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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330449/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-effects-of-load-carriage-on-running-characteristics-and-tibial-mechanical-stress-implications-for-stress-fracture-injuries-in-women
#1
Chun Xu, Amy Silder, Ju Zhang, Jaques Reifman, Ginu Unnikrishnan
BACKGROUND: Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures, during military basic combat training. By investigating the influence of load carriage during exercises on the kinematics and kinetics of the body and on the biomechanical responses of bones, such as the tibia, we can quantify the role of load carriage on bone health. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using an integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to analyze how the amount of load carriage in women affected the kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running...
March 23, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325859/scoping-review-of-potential-quality-indicators-for-hip-fracture-patient-care
#2
Kristen B Pitzul, Sarah E P Munce, Laure Perrier, Lauren Beaupre, Suzanne N Morin, Rhona McGlasson, Susan B Jaglal
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify existing or potential quality of care indicators (ie, current indicators as well as process and outcome measures) in the acute or postacute period, or across the continuum of care for older adults with hip fracture. DESIGN: Scoping review. SETTING: All care settings. SEARCH STRATEGY: English peer-reviewed studies published from January 2000 to January 2016 were included...
March 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323348/differences-in-flexor-and-extensor-activity-during-locomotor-related-leg-movements-in-chick-embryos
#3
Soo Yeon Sun, Nina S Bradley
Prior to hatching, chick embryos spontaneously produce repetitive limb movements (RLMs), a developmental precursor to walking. During RLMs, flexor and extensor muscles are alternately active as during stance and swing phases of gait. However, previous studies of RLMs observed that flexor muscles were rhythmically active for many cycles, whereas extensors often failed to be recruited. Thus, we asked if flexor muscles are preferentially recruited during RLMs in chick embryos 1 day before hatching and onset of walking...
April 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321636/the-effect-of-cement-on-hip-stem-fixation-a-biomechanical-study
#4
Talip Çelik, İbrahim Mutlu, Arif Özkan, Yasin Kişioğlu
This study presents the numerical analysis of stem fixation in hip surgery using with/without cement methods since the use of cement is still controversial based on the clinical studies in the literature. Many different factors such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, material properties of the stem, surgeon experiences etc. play an important role in the failure of the stem fixations. The stem fixation methods, cemented and uncemented, were evaluated in terms of mechanical failure aspects using computerized finite element method...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320529/prevalence-of-neuropathic-pain-in-knee-or-hip-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Helen P French, Keith M Smart, Frank Doyle
OBJECTIVE: Discordance between radiographic and pain severity in osteoarthritis (OA) has led researchers to investigate other pain mechanisms, including neuropathic pain. Accurate identification of any neuropathic pain in hip or knee OA is important for appropriate management, but neuropathic pain prevalence is unknown. We aimed to obtain an overall prevalence estimate by systematically reviewing and meta-analysing the prevalence of neuropathic pain in people with hip or knee OA. METHOD: Observational studies which measured neuropathic pain in people aged 18 years and older with hip or knee OA were considered for inclusion...
February 20, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319674/assessment-of-circulating-betatrophin-concentrations-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Onur Erol, Mustafa Kemal Özel, Hamit Yaşar Ellidağ, Tayfun Toptaş, Aysel Uysal Derbent, Necat Yılmaz
The aims of the current study were to investigate the betatrophin levels in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to explore the relationships between these levels and antropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. The study population consisted of 50 lean (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m(2)) women diagnosed with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria, and 60 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls without any features of clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism. Before recruitment, glucose tolerance was evaluated in all of the subjects using the 2-h 75 g oral glucose-tolerance test, and only those exhibiting normal glucose tolerance were enrolled...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318394/effect-of-foot-and-ankle-immobilization-on-able-bodied-gait-as-a-model-to-increase-understanding-about-bilateral-transtibial-amputee-gait
#7
Antonia Nepomuceno, Matthew J Major, Rebecca Stine, Steven Gard
BACKGROUND: The anatomical foot-ankle complex facilitates advancement of the stance limb through foot rockers and late-stance power generation during walking, but this mechanism is altered for persons with bilateral transtibial amputation when using passive prostheses. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of bilateral foot and ankle immobilization on able-bodied gait to serve as a model for understanding gait of persons with bilateral transtibial amputation and associated compensatory mechanisms...
