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Sarvenaz Sabouri-Rad, Sara Sabouri-Rad, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Ginseng has gained fame as one of the most popular herbs originating from Eastern countries. Among different species which are known as ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean or Asian ginseng) is the most frequently used one. Ginsenosides have been proposed to account for most of the biological activities of ginseng. The widely appreciated health-promoting effect of ginseng pertains to the beneficial effects of this plant against immune, cardiovascular and sexual diseases and cancer. In addition, there are some new aspects of the pharmacological activity of this plant which justify its use in dermatologic diseases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Aditya K Gupta, Jessie Carviel, William Abramovits
Alopecia areata (AA) is non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune disorder. Severity varies from patchy hair loss that often spontaneously resolves to severe and chronic cases that can progress to total loss of scalp and body hair. Many treatments are available; however, the efficacy of these treatments has not been confirmed, especially in severe cases, and relapse rates are high. First-line treatment often includes corticosteroids such as intralesional or topical steroids for mild cases and systemic steroids or topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone or squaric acid dibutylester in severe cases...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Gustavo José Leirós, Julieta María Ceruti, María Lía Castellanos, Ana Gabriela Kusinsky, María Eugenia Balañá
In androgenetic alopecia, androgens impair dermal papilla-induced hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) differentiation inhibiting Wnt signaling. Wnt agonists/antagonists balance was analyzed after dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulation in androgen-sensitive dermal papilla cells (DPC) cultured as spheroids or monolayer. In both culture conditions, DHT stimulation downregulated Wnt5a and Wnt10b mRNA while the Wnt antagonist Dkk-1 was upregulated. Notably, tissue architecture of DPC-spheroids lowers Dkk-1 and enhances Wnt agonists' basal expression; probably contributing to DPC inductivity...
October 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Teruki Dainichi, Kenji Kabashima
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common and stressful disorder that results in hair loss, and resistant to treatment in some cases. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that AA is caused by autoimmune attack against the hair follicles. The precise pathomechanism, however, remains unknown. Here, we focus on the recent progress in multidisciplinary approaches to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and new treatments of AA in 996 publications from January 2010 to July 2016, and provide an overview of the current understanding in clinical management and research directions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Georgios Nikolakis, Constantine A Stratakis, Theodora Kanaki, Andrej Slominski, Christos C Zouboulis
The skin is an important extra-gonadal steroidogenic organ, capable of metabolizing various hormones from their precursors, as well as of synthesizing de novo a broad palette of sex steroids and glucocorticoids from cholesterol. In this manuscript, we review the major steroidogenic properties of human skin and we suggest steroidogenesis' impairment as a cardinal factor for various pathological conditions such as acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and androgenic alopecia.
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Dalia El Sakka, Mohamed Abdel Wahed Gaber, Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Moshira Abdel Wahed, Ahmed Abdel-Wahab Saleh, Walla Shehata
BACKGROUND: Alopecia is one of the most important hair follicle (HF) disorders, which is divided into scarring (cicatricial) and nonscarring (noncicatricial) types. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of stem cell (SC) markers such as cytokeratin (CK) 17 and CK19 in scarring and nonscarring alopecia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with scalp alopecia (15 with scarring alopecia and 15 without) together with ten healthy volunteers were included in this study...
July 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Saverio Cinieri, Arlene Chan, Kadri Altundag, An Vandebroek, Nicole Tubiana-Mathieu, Agusti Barnadas, Patricia Dodyk, Silvia Lazzarelli, Michiel Botha, Daniel Rauch, Gustavo Villanova, Ugur Coskun
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3 first-line chemotherapy combination regimens for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label, 3-arm, randomized phase II trial, patients were randomized to all-oral NORCAP (vinorelbine/capecitabine), GEMPAC (gemcitabine/paclitaxel), or GEMDOC (gemcitabine/docetaxel) as first-line chemotherapy for HER2-negative mBC. Stratification factors were center, previous (neo)adjuvant anthracycline, and age...
