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Amyloid in blood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637305/left-atrial-structure-and-function-in-cardiac-amyloidosis
#1
Kotaro Nochioka, Candida Cristina Quarta, Brian Claggett, Gabriela Querejeta Roca, Claudio Rapezzi, Rodney H Falk, Scott D Solomon
Aims: Although cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is characterized by significant left atrial (LA) dilatation, the characteristics of LA function remain to be fully investigated. Methods and results: We assessed LA function by speckle-tracking echocardiography in 124 patients with CA and sinus rhythm: 68 with light chain (AL), 29 with mutant (ATTRm), 27 with wild-type (ATTRwt) transthyretin amyloidosis. Conventional and strain-derived parameters, including LA peak longitudinal strain (LS) and strain rate (peak LSR: reservoir function; early LSR: conduit function; late LSR: active function), were assessed compared between CA patients and 20 healthy controls of similar age and gender...
June 16, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629364/changes-in-concentrations-of-haemostatic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-synovial-fluid-after-intra-articular-injection-of-lipopolysaccharide-in-horses
#2
Stine Mandrup Andreassen, Anne Mette Lindberg Vinther, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Pia Haubro Andersen, Aziz Tnibar, Annemarie T Kristensen, Stine Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis is a common and potentially devastating disease characterized by severe intra-articular (IA) inflammation and fibrin deposition. Research into equine joint pathologies has focused on inflammation, but recent research in humans suggests that both haemostatic and inflammatory pathways are activated in the joint compartment in arthritic conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the IA haemostatic and inflammatory responses in horses with experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced joint inflammation...
June 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624473/antibody-blood-brain-barrier-efflux-is-modulated-by-glycan-modification
#3
John M Finke, Kari R Ayres, Ryan P Brisbin, Hali A Hill, Emily E Wing, William A Banks
BACKGROUND: Drug delivery to the brain is a major roadblock to treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Recent results of the PRIME study indicate that increasing brain penetration of antibody drugs improves Alzheimer's treatment outcomes. New approaches are needed to better accomplish this goal. Based on prior evidence, the hypothesis that glycan modification alters antibody blood-brain barrier permeability was tested here. METHODS: The blood-brain barrier permeability coefficient Pe of different glycosylated states of anti-amyloid IgG was measured using in vitro models of brain microvascular endothelial cells...
June 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623475/t1-mapping-in-cardiac-mri
#4
REVIEW
Dina Radenkovic, Sebastian Weingärtner, Lewis Ricketts, James C Moon, Gabriella Captur
Quantitative myocardial and blood T1 have recently achieved clinical utility in numerous pathologies, as they provide non-invasive tissue characterization with the potential to replace invasive biopsy. Native T1 time (no contrast agent), changes with myocardial extracellular water (edema, focal or diffuse fibrosis), fat, iron, and amyloid protein content. After contrast, the extracellular volume fraction (ECV) estimates the size of the extracellular space and identifies interstitial disease. Spatially resolved quantification of these biomarkers (so-called T1 mapping and ECV mapping) are steadily becoming diagnostic and prognostically useful tests for several heart muscle diseases, influencing clinical decision-making with a pending second consensus statement due mid-2017...
June 16, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622603/probing-supramolecular-protein-assembly-using-covalently-attached-fluorescent-molecular-rotors
#5
Markéta Kubánková, Ismael López-Duarte, James A Bull, Devkee M Vadukul, Louise C Serpell, Marie de Saint Victor, Eleanor Stride, Marina K Kuimova
Changes in microscopic viscosity and macromolecular crowding accompany the transition of proteins from their monomeric forms into highly organised fibrillar states. Previously, we have demonstrated that viscosity sensitive fluorophores termed 'molecular rotors', when freely mixed with monomers of interest, are able to report on changes in microrheology accompanying amyloid formation, and measured an increase in rigidity of approximately three orders of magnitude during aggregation of lysozyme and insulin. Here we extend this strategy by covalently attaching molecular rotors to several proteins capable of assembly into fibrils, namely lysozyme, fibrinogen and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ(1-42))...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620801/fty720-attenuates-infection-induced-enhancement-of-a%C3%AE-accumulation-in-app-ps1-mice-by-modulating-astrocytic-activation
#6
Róisín M McManus, Orla M Finucane, Mieszko M Wilk, Kingston H G Mills, Marina A Lynch
It is well established that infection has a significant detrimental effect on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), accelerating cognitive decline and, even in healthy ageing individuals, increasing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. In animal models of AD infection can also cause damage, with evidence of increased neuroinflammation, amyloid pathology and deterioration of cognitive function. These changes are against a backdrop of an age- and AD-related increase in susceptibility to infection. Here we set out to determine whether FTY720, a molecule that binds sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors and with known immunosuppressant effects mediating its therapeutic action in multiple sclerosis (MS), might modulate the impact of infection in a mouse model of AD...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619036/monocyte-differentiation-and-macrophage-priming-are-regulated-differentially-by-pentraxins-and-their-ligands
#7
Darrell Pilling, Elkin Galvis-Carvajal, Tejas R Karhadkar, Nehemiah Cox, Richard H Gomer
BACKGROUND: Circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes can leave the blood, enter a tissue, and differentiate into M1 inflammatory, M2a remodeling/fibrotic, or M2c/Mreg resolving/immune-regulatory macrophages. Macrophages can also convert from one of the above types to another. Pentraxins are secreted proteins that bind to, and promote efficient clearance of, microbial pathogens and cellular debris during infection, inflammation, and tissue damage. The pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P (SAP), and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) can also bind a variety of endogenous ligands...
