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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449215/rapid-degradation-of-longer-dna-fragments-enables-the-improved-estimation-of-distribution-and-biomass-using-environmental-dna
#1
Toshiaki Jo, Hiroaki Murakami, Reiji Masuda, Masayuki Sakata, Satoshi Yamamoto, Toshifumi Minamoto
The advent of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis methods has enabled rapid and wide-range ecological monitoring in aquatic ecosystems, but there is a dearth of information on eDNA degradation. The results of previous studies suggest that the decay rate of eDNA varies depending on the length of DNA fragments. To examine this hypothesis, we compared temporal change in copy number of long eDNA fragments (719 bp) with that of short eDNA fragments (127 bp). First, we isolated rearing water from a target fish species, Japanese Jack Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and then quantified the copy number of the long and short eDNA fragments in 1 L water samples after isolating the water from the fish...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449129/phenotypic-differences-determine-drought-stress-responses-in-ecotypes-of-arundo-donax-adapted-to-different-environments
#2
Mastaneh Ahrar, Dilyana Doneva, Massimiliano Tattini, Cecilia Brunetti, Antonella Gori, Mirco Rodeghiero, Georg Wohlfahrt, Franco Biasioli, Claudio Varotto, Francesco Loreto, Violeta Velikova
Arundo donax has been identified as an important biomass and biofuel crop. Yet, there has been little research on photosynthetic and metabolic traits, which sustain the high productivity of A. donax under drought conditions. This study determined phenotypic differences between two A. donax ecotypes coming from stands with contrasting adaptation to dry climate. We hypothesized that the Bulgarian (BG) ecotype, adapted to drier conditions, exhibits greater drought tolerance than the Italian (IT) ecotype, adapted to a more mesic environment...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449073/genetics-of-phenotypic-plasticity-and-biomass-traits-in-hybrid-willows-across-contrasting-environments-and-years
#3
Sofia Berlin, Henrik R Hallingbäck, Friderike Beyer, Nils-Erik Nordh, Martin Weih, Ann-Christin Rönnberg-Wästljung
Background and Aims: Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448940/modulation-of-cuo-nanoparticles-toxicity-to-green-pea-pisum-sativum-fabaceae-by-the-phytohormone-indole-3-acetic-acid
#4
Loren Ochoa, Illya A Medina-Velo, Ana C Barrios, Nestor J Bonilla-Bird, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
The response of plants to copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) in presence of exogenous phytohormones is unknown. In this study, green pea (Pisum sativum) plants were cultivated to full maturity in soil amended with nano-CuO (10-100nm, 74.3% Cu), bulk-CuO (bCuO, 100-10,000nm, 79.7% Cu), and CuCl2 at 50 and 100mg/kg and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at 10 and 100μM. Results showed that IAA at 10 and 100μM, averaged over all Cu treatments, reduced the number of plants by ~23% and ~34%, respectively. IAA at 10μM, nano-CuO at 50mg/kg, b-CuO at 50mg/kg, and CuCl2 at 100mg/kg reduced pod biomass by about 50%...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448939/environmental-impacts-of-producing-bioethanol-and-biobased-lactic-acid-from-standalone-and-integrated-biorefineries-using-a-consequential-and-an-attributional-life-cycle-assessment-approach
#5
Ranjan Parajuli, Marie Trydeman Knudsen, Morten Birkved, Sylvestre Njakou Djomo, Andrea Corona, Tommy Dalgaard
This study evaluates the environmental impacts of biorefinery products using consequential (CLCA) and attributional (ALCA) life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches. Within ALCA, economic allocation method was used to distribute impacts among the main products and the coproducts, whereas within the CLCA system expansion was adopted to avoid allocation. The study seeks to answer the questions (i) what is the environmental impacts of process integration?, and (ii) do CLCA and ALCA lead to different conclusions when applied to biorefinery?...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448928/potential-environmental-impact-of-bioethanol-production-chain-from-fiber-sorghum-to-be-used-in-passenger-cars
#6
Annachiara Forte, Amalia Zucaro, Massimo Fagnano, Angelo Fierro
A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental load of a prospective local bioethanol (EtOH) production system in Southern Italy by using lignocellulosic Fiber sorghum (FS) feedstock. A two steps analysis was carried out considering: (i) a "cradle-to-farm gate" LCA to investigate thoroughly the FS cultivation on hilly marginal land and (ii) a "cradle-to-wheels" system boundary encompassing the environmental pressure of the whole EtOH supply-use chain. Primary data related to lignocellulosic biomass production were combined with experimental feedstock conversion processes through advanced second generation technology...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448926/mass-spectra-features-of-biomass-burning-boiler-and-coal-burning-boiler-emitted-particles-by-single-particle-aerosol-mass-spectrometer
#7
Jiao Xu, Mei Li, Guoliang Shi, Haiting Wang, Xian Ma, Jianhui Wu, Xurong Shi, Yinchang Feng
