such attempts. One of the feasible solution for cost reduction is to couple microalgal biofuel production system with wastewater treatment, as microalgae are known to effectively eliminate a variety of nutrients/pollutants in wastewater, such as nitrogen/phosphate, organic carbons, VFAs, pharmaceutical compounds, textile dye compounds, and heavy metals...
October 13, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Belén Martínez-Alcántara, Mary-Rus Martínez-Cuenca, Almudena Bermejo, Francisco Legaz, Ana Quiñones
The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots)...
2016: PloS One
David Samuel Johnson, R Scott Warren, Linda A Deegan, Thomas J Mozdzer
In saltmarsh plant communities, bottom-up pressure from nutrient enrichment is predicted to increase productivity, alter community structure, decrease biodiversity, and alter ecosystem functioning. Previous work supporting these predictions has been based largely on short-term, plot-level (e.g., 1-300 m(2) ) studies, which may miss landscape-level phenomena that drive ecosystem-level responses. We implemented an ecosystem-scale, nine-year nutrient experiment to examine how saltmarsh plants respond to simulated conditions of coastal eutrophication...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Joanna Berlowska, Weronika Cieciura, Sebastian Borowski, Marta Dudkiewicz, Michal Binczarski, Izabela Witonska, Anna Otlewska, Dorota Kregiel
Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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