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David A Rubin

Adam J Pelzek, Bo Shopsin, Emily E Radke, Kayan Tam, Beatrix M Ueberheide, David Fenyö, Stuart M Brown, Qianhao Li, Ada Rubin, Yi Fulmer, William K Chiang, David N Hernandez, Hanane El Bannoudi, William E Sause, Alexis Sommerfield, Isaac P Thomsen, Andy O Miller, Victor J Torres, Gregg J Silverman
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and invasive infections in the hospital and community. High mortality from infection emphasizes the need for improved methods for prevention and treatment. Although S. aureus possesses an arsenal of virulence factors that contribute to evasion of host defenses, few studies have examined long-term humoral and B-cell responses. Adults with acute-phase skin and soft tissue infections were recruited; blood samples were obtained; and S...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Kishan S Parikh, Michael P Gray, Lewis J Rubin, David Badesch, Richard A Krasuski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
Daiga Jermacane, Thomas David Waite, Charles R Beck, Angie Bone, Richard Amlôt, Mark Reacher, Sari Kovats, Ben Armstrong, Giovanni Leonardi, G James Rubin, Isabel Oliver
BACKGROUND: The longer term impact of flooding on health is poorly understood. In 2015, following widespread flooding in the UK during winter 2013/14, Public Health England launched the English National Study of Flooding and Health. The study identified a higher prevalence of probable psychological morbidity one year after exposure to flooding. We now report findings after two years. METHODS: In year two (2016), a self-assessment questionnaire including flooding-related exposures and validated instruments to screen for probable anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was sent to all participants who consented to further follow-up...
March 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
Parita Patel, Andres Yarur, Sushila Dalal, Atsuhi Sakuraba, David T Rubin, Stephen B Hanauer, Ira Hanan, Laura H Raffals, Russell D Cohen, Joel Pekow
Background: IV ciclosporin therapy is effective in steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. The optimal drug level to achieve response and minimize complications during induction therapy is not known. Aim: The primary aim was to evaluate if serum ciclosporin drug levels are associated with increased risk of colectomy within 90 days of hospitalization. Secondary aims were to determine if ciclosporin levels are associated with avoidance of colectomy at 7 and 30 days, if ciclosporin levels are associated with drug-related and postoperative complications, and if patient-specific factors are associated with response to ciclosporin...
March 1, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Jonathan Rubin, Cristhian Potes, Minnan Xu-Wilson, Junzi Dong, Asif Rahman, Hiep Nguyen, David Moromisato
BACKGROUND: Early deterioration indicators have the potential to alert hospital care staff in advance of adverse events, such as patients requiring an increased level of care, or the need for rapid response teams to be called. Our work focuses on the problem of predicting the transfer of pediatric patients from the general ward of a hospital to the pediatric intensive care unit. OBJECTIVES: The development of a data-driven pediatric early deterioration indicator for use by clinicians with the purpose of predicting encounters where transfer from the general ward to the PICU is likely...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Brian G Feagan, David Schwartz, Silvio Danese, David T Rubin, Trevor W Lissoos, Jing Xu, Karen Lasch
Background and Aims: Medical management of fistulising Crohn's disease (CD) is constrained by the limited number of available therapies. We evaluated the efficacy of vedolizumab, a gut-selective α4β7 integrin antagonist approved for treating moderately to severely active CD, in a subpopulation of patients with fistulising CD who participated in the GEMINI 2 trial (NCT00783692). Methods: Exploratory analyses of data from the GEMINI 2 trial were conducted in 461 responders to 6-week vedolizumab induction therapy who received maintenance placebo (VDZ/PBO, N=153) or vedolizumab (VDZ/VDZ, N=308)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Wing Yan Mak, Anthony Buisson, Michael J Andersen, Donald Lei, Joel Pekow, Russell D Cohen, Stacy A Kahn, Bruno Pereira, David T Rubin
BACKGROUND: Persistent active endoscopic and histological inflammation is associated with poorer outcomes in ulcerative colitis (UC). Fecal calprotectin is a surrogate marker of endoscopic and histological remission. AIMS: To confirm the correlation between fecal calprotectin and endoscopic or histological disease activity and to define the optimal cutoff value to detect endoscopic and histological remission. METHODS: From a prospectively maintained database, we analyzed 61 UC patients who had fecal calprotectin measurement and endoscopy performed within 1 month...