March 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316350/peek-and-cfr-peek-as-alternative-bearing-materials-to-uhmwpe-in-a-fixed-bearing-total-knee-replacement-an-experimental-wear-study
#8
Claire L Brockett, Silvia Carbone, John Fisher, Louise M Jennings
New bearing materials for total joint replacement have been explored as the need to improve longevity and enhance performance is driven by the changing demands of the patient demographic. Carbon-reinforced PEEK has demonstrated good wear characteristics in experimental wear simulation in both simple geometry pin-on-plate studies and in total hip joint replacement. Carbon reinforced PEEK CFR-PEEK has the potential to reduce tibial insert thickness and preserve bone in the knee. This study investigated the wear performance of PEEK and CFR-PEEK in a low conformity total knee replacement configuration...
March 15, 2017: Wear: An International Journal on the Science and Technology of Friction Lubrication and Wear
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315184/epiphyseal-arterial-network-and-inferior-retinacular-artery-seem-critical-to-femoral-head-perfusion-in-adults-with-femoral-neck-fractures
#9
Dewei Zhao, Xing Qiu, Benjie Wang, Zihua Wang, Wei Wang, Jun Ouyang, Rona M Silva, Xiaotian Shi, Kai Kang, Dachuan Xu, Chuang Li, Shizhen Zhong, Yu Zhang, Kent E Pinkerton
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the blood supply of the femoral head is essential to guide therapeutic strategies for patients with femoral neck fractures. However, because of the limitations of conventional techniques, the precise distribution and characteristics of intraosseous arteries of the femoral head are not well displayed. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To explore the characteristics and interconnections of the intraosseous vessel system between different areas of the femoral head and the possible blood supply compensatory mechanism after femoral neck fracture...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314887/mechanical-strains-passing-through-the-acetabular-labrum-modify-its-shape-during-hip-motion-an-anatomical-study
#10
Matthieu Ollivier, Thomas Le Corroller, Sebastien Parratte, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Noël Argenson, Olivier Gagey
PURPOSE: The function of the hip labrum during hip motion remains poorly known. Our hypothesis was that acetabular labrum will deform and change its shape during adduction to abduction movement consecutively to variation of strains passing from the acetabulum to the femoral head. An ex vivo anatomical study was conducted to analyse the morphological parameters variation of the mid-portion of the labrum (length, thickness, shape, deformation) as well as femoro-labral strains during hip adduction to abduction movement...
March 17, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314214/gait-biomechanics-following-lower-extremity-trauma-amputation-vs-reconstruction
#11
Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Daniel J Stinner, John R Fergason, Jason M Wilken
BACKGROUND: Surgical advances have substantially improved outcomes for individuals sustaining traumatic lower extremity injury. Injuries once requiring lower limb amputation are now routinely managed with limb reconstruction surgery. However, comparisons of functional outcomes between the procedures are inconclusive. PURPOSE: To compare gait biomechanics after lower limb reconstruction and transtibial amputation. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with unilateral lower limb reconstruction wearing a custom ankle-foot orthosis (Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis), 24 with unilateral, transtibial amputation, and 24 able-bodied control subjects underwent gait analysis at a standardized Froude speed based on leg length...
February 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302462/the-impact-of-mechanical-and-restricted-kinematic-alignment-on-knee-anatomy-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#12
Abdulaziz M Almaawi, Jonathan R B Hutt, Vincent Masse, Martin Lavigne, Pascal-Andre Vendittoli
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA), aiming at neutral mechanical alignment (MA), inevitably modifies the patient's native knee anatomy. Another option is kinematic alignment (KA), which aims to restore the original anatomy of the knee. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations in lower limb anatomy of a patient population scheduled for TKA, and to assess the use of a restricted KA TKA protocol and compare the resulting anatomic modifications with the standard MA technique...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300467/association-of-cyp1a1-and-cyp1b1-polymorphisms-with-bone-mineral-density-variations-in-postmenopausal-mexican-mestizo-women
#13
Bertha Chávez, Felipe Vilchis, David Rojano-Mejía, Ramón Mauricio Coral Vázquez, María Del Carmen Aguirre-García, Patricia Canto
Herein, we investigated potential associations between polymorphisms of genes related to estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study, in which two hundred and ninety postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women were studied. The BMD of the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) was measured. The distribution of the genetic polymorphisms, including rs1799814 and rs1048943 at CYP1A1 as well as rs1056836 at CYP1B1, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP), and DNA sequencing...