June 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617802/oxidative-stress-affects-processing-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#8
Abebe Muche, Thomas Arendt, Reinhard Schliebs
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is thought to be a key player in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been assumed that oxidative stress contributes to the ß-amyloid deposition in cerebral blood vessels. METHODS: In order to prove this hypothesis, we examined the effect of oxidative stress on the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in primary endothelial cells (EC) derived from cerebral cortical tissue of transgenic Tg2576 mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613962/significant-association-between-renal-function-and-area-of-amyloid-deposition-in-kidney-biopsy-specimens-in-both-aa-amyloidosis-associated-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-al-amyloidosis
#9
Takeshi Kuroda, Naohito Tanabe, Eriko Hasegawa, Ayako Wakamatsu, Yukiko Nozawa, Hiroe Sato, Takeshi Nakatsue, Yoko Wada, Yumi Ito, Naofumi Imai, Mitsuhiro Ueno, Masaaki Nakano, Ichiei Narita
The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis, which results in proteinuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. The clinical manifestations and precursor proteins of amyloid A (AA) and light-chain (AL) amyloidosis are different, and the renal damage due to amyloid deposition also seems to differ. The purpose of this study was to clarify haw the difference in clinical features between AA and AL amyloidosis are explained by the difference in the amount and distribution of amyloid deposition in the renal tissues...
June 14, 2017: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611024/platelet-amyloid-precursor-protein-is-a-modulator-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-mice
#10
Ilaria Canobbio, Caterina Visconte, Stefania Momi, Gianni Francesco Guidetti, Marta Zarà, Jessica Canino, Emanuela Falcinelli, Paolo Gresele, Mauro Torti
The amyloid precursor protein (APP), primarily known as the precursor of amyloid peptides that accumulate in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients, is abundant in platelets but its physiological function remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of APP in hemostasis and thrombosis using APP knockout (KO) mice. Ex vivo aggregation, secretion, and integrin αIIbβ3 inside-out activation induced by several agonists were normal in APP-deficient platelets, but the number of circulating platelets was reduced by about 20%, and their size was slightly increased...
June 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608804/phytosterols-and-omega-3-supplementation-exert-novel-regulatory-effects-on-metabolic-and-inflammatory-pathways-a-proteomic-study
#11
Carmen Lambert Judit Cubedo, Teresa Padró, Joan Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M Antonijoan, Antonio Perez, Lina Badimon
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. In addition to drug treatment, nutritional interventions or supplementations are becoming a health strategy for CVD prevention. Phytosterols (PhyS) are natural components that have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels; while poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids, have shown to reduce triglyceride levels. Here we aimed to investigate whether the proteins in the main lipoproteins (low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL)) as well as proteins in the lipid free plasma fraction (LPDP) were regulated by the intake of PhyS-milk or ω3-milk, in overweight healthy volunteers by a proteomic based systems biology approach...
June 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606049/the-blood-brain-barrier-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-therapy-an-overview
#12
Satya Lavanya Jakki, V Senthil, Venkata Ramesh Yasam, Mjn Chandrasekar, C Vijayaraghavan
Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is the most frequent age related neurodegenerative disorder. It represents 70% of all dementia. Millions of people have been affected by AD worldwide. It is a complex illness characterized pathologically by accumulation of protein aggregates of amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles containing hyperphosphorylated neuronal tau protein. AD requires drugs that can circumvent the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which is not a simple physical barrier between blood and brain, but acts as an iron curtain, allowing only selective molecules to enter the brain...