February 22, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ingrid Philibert, John H Beernink, Barbara H Bush, Donna A Caniano, John J Coyle, Joseph Gilhooly, Donald E Kraybill, David Larson, Mary Catherine Nace, William W Robertson, Judith D Rubin, Theodore Sanford, Andrea Chow, Sarah Moran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Erik L Antonsen, Robert A Mulcahy, David Rubin, Rebecca S Blue, Michael A Canga, Ronak Shah
INTRODUCTION: The provision of medical care in exploration-class spaceflight is limited by mass, volume, and power constraints, as well as limitations of available skillsets of crewmembers. A quantitative means of exploring the risks and benefits of inclusion or exclusion of onboard medical capabilities may help to inform the development of an appropriate medical system. A pilot project was designed to demonstrate the utility of an early tradespace analysis tool for identifying high-priority resources geared toward properly equipping an exploration mission medical system...
February 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Akihiro Yamada, Yuga Komaki, Nayan Patel, Fukiko Komaki, Joel Pekow, Sushila Dalal, Russell D Cohen, Lisa Cannon, Konstantin Umanskiy, Radhika Smith, Roger Hurst, Neil Hyman, David T Rubin, Atsushi Sakuraba
Background: Clinical and endoscopic recurrence are common after surgery in Crohn's disease (CD). Vedolizumab has been increasingly used to treat CD, however, its effectiveness in preventing postoperative recurrence remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the use of vedolizumab in the postoperative setting and compare the risk of recurrence between patients receiving vedolizumab and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents. Methods: Medical records of CD patients who underwent surgery between April 2014 and June 2016 were reviewed...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) diving has become increasingly popular with millions of people diving each year. Otorhinolaryngologists are often consulted either by patients or diving physicians regarding fitness to dive, and at present, the guidelines do not provide comprehensive information regarding the evaluation of this patient cohort. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing otorhinolaryngological guidelines for fitness to dive recreationally...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Scuba diving is becoming increasingly popular. However, scuba diving is associated with specific risks; 80% of adults and 85% of juvenile divers (aged 6-17 years) have been reputed to have an ear, nose, or throat complaint related to diving at some point during their diving career. Divers frequently seek advice from primary care physicians, diving physicians, and otorhinolaryngologists, not only in the acute setting, but also related to the long-term effects of diving. Observations: The principles underpinning diving-related injuries that may present to the otorhinolaryngologist rely on gas volume and gas saturation laws, and the prevention of these injuries requires both that the diver is skilled and that their anatomy allows for pressure equalization between the various anatomical compartments...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
William M Oldham, Rudolf K Oliveira, Rui-Sheng Wang, Alexander R Opotowsky, David M Rubins, Jon Hainer, Bradley M Wertheim, George A Alba, Gaurav Choudhary, Adrienn Tornyos, Calum A MacRae, Joseph Loscalzo, Jane A Leopold, Aaron Waxman, Horst Olschewski, Gabor Kovacs, David M Systrom, Bradley A Maron
<u>Rationale:</u> Current methods assessing clinical risk due to exercise intolerance in cardiopulmonary disease patients rely on a small subset of traditional variables. Alternative strategies incorporating the spectrum of factors underlying prognosis in at-risk patients may be useful clinically, but are lacking. <u>Objective:</u> Use unbiased analyses to identify variables that correspond to clinical risk in patients with exercise intolerance. <u>Methods and Results:</u> Data from 738 consecutive patients referred for invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) at a single center (2011-2015) were analyzed retrospectively (derivation cohort)...
February 5, 2018: Circulation Research
Joaquin Mateo, Heather H Cheng, Himisha Beltran, David Dolling, Wen Xu, Colin C Pritchard, Helen Mossop, Pasquale Rescigno, Raquel Perez-Lopez, Verena Sailer, Michael Kolinsky, Ada Balasopoulou, Claudia Bertan, David M Nanus, Scott T Tagawa, Heather Thorne, Bruce Montgomery, Suzanne Carreira, Shahneen Sandhu, Mark A Rubin, Peter S Nelson, Johann S de Bono
BACKGROUND: Germline DNA damage repair gene mutation (gDDRm) is found in >10% of metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). Their prognostic and predictive impact relating to standard therapies is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gDDRm status impacts benefit from established therapies in mPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a retrospective, international, observational study. Medical records were reviewed for 390 mPC patients with known gDDRm status...