June 25, 2016: Clinical Breast Cancer
M C Winter, J A Tidy, A Hills, J Ireson, S Gillett, K Singh, B W Hancock, R E Coleman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of patients treated with second-line chemotherapy for methotrexate-resistant low-risk GTN at the Sheffield Centre, UK between 2001 and 2015, including the novel use of single-agent carboplatin as a strategy to reduce exposure to combination chemotherapy. METHODS: 392 low-risk GTN patients were treated with first-line methotrexate. The selection of chemotherapy regimen following methotrexate-resistance depended on the volume of residual disease as indicated by the serum hCG value at the time, with patients switching to either single-agent dactinomycin at an hCG level<150IU/L from 2001-2010 and <300IU/L since 2010, or to combination treatment with etoposide/dactinomycin (EA) above these thresholds...
October 15, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Hilary Jericho, Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the GFD on extra-intestinal symptoms in pediatric and adult celiac populations at the University of Chicago (UofC). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of the UofC Celiac Center clinic charts from January 2002 to October 2014. Demographics, serologic testing, intestinal biopsies, and extra-intestinal symptoms at presentation, 12, 24, and greater than 24 months were recorded. Extra-intestinal symptoms included: abnormal liver enzymes, arthralgia/arthritis, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), alopecia, fatigue, headache, anemia, stomatitis, myalgias, psychiatric disorders, rashes, seizures, neuropathy, short stature, delayed puberty, osteoporosis and infertility...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Angela Hou, Brandon Cohen, Adele Haimovic, Nada Elbuluk
BACKGROUND: Microneedling is a minimally invasive procedure that uses fine needles to puncture the epidermis. The microwounds created stimulate the release of growth factors and induce collagen production. The epidermis remains relatively intact, therefore helping to limit adverse events. The indications for microneedling therapy have grown significantly, and it is becoming a more widely used treatment in dermatology. OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive review of microneedling in human subjects and its applications in dermatology...
October 13, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Alessio Soggiu, Cristian Piras, Viviana Greco, Paola Devoto, Andrea Urbani, Luigino Calzetta, Marco Bortolato, Paola Roncada
The enzyme 5α-reductase (5αR) catalyzes the conversion of progesterone and testosterone into neuroactive steroids implicated in a wide array of behavioral functions. The prototypical 5αR inhibitor, finasteride (FIN), is clinically approved for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent evidence has shown that FIN, albeit generally well tolerated, can induce untoward psychological effects in a subset of patients; furthermore, this drug may have therapeutic efficacy for a number of different neuropsychiatric conditions, ranging from Tourette syndrome to schizophrenia...
October 6, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Amit M Oza, Frédéric Selle, Irina Davidenko, Jacob Korach, Cesar Mendiola, Patricia Pautier, Ewa Chmielowska, Aristotelis Bamias, Andrea DeCensi, Zanete Zvirbule, Antonio González-Martín, Roberto Hegg, Florence Joly, Claudio Zamagni, Angiolo Gadducci, Nicolas Martin, Stephen Robb, Nicoletta Colombo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of extending bevacizumab therapy beyond 15 months in nonprogressive ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multinational prospective single-arm study ( NCT01239732), eligible patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB to IV or grade 3 stage I to IIA ovarian cancer without clinical signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction or history of abdominal fistula, gastrointestinal perforation, or intra-abdominal abscess within the preceding 6 months...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Owen M Slater, Jeanine Peters-Kennedy, Manigandan Lejeune, David Gummer, Bryan Macbeth, Amy Warren, Tomy Joseph, Hong Li, Cristina W Cunha, Pádraig J Duignan
Malignant catarrhal fever-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) from Alberta, Canada, in June 2015. Antemortem and gross pathology findings included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss, and bilaterally symmetric alopecia with hyperpigmentation and crusting over the face, medial surfaces of the pinnae, dorsal trunk, distal limbs, perineal area, and tail. Histologically, the skin lesions were characterized by granulomatous mural folliculitis with numerous multinucleated giant cells and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils consistent with previous reports of chronic ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Frane Banovic, Keith E Linder, Maarja Uri, Michael A Rossi, Thierry Olivry
BACKGROUND: Generalized discoid lupus erythematosus (GDLE) is a newly recognized canine variant of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) that is not well characterized. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: We report herein the signalment, clinical signs, treatment outcome, histopathology and immunological findings of 10 dogs with GDLE. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: (i) a >3 month history of generalized skin lesions indicating a chronic or recurrent nature; (ii) skin lesions resembling those of human GDLE; (iii) histopathology of CLE (lymphocyte-rich interface dermatitis)...