March 16, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299385/no-impact-of-under-correction-and-joint-line-obliquity-on-clinical-outcomes-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-for-the-varus-knee
#14
Richard D Rames, Michael Mathison, Zachary Meyer, Robert L Barrack, Denis Nam
PURPOSE: It has been hypothesized that under-correction of a preoperative varus deformity may be more natural and improve outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study's purpose was to assess the impact of hip-knee-ankle (HKA) alignment and joint line obliquity on TKA outcomes for the varus knee. METHODS: All patients with a preoperative varus deformity received both preoperative and postoperative standing, full-length radiographs from which two independent observers performed radiographic measurements including the HKA axis and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA)...
March 15, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297177/kinematics-of-the-pelvis-torso-and-lower-limb-during-obstacle-negotiation-while-under-temporal-constraints
#15
Jesse C Christensen, Christopher R Wilson, Andrew S Merryweather, K Bo Foreman
Biomechanics of unobstructed locomotion consists of synchronized complex movements of the pelvis, torso, and lower limbs. These movement patterns become more complex as individuals encounter obstacles or negotiate uneven terrain. To date, limited research has explored how specifically the pelvis, torso, and lower limb segments relate to obstacle negotiation of varying sized objects combined with temporal constraints to perform the task. Understanding pelvis and adjoining segment movements during object negotiation will provide necessary information in identifying abnormal mechanics and potential fall risk characteristics in balance compromised patient populations...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297175/pelvic-breadth-and-locomotor-kinematics-in-human-evolution
#16
Laura Tobias Gruss, Richard Gruss, Daniel Schmitt
A broad pelvis is characteristic of most, if not all, pre-modern hominins. In at least some early australopithecines, most notably the female Australopithecus afarensis specimen known as "Lucy," it is very broad and coupled with very short lower limbs. In 1991, Rak suggested that Lucy's pelvic anatomy improved locomotor efficiency by increasing stride length through rotation of the wide pelvis in the axial plane. Compared to lengthening strides by increasing flexion and extension at the hips, this mechanism could avoid potentially costly excessive vertical oscillations of the body's center of mass (COM)...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293486/sacral-insufficiency-fractures-recognition-and-treatment-in-patients-with-concurrent-lumbar-vertebral-compression-fractures
#17
Jesse Hatgis, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson, Aldo Berti
INTRODUCTION: In reviewing a larger group of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), we found that the overall incidence of sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) is higher than commonly reported values. This is especially seen in patients with previous or concurrent lumbar VCFs and also in a subgroup that had lumbar stenosis or hip arthroplasty. The altered biomechanics due to associated lumbar stenosis or hip arthroplasty lead to increased mechanical stress on already weakened and deficient sacral alae, which are more vulnerable to osteoporotic weakening than other parts of the sacrum...
February 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291145/isolated-head-and-liner-exchange-in-revision-hip-arthroplasty
#18
David William Walmsley, James P Waddell, Emil H Schemitsch
As the number of primary total hip arthroplasties increases, so does the burden of revision procedures. The decision to revise well-fixed components in the setting of polyethylene wear and osteolysis is controversial. Modular head and liner exchange offers the advantages of reduced invasiveness, faster recovery, and bone preservation. These advantages come at the expense of higher rates of revision surgery for instability. Using the native locking mechanism for securing the new liner is preferred; however, cementing a liner into a well-fixed acetabular component is a practical alternative...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288325/trochanteric-hip-fracture-during-cardioversion-therapy-a-case-report
#19
J Gómez, J Albareda, L Ezquerra
INTRODUCTION: Trochanteric hip fractures in elderly patients with osteoporosis are commonly caused by low energy trauma. The cardioversion therapy is an extremely rare cause of this type of fracture. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the case of a woman with hip fracture after cardioversion. DISCUSSION: We discuss the production mechanism of this injury and the importance of the care of the osteoporotic bone under these therapies. CONCLUSION: The propofol sedation should be complemented with skeletal muscle relaxants in the cardioversion therapy to avoid hip fracture in select patients with osteoporosis...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285142/effects-of-hip-abduction-and-adduction-accuracy-on-post-stroke-gait
#20
Jesse C Dean, Aaron E Embry, Katy H Stimpson, Lindsay A Perry, Steven A Kautz
BACKGROUND: Gait instability often limits post-stroke function, although the mechanisms underlying this instability are not entirely clear. Our recent work has suggested that one possible factor contributing to post-stroke gait instability is a reduced ability to accurately control foot placement. The purpose of the present experiments was to investigate whether post-stroke gait function is related to the ability to accurately abduct and adduct the hip, as required for accurate foot placement...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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