January 29, 2018: European Urology
Katherine S Kellom, Meredith Matone, Aderinola Adejare, Frances K Barg, David M Rubin, Peter F Cronholm
Objectives The aim of this paper is to explore the process and impact of co-locating evidence-based maternal and child service models to inform future implementation efforts. Methods As part of a state-wide evaluation of maternal and child home visiting programs, we conducted semi-structured interviews with administrators and home visitors from home visiting agencies across Pennsylvania. We collected 33 interviews from 4 co-located agencies. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to describe the key elements mitigating implementation of multiple home visiting models...
February 10, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Dejan Micic, Andres Yarur, Alex Gonsalves, Vijaya L Rao, Susan Broadaway, Russell Cohen, Sushila Dalal, John N Gaetano, Laura R Glick, Ayal Hirsch, Joel Pekow, Atsushi Sakuraba, Seth T Walk, David T Rubin
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the most commonly isolated stool pathogen in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional risk factors for C. difficile may not exist in patients with IBD, and no prior studies have assessed the risk factors for the isolation of C. difficile in both symptomatic and asymptomatic IBD outpatients. METHODS: We prospectively recruited consecutive IBD patients presenting to our outpatient clinic between April 2015 and February 2016...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
David B Rubin, Harris A Ahmad, Michael O'Neal, Sophie Bennett, Sally Lettis, Dmitry V Galkin, Courtney Crim
Background: Patients with COPD are at risk for life-threatening pneumonia. Although anatomical abnormalities in the thorax may predispose to pneumonia, those abnormalities identified on routine chest X-rays (CXRs) in patients with COPD have not been studied to better understand pneumonia risk. Methods: We conducted a post hoc exploratory analysis of data from two replicate year-long clinical trials assessing the impact of fluticasone furoate-vilanterol versus vilanterol alone on COPD exacerbations (GSK studies: HZC102871/NCT01009463 and HZC102970/NCT01017952)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Ariane Lewis, James L Bernat, Sandralee Blosser, Richard J Bonnie, Leon G Epstein, John Hutchins, Matthew P Kirschen, Michael Rubin, James A Russell, Justin A Sattin, Eelco F M Wijdicks, David M Greer
In response to a number of recent lawsuits related to brain death determination, the American Academy of Neurology Ethics, Law, and Humanities Committee convened a multisociety quality improvement summit in October 2016 to address, and potentially correct, aspects of brain death determination within the purview of medical practice that may have contributed to these lawsuits. This article, which has been endorsed by multiple societies that are stakeholders in brain death determination, summarizes the discussion at this summit, wherein we (1) reaffirmed the validity of determination of death by neurologic criteria and the use of the American Academy of Neurology practice guideline to determine brain death in adults; (2) discussed the development of systems to ensure that brain death determination is consistent and accurate; (3) reviewed strategies to respond to objections to determination of death by neurologic criteria; and (4) outlined goals to improve public trust in brain death determination...
January 31, 2018: Neurology
David M Graham, Tomas Andersen, Lisa Sharek, Gunes Uzer, Katheryn Rothenberg, Brenton D Hoffman, Janet Rubin, Martial Balland, James E Bear, Keith Burridge
The nucleus has long been postulated to play a critical physical role during cell polarization and migration, but that role has not been defined or rigorously tested. Here, we enucleated cells to test the physical necessity of the nucleus during cell polarization and directed migration. Using enucleated mammalian cells (cytoplasts), we found that polarity establishment and cell migration in one dimension (1D) and two dimensions (2D) occur without the nucleus. Cytoplasts directionally migrate toward soluble (chemotaxis) and surface-bound (haptotaxis) extracellular cues and migrate collectively in scratch-wound assays...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Erin E Sundermann, Emily C Edmonds, Lisa Delano-Wood, Douglas R Galasko, David P Salmon, Leah H Rubin, Mark W Bondi
Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are required when diagnosing amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), although their relationship with objective memory performance and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology remains unclear. We investigated whether the sex of the patient/participant moderates these associations. Participants were 940 normal control (NC) and aMCI participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. SMC were assessed via the memory scale of the Everyday Cognition questionnaire. Discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-reports and categorized into "overestimates," "comparable estimates", and "underestimates" of SMC...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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