October 16, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Magdalena M Watras, Jignesh P Patel, Roopen Arya
Hair loss is associated with the anticoagulants heparin and warfarin. With the recent availability of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) it is of clinical interest to know if they are implicated with hair loss and/or whether they could be successfully prescribed for patients who suffer from coumarin- or heparin-related alopecia. Initially reports of heparin- and coumarin-associated alopecia available through PubMed and Medline were explored in order to establish the cause of this side effect. Currently there is a lack of unanimity on why anticoagulants cause alopecia...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Yoon Seob Kim, Kwan Ho Jeong, Jung Eun Kim, Young Jun Woo, Beom Joon Kim, Hoon Kang
BACKGROUND: Microneedle is a method that creates transdermal microchannels across the stratum corneum barrier layer of skin. No previous study showed a therapeutic effect of microneedle itself on hair growth by wounding. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of repeated microwound formed by microneedle on hair growth and hair growth-related genes in a murine model. METHODS: A disk microneedle roller was applied to each group of mice five times a week for three weeks...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Yong Hyun Jang, Sang Lim Kim, Kyou Chae Lee, Min Ji Kim, Kyung Hea Park, Weon Ju Lee, Seok-Jong Lee, Do Won Kim
BACKGROUND: Various systemic agents have been assessed for the treatment of alopecia areata (AA); however, there is a paucity of comparative studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare cyclosporine and betamethasone minipulse therapy as treatments for AA with regard to effectiveness and safety. METHODS: Data were collected from 88 patients who received at least 3 months of oral cyclosporine (n=51) or betamethasone minipulse therapy (n=37) for AA...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Poonam Verma, Surabhi Dayal, V K Jain, Ashish Amrani
Pegylated interferon α and ribavirin therapy is associated with increased incidence of various systemic and cutaneous side effects. Among the side effects of this therapy, alopecia universalis is a rarely reported side effect which causes significant cosmetic concern to the patient. We report a rare case of alopecia universalis which developed eight weeks after discontinuation of this antiviral combination therapy. This gains importance because it is essential to sensitize the treating gastroenterologist and the dermatologist regarding this rare side effect...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Evelyn J Cheung, Jacquelyn R Sink, Joseph C English Iii
Telogen effluvium is one of the most common forms of non-scarring alopecia for which patients present to a dermatologist. It is a challenging disorder to treat and study, primarily owing to its multifactorial etiology which includes both physiologic and non-physiologic factors. Nutritional deficiency has been purported to contribute to hair shedding, and a patient's clinical history usually aids in directing laboratory evaluation. Many prior studies have either supported or failed to find a correlation between telogen effluvium and deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, in particular, vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Min Wu, Qingxiong Yu, Qingfeng Li
Alopecia is a dermatological condition with limited therapeutic options. Only two drugs, finasteride and minoxidil, are approved by FDA for alopecia treatment. However, little is known about the differences in adverse effects between these two drugs. We examined the clinical reports submitted to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from 2004 to 2014. For both female and males, finasteride was found to be more associated with reproductive toxicity as compared to minoxidil. Among male alopecia cases, finasteride was significantly more concurrent with several forms of sexual dysfunction...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
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