In this study, single particle mass spectra signatures of both coal burning boiler and biomass burning boiler emitted particles were studied. Particle samples were suspended in clean Resuspension Chamber, and analyzed by ELPI and SPAMS simultaneously. The size distribution of BBB (biomass burning boiler sample) and CBB (coal burning boiler sample) are different, as BBB peaks at smaller size, and CBB peaks at larger size. Mass spectra signatures of two samples were studied by analyzing the average mass spectrum of each particle cluster extracted by ART-2a in different size ranges...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448906/variation-in-the-toxicity-of-sediment-associated-substituted-phenylamine-antioxidants-to-an-epibenthic-hyalella-azteca-and-endobenthic-tubifex-tubifex-invertebrate
#8
R S Prosser, A J Bartlett, D Milani, E A M Holman, H Ikert, D Schissler, J Toito, J L Parrott, P L Gillis, V K Balakrishnan
Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are produced in relatively high volumes and used in a range of applications (e.g., rubber, polyurethane); however, little is known about their toxicity to aquatic biota. Therefore, current study examined the effects of chronic exposure (28 d) to four sediment-associated SPAs on epibenthic (Hyalella azteca) and endobenthic (Tubifex tubifex) organisms. In addition, acute (96-h), water-only exposures were conducted with H. azteca. Mortality, growth and biomass production were assessed in juvenile H...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448809/recent-land-use-and-land-cover-changes-and-its-driving-factors-in-a-fire-prone-area-of-southwestern-turkey
#9
Olga Viedma, José M Moreno, Cumhur Güngöroglu, Ufuk Cosgun, Ali Kavgacı
During the last decades, contrasted trends in forest fires among countries around the Mediterranean basin have been observed. In the northern/western countries, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) changes led to more hazardous landscapes, with consequent increases in fires. This contrasted with fire trends in southern/eastern countries. The recent incidence of large fires in some of the latter prompted the question of whether they are now following the path of their neighbors decades earlier. In this study, we investigated recent LULC changes in southwestern Turkey, focusing on those that could affect fire, and the factors driving them...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448807/alternative-sweeteners-influence-the-biomass-of-oral-biofilm
#10
Fathilah Abdul Razak, Baizatul Amirah Baharuddin, Elisya Farha Mohd Akbar, Amira Hanim Norizan, Nur Fazilah Ibrahim, Md Yusoff Musa
OBJECTIVE: Compact-structured oral biofilm accumulates acids that upon prolonged exposure to tooth surface, causes demineralisation of enamel. This study aimed to assess the effect of alternative sweeteners Equal Stevia(®), Tropicana Slim(®), Pal Sweet(®) and xylitol on the matrix-forming activity of plaque biofilm at both the early and established stages of formation. METHODS: Saliva-coated glass beads (sGB) were used as substratum for the adhesion of a mixed-bacterial suspension of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mitis...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448621/biochar-from-kon-tiki-flame-curtain-and-other-kilns-effects-of-nutrient-enrichment-and-kiln-type-on-crop-yield-and-soil-chemistry
#11
Naba Raj Pandit, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elisabeth Hale, Hans Peter Schmidt, Gerard Cornelissen
Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448168/management-of-textile-wastewater-for-improving-growth-and-yield-of-field-mustard-brassica-campestris-l
#12
Muhammad Yaseen, Muhammad Zahir Aziz, Aqleema Komal, Muhammad Naveed
Disposal of industrial wastewater is a current issue of urbanization. However, this problem can be sorted by using wastewater as alternate source of irrigation after the addition of some amendment. In this way, the problem of disposal of wastewater not only will be resolved but also scarcity of irrigation water can be kept off in future. Current research study was performed to evaluate the influence of different concentration of wastewater along with canal water for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447389/outer-membrane-vesicles-from-fibrobacter-succinogenes-s85-contain-an-array-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-with-versatile-polysaccharide-degrading-capacity
#13
Magnus Ø Arntzen, Anikó Várnai, Roderick I Mackie, Vincent G H Eijsink, Phillip B Pope
Fibrobacter succinogenes is an anaerobic bacterium naturally colonizing the rumen and cecum of herbivores where it utilizes an enigmatic mechanism to deconstruct cellulose into cellobiose and glucose, which serve as carbon sources for growth. Here, we illustrate that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by F. succinogenes are enriched with carbohydrate-active enzymes and that intact OMVs were able to depolymerize a broad range of linear and branched hemicelluloses and pectin, despite the inability of F. succinogenes to utilize non-cellulosic (pentose) sugars for growth...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447370/vulnerability-to-forest-loss-through-altered-postfire-recovery-dynamics-in-a-warming-climate-in-the-klamath-mountains
#14
Alan J Tepley, Jonathan R Thompson, Howard E Epstein, Kristina J Anderson-Teixeira
In the context of ongoing climatic warming, certain landscapes could be near a tipping point where relatively small changes to their fire regimes or their postfire forest recovery dynamics could bring about extensive forest loss, with associated effects on biodiversity and carbon-cycle feedbacks to climate change. Such concerns are particularly valid in the Klamath Region of northern California and southwestern Oregon, where severe fire initially converts montane conifer forests to systems dominated by broadleaf trees and shrubs...
