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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226420/posnar2-1-osnar2-1-expression-enhances-nitrogen-uptake-efficiency-and-grain-yield-in-transgenic-rice-plants
#1
Jingguang Chen, Xiaoru Fan, Kaiyun Qian, Yong Zhang, Miaoquan Song, Yu Liu, Guohua Xu, Xiaorong Fan
The nitrate (NO3(-) ) transporter has been selected as an important gene maker in the process of environmental adoption in rice cultivars. In this work, we transfered another native OsNAR2.1 promoter with driving OsNAR2.1 gene into rice plants. The transgenic lines with exogenous pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 constructs showed enhanced OsNAR2.1 expression level, compared with wild type (WT), and (15) N influx in roots increased 21-32% in response to 0.2 mM and 2.5 mM (15) NO3(-) and 1.25 mM (15) NH4(15) NO3 . Under these three N conditions, the biomass of the pOsNAR2...
February 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226259/synthesis-optimization-of-oil-palm-empty-fruit-bunch-and-rice-husk-biochars-for-removal-of-imazapic-and-imazapyr-herbicides
#2
Saba Yavari, Amirhossein Malakahmad, Nasiman B Sapari, Sara Yavari
Imidazolinones are a family of herbicides that are used to control a broad range of weeds. Their high persistence and leaching potential make them probable risk to the ecosystems. In this study, biochar, the biomass-derived solid material, was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and rice husk (RH) through pyrolysis process. Feedstock and pyrolysis variables can control biochar sorption capacity. Therefore, the present study attempts to evaluate effects of three pyrolysis variables (temperature, heating rate and retention time) on abilities of biochars for removal of imazapic and imazapyr herbicides from soil...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225349/temporal-trends-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-mortality-in-mexico-1999-2014
#3
E Hernández-Garduño, H L Ocaña-Servín
SETTING: Country of Mexico. OBJECTIVE: To determine mortality trends due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Mexico between 1999 and 2014. DESIGN: COPD mortality data for persons aged ≥40 years from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the official website of the Mexican Ministry of Health. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated, and joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify trends over time. The annual per cent change (APC) was determined for each trend...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225281/hydrogen-abstraction-from-hydrocarbons-by-nh2
#4
Kamal Siddique, Mohammednoor K Altarawneh, Jeff Gore, Phillip R Westmoreland, Bogdan Z Dlugogorski
This contribution investigates thermokinetic parameters of bimolecular gas-phase reactions involving the amine (NH2) radical and a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These reactions play an important role in combustion and pyrolysis of nitrogen-rich fuels, most notably biomass. Computations performed at the CBS-QB3 level and based on the conventional transition-state theory yield potential-energy surfaces and reaction rate constants, accounting for tunnelling effects and the presence of hindered rotors...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225129/one-pot-conversion-of-biomass-derived-xylose-and-furfural-into-levulinate-esters-via-acid-catalysis
#5
Xun Hu, Shengjuan Jiang, Liping Wu, Shuai Wang, Chun-Zhu Li
Direct conversion of biomass-derived xylose and furfural into levulinic acid, a platform molecule, via acid-catalysis has been accomplished for the first time in dimethoxymethane/methanol. Dimethoxymethane acted as an electrophile to transform furfural into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Methanol suppressed both the polymerisation of the sugars/furans and the Aldol condensation of levulinic acid/ester.