June 12, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603494/yxqn-reduces-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-and-cognitive-decline-in-appsweps1de9-transgenic-mice
#13
Xiaowan Wang, Runmin Song, Wenliang Lu, Ziyu Liu, Lichun Wang, Xiaojuan Zhu, Yanjun Liu, Zijie Sun, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the world's most common form of dementia, in which aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is the hallmark. Unfortunately, few medicines have succeeded to completely cure AD. Yangxue Qingnao (YXQN) is a Chinese traditional medicine, and its pharmacological effect is improving cerebral blood flow. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that YXQN reduced AD-like pathology and cognitive impairment in APPswePS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice with 2 months administration. Our data showed that YXQN substantially ameliorated behavioral defects in 10-month old APP/PS1 mice using Morris Water Maze and Y-maze tests, in which the cognitive ability of YXQN high-dose group approaches to wild type mice...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598287/association-between-periodontitis-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-in-elderly-people-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#14
José Antonio Gil-Montoya, Rocío Barrios Rodríguez, Soraya Santana, Inés Sanchez-Lara, Cristobal Carnero Pardo, Francisco Fornieles-Rubio, Juan Montes, Carlos Ramírez, Miguel Angel González-Moles, Javier S Burgos
BACKGROUND: Evidence that periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for cognitive impairment may be explained by the inflammatory hypothesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether periodontitis is related to the amyloid-β (Aβ) load in blood and the role of any such relationship in the association between Aβ and cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed in elderly people diagnosed with cognitive impairment with or without dementia (cases) and cognitively healthy elderly people; data were collected on the medical and dental history of participants, and blood samples were drawn to determine Aβ levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596970/type-2-diabetes-in-young-females-results-in-increased-serum-amyloid-a-and-changes-to-features-of-high-density-lipoproteins-in-both-hdl2-and-hdl3
#15
Kayleigh Griffiths, Agnieszka Pazderska, Mohammed Ahmed, Anne McGowan, Alexander P Maxwell, Jane McEneny, James Gibney, Gareth J McKay
Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an elevated risk of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) normally protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD), but this may be attenuated by serum amyloid A (SAA). In a case-control study of young females, blood samples were compared between subjects with T2DM (n = 42) and individuals without T2DM (n = 42). SAA and apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) concentrations, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities were measured in the serum and/or HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596485/rumen-derived-lipopolysaccharide-provoked-inflammatory-injury-in-the-liver-of-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-concentrate-diet
#16
Junfei Guo, Guangjun Chang, Kai Zhang, Lei Xu, Di Jin, Muhammad Shahid Bilal, Xiangzhen Shen
Rumen-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is translocated from the rumen into the bloodstream when subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) occurs following long-term feeding with a high-concentrate (HC) diet in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of inflammatory responses in the liver caused by HC diet feeding. We found that SARA was induced in dairy cows when rumen pH below 5.6 lasted for at least 3 h/d with HC diet feeding. Also, the LPS levels in the portal and hepatic veins were increased significantly and hepatocytes were impaired as well as the liver function was inhibited during SARA condition...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590056/r202q-m694v-as-novel-mefv-gene-mutations-in-chronic-periodontitis-and-familial-mediterranean-fever
#17
Ö Fentoğlu, G Dinç, Ö Bağcı, A Doğru, I İlhan, F Y Kırzıoğlu, H Orhan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and chronic periodontitis are inflammatory diseases leading to an increase in the number of inflammasomes. To date, no published studies have reported on mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene in patients with chronic periodontitis, although the roles of MEFV gene mutations in FMF and FMF-associated amyloidosis (FMF-A) are well known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of MEFV gene mutations and serum amyloid A (SAA) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis, FMF and FMF-A...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589856/association-analysis-of-rare-variants-near-the-apoe-region-with-csf-and-neuroimaging-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Kwangsik Nho, Sungeun Kim, Emrin Horgusluoglu, Shannon L Risacher, Li Shen, Dokyoon Kim, Seunggeun Lee, Tatiana Foroud, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Michael W Weiner, Robert C Green, Arthur W Toga, Andrew J Saykin
BACKGROUND: The APOE ε4 allele is the most significant common genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The region surrounding APOE on chromosome 19 has also shown consistent association with LOAD. However, no common variants in the region remain significant after adjusting for APOE genotype. We report a rare variant association analysis of genes in the vicinity of APOE with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers of LOAD. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 817 blood DNA samples from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589443/metformin-a-future-therapy-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka, Joanna Sikora, Aleksandra Szydłowska, Agata Skupień, Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Kristiina M Huttunen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic and progressive metabolic disease, which is characterized by relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance, and high glucose levels in blood. Esteemed published articles and epidemiological data exhibit an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in diabetic pateints. Metformin is the most frequently used oral anti-diabetic drug, which apart from hypoglycaemic activity, improves serum lipid profiles, positively influences the process of haemostasis, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties...
June 6, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587858/rebamipide-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-a%C3%AE-42-production-and-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-43-lowered-cell-viability-in-cultured-sh-sy5y-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#20
Kenta Fukui, Kazuma Yachi, Hidemi Yoshida, Kunikazu Tanji, Tomoh Matsumiya, Ryo Hayakari, Kazushi Tsuruga, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tadaatsu Imaizumi
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) and Aβ43, in particular, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rebamipide (REB), a gastrointestinal protective drug, can cross the blood-brain barrier after oral administration; however, the effects of REB on neuronal cells have not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of REB on Aβ43-induced cytotoxicity (monomers, 10μM) in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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