April 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447168/effect-of-carbon-sources-on-the-growth-and-ethanol-production-of-native-yeast-pichia-kudriavzevii-itv-s42-isolated-from-sweet-sorghum-juice
#15
L E Díaz-Nava, N Montes-Garcia, J M Domínguez, M G Aguilar-Uscanga
The importance of non-Saccharomyces yeast species in fermentation processes is widely acknowledged. Within this group, Pichia kudriavzevii ITV-S42 yeast strain shows particularly desirable characteristics for ethanol production. Despite this fact, a thorough study of the metabolic and kinetic characteristics of this strain is currently unavailable. The aim of this work is to study the nutritional requirements of Pichia kudriavzevii ITV-S42 strain and the effect of different carbon sources on the growth and ethanol production...
April 26, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446879/the-mammalian-peptide-adrenomedullin-acts-as-a-growth-factor-in-tobacco-plants
#16
Rafael Peláez, María Niculcea, Alfredo Martínez
Growth factors are extracellular signals that regulate cell proliferation and total body mass. Some animal growth factors can work on plant tissues and vice versa. Here we show that the mammalian growth factor adrenomedullin (AM) induces growth in tobacco plants. Addition of synthetic AM resulted in a dose-dependent growth of tobacco calluses. Furthermore, AM transgenic plants showed enhanced survival and significant increases in stem diameter, plant height, leaf length, weight of all organs, and a reduction in the time to flowering when compared to plants transformed with the control vector...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445630/murai-reaction-on-furfural-derivatives-enabled-by-removable-n-n-bidentate-directing-groups
#17
Giovanni Poli, Julie Oble, Luis Veiros, Cristofer Pezzetta
Furfural and related compounds are industrially relevant building-blocks obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. To enhance the added value of these renewable resources, a Ru-catalyzed hydrofurylation of alkenes, involving a directed C-H activation at C3 of the furan ring, was developed. A thorough experimental study revealed that a bidentate amino-imine directing group enables the desired coupling. Removal of the directing group takes place during the purification step, directly releasing the C3-functionalized furfurals...
April 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445599/growth-engineering-of-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942-for-mixotrophy-under-natural-light-conditions-for-improved-feedstock-production
#18
Aditya Sarnaik, Reena Pandit, Arvind Lali
Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has been widely explored as cyanobacterial cell factory through genetic modifications for production of various value-added compounds. However, successful industrial scale-ups have not been reported for the system predominantly due to its obligate photoautotrophic metabolism and use of artificial light in photobioreactors. Hence, engineering the organism to perform mixotrophy under natural light could serve as an effective solution. Thus, we applied a genetically engineered strain of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 expressing heterologous hexose transporter gene (galP) to perform mixotrophy under natural light in a temperature controlled environmental chamber (EC)...
April 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445546/a-coral-algal-phase-shift-in-mesoamerica-not-driven-by-changes-in-herbivorous-fish-abundance
#19
Jesús Ernesto Arias-González, Tak Fung, Robert M Seymour, Joaquín Rodrigo Garza-Pérez, Gilberto Acosta-González, Yves-Marie Bozec, Craig R Johnson
Coral-algal phase shifts in which coral cover declines to low levels and is replaced by algae have often been documented on coral reefs worldwide. This has motivated coral reef management responses that include restriction and regulation of fishing, e.g. herbivorous fish species. However, there is evidence that eutrophication and sedimentation can be at least as important as a reduction in herbivory in causing phase shifts. These threats arise from coastal development leading to increased nutrient and sediment loads, which stimulate algal growth and negatively impact corals respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445505/dominance-of-an-alien-shrub-rhus-typhina-over-a-native-shrub-vitex-negundo-var-heterophylla-under-variable-water-supply-patterns
#20
Ning Du, Xiangfeng Tan, Qiang Li, Xiao Liu, Wenxin Zhang, Renqing Wang, Jian Liu, Weihua Guo
Temporal heterogeneity of a resource supply can have a profound effect on the interactions between alien and native plant species and their potential invasiveness. Precipitation patterns may be variable and result in a higher heterogeneity of water supply with global climate change. In this study, an alien shrub species, Rhus typhina, introduced to China from North America and a native shrub species, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, were grown in monoculture and mixed culture under different water supply regimes, with four levels of water supply frequencies but with a constant level of total supplied water...
2017: PloS One
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