February 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225027/variable-salinity-responses-of-12-alfalfa-genotypes-and-comparative-expression-analyses-of-salt-response-genes
#6
Devinder Sandhu, Monica V Cornacchione, Jorge F S Ferreira, Donald L Suarez
Twelve alfalfa genotypes that were selected for biomass under salinity, differences in Na and Cl concentrations in shoots and K/Na ratio were evaluated in this long-term salinity experiment. The selected plants were cloned to reduce genetic variability within each genotype. Salt tolerance (ST) index of the genotypes ranged from 0.39 to 1. The most salt-tolerant genotypes SISA14-1 (G03) and AZ-90ST (G10), the top performers for biomass, exhibited the least effect on shoot number and height. SISA14-1 (G03) accumulated low Na and Cl under salinity...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224627/nitrogen-deposition-cancels-out-exotic-earthworm-effects-on-plant-feeding-nematode-communities
#7
Yuanhu Shao, Weixin Zhang, Nico Eisenhauer, Tao Liu, Yanmei Xiong, Chenfei Liang, Shenglei Fu
1.The activity and spread of exotic earthworms often are spatially correlated with N deposition because both arise from human activities. Exotic earthworms, in turn, can also greatly affect soil abiotic and biotic properties, as well as related ecological processes. Previous studies showed, for example, that earthworms can counteract the detrimental effects of plant-feeding nematodes on plant growth. However, potential interactive effects of N deposition and exotic earthworms on ecosystems are poorly understood...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224337/influence-of-ameliorating-soil-acidity-with-dolomite-on-the-priming-of-soil-c-content-and-co2-emission
#8
Muhammad Shaaban, Lei Wu, Qi-An Peng, Lukas van Zwieten, Muhammad Afzal Chhajro, Yupeng Wu, Shan Lin, Muhammad Mahmood Ahmed, Muhammad Salman Khalid, Muhammad Abid, Ronggui Hu
Lime or dolomite is commonly implemented to ameliorate soil acidity. However, the impact of dolomite on CO2 emissions from acidic soils is largely unknown. A 53-day laboratory study was carried out to investigate CO2 emissions by applying dolomite to an acidic Acrisol (rice-rapeseed rotation [RR soil]) and a Ferralsol (rice-fallow/flooded rotation [RF soil]). Dolomite was dosed at 0, 0.5, and 1.5 g 100 g(-1) soil, herein referred to as CK, L, and H, respectively. The soil pH(H2O) increased from 5.25 to 7...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224055/is-biomass-a-reliable-estimate-of-plant-fitness
#9
Brett S Younginger, Dagmara Sirová, Mitchell B Cruzan, Daniel J Ballhorn
The measurement of fitness is critical to biological research. Although the determination of fitness for some organisms may be relatively straightforward under controlled conditions, it is often a difficult or nearly impossible task in nature. Plants are no exception. The potential for long-distance pollen dispersal, likelihood of multiple reproductive events per inflorescence, varying degrees of reproductive growth in perennials, and asexual reproduction all confound accurate fitness measurements. For these reasons, biomass is frequently used as a proxy for plant fitness...
February 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223995/synergistic-action-of-a-microbial-based-biostimulant-and-a-plant-derived-protein-hydrolysate-enhances-lettuce-tolerance-to-alkalinity-and-salinity
#10
Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Paolo Bonini, Giuseppe Colla
In the coming years, farmers will have to deal with growing crops under suboptimal conditions dictated by global climate changes. The application of plant biostimulants such as beneficial microorganisms and plant-derived protein hydrolysates (PHs) may represent an interesting approach for increasing crop tolerance to alkalinity and salinity. The current research aimed at elucidating the agronomical, physiological, and biochemical effects as well as the changes in mineral composition of greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223976/plant-growth-promotion-by-volatile-organic-compounds-produced-by-bacillus-subtilis-syst2
#11
Hafiz A S Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Waseem Raza, Alwina Hanif, Liming Wu, Massawe V Colman, Xuewen Gao
Bacterial volatiles play a significant role in promoting plant growth by regulating the synthesis or metabolism of phytohormones. In vitro and growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain SYST2 on hormone regulation and growth promotion in tomato plants. We observed a significant increase in plant biomass under both experimental conditions; we observed an increase in photosynthesis and in the endogenous contents of gibberellin, auxin, and cytokinin, while a decrease in ethylene levels was noted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223214/expression-studies-of-bacillus-licheniformis-chitin-deacetylase-in-e-coli-rosetta-cells
#12
Ritu Raval, Simsa Robin, Keyur Raval
Chitin, the biopolymer of the N-acetylglucosamine, is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet after cellulose. However owing to its crystalline nature, its deacetylated derivative; chitosan is industrially more potent. This conversion on an enzymatic scale can be made using chitin deacetylase. The metagenomics library constructed from the soil exposed to chitin and chitosan yielded chitin modifying enzymes, one of them being chitin deacetylase (CDA) utilized for the present study. The gene was amplified and expressed using the pET 22b vector in E...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223213/interaction-between-chitosan-and-its-related-enzymes-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Shoko Shinya, Tamo Fukamizo
Chitosan-related enzymes including chitosanases, exo-β-glucosaminidases, and enzymes having chitosan-binding modules recognize ligands through electrostatic interactions between the acidic amino acids in proteins and amino groups of chitosan polysaccharides. However, in GH8 chitosanases, several aromatic residues are also involved in substrate recognition through stacking interactions, and these enzymes consequently hydrolyze β-1,4-glucan as well as chitosan. The binding grooves of these chitosanases are extended and opened at both ends of the grooves, so that the enzymes can clamp a long chitosan polysaccharide...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223005/schisandra-lignans-production-regulated-by-different-bioreactor-type
#14
Agnieszka Szopa, Adam Kokotkiewicz, Maria Luczkiewicz, Halina Ekiert
Schisandra chinensis (Chinese magnolia vine) is a rich source of therapeutically relevant dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans with anticancer, immunostimulant and hepatoprotective activities. In the present work, shoot cultures of S. chinensis were grown in different types of bioreactors with the aim to select a system suitable for the large scale in vitro production of schisandra lignans. The cultures were maintained in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222922/biomass-production-and-carbon-sequestration-of-a-short-rotation-forest-with-different-poplar-clones-in-northwest-china
#15
Yan Meifang, Wang Lu, Ren Honghui, Zhang Xinshi
Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) is of interest as producers of biomass for bio-energy, but also as carbon (C) sinks to mitigate CO2 emission. To investigate biomass production and C sequestration of SRF, ecosystem C stock (including C stored in tree biomass, litter and soil), NPP (net primary productivity), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and NEP (net ecosystem productivity) of three poplar clone plantations were estimated by repeated field sampling in northwest China. Ecosystem C stock (105.62MgCha(-1)) was significantly lower in PB (P...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222817/livestock-and-feed-water-productivity-in-the-mixed-crop-livestock-system
#16
M Bekele, A Mengistu, B Tamir
Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP)...
February 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222708/wild-pollinators-enhance-oilseed-rape-yield-in-small-holder-farming-systems-in-china
#17
Yi Zou, Haijun Xiao, Felix J J A Bianchi, Frank Jauker, Shudong Luo, Wopke van der Werf
BACKGROUND: Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China...
February 21, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222383/simultaneous-biogas-upgrading-and-centrate-treatment-in-an-outdoors-pilot-scale-high-rate-algal-pond
#18
Esther Posadas, David Marín, Saúl Blanco, Raquel Lebrero, Raúl Muñoz
The bioconversion of biogas to biomethane coupled to centrate treatment was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond interconnected to an external CO2-H2S absorption column (AC) via settled broth recirculation. CO2-removal efficiencies ranged from 50 to 95% depending on the alkalinity of the cultivation broth and environmental conditions, while a complete H2S removal was achieved regardless of the operational conditions. A maximum CH4 concentration of 94% with a limited O2 and N2 stripping was recorded in the upgraded biogas at recycling liquid/biogas ratios in the AC of 1 and 2...
February 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222349/aldo-keto-reductase-1-akr1-protect-cellular-enzymes-from-salt-stress-by-detoxifying-reactive-cytotoxic-compounds
#19
Ramu S Vemanna, K C Babitha, Jayant K Solanki, V Amarnatha Reddy, S K Sarangi, M Udayakumar
Cytotoxic compounds like reactive carbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG), melandialdehyde (MDA), besides the ROS accumulate significantly at higher levels under salinity stress conditions and affect lipids and proteins that inhibit plant growth and productivity. The detoxification of these cytotoxic compounds by overexpression of NADPH-dependent Aldo-ketoreductase (AKR1) enzyme enhances the salinity stress tolerance in tobacco. The PsAKR1 overexpression plants showed higher survival and chlorophyll content and reduced MDA, H2O2, and MG levels under NaCl stress...
February 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222248/long-term-effects-of-climate-change-on-carbon-storage-and-tree-species-composition-in-a-dry-deciduous-forest
#20
István Fekete, Kate Lajtha, Zsolt Kotroczó, Gábor Várbíró, Csaba Varga, János Attila Tóth, Ibolya Demeter, Gábor Veperdi, Imre Berki
Forest vegetation and soils have been suggested as potentially important sinks for carbon (C) with appropriate management, and thus are implicated as effective tools in stabilizing climate even with increasing anthropogenic release of CO2 . Drought, however, which is often predicted to increase in models of future climate change, may limit NPP of dry forests types, with unknown effects on soil C storage. We studied C dynamics of a deciduous temperate forest of Hungary that has been subject to significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature in recent decades...
February 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
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