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Cognitive disorder biomarker in blood

Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Maj Vinberg
This study investigated a high-risk sample in order to elucidate risk factors for affective disorder. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with and without a co-twin with a history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Two risk groups were identified: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected)...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Charles Laidi, Josselin Houenou
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have contributed to the understanding of bipolar disorder. However the effect of medication on brain activation remains poorly understood. We conducted an extensive literature review on PubMed and ScienceDirect to investigate the influence of medication in fMRI studies, including both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, which aimed at assessing this influence. Although we reported all reviewed studies, we gave greater emphasis to studies with the most robust methodology...
September 8, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dejiang Wang, Xiangjun Di, Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Xiao Han, Hui Wu, Linjun Cai, Xiangyu Meng, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong, Weiheng Su
As a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a global health concern. Despite the availability of psychological testing, neuroimaging, genetic testing, and biochemical assays of cerebrospinal fluid, convenient and accurate blood biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and preclinical studies of AD are still lacking. The present study aims to longitudinally evaluate the feasibility of β-amyloid proteins, α2-macroglobulin (α-2M), complement factor H (CFH), and clusterin as blood biomarkers of AD...
October 19, 2016: Neuroreport
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Antonio Greco, Zhuowei Yu
Cognitive frailty (CF) overlaps with early neuropathological alterations associated with aging‑related major neurocognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fluid biomarkers for these pathological brain alterations allow for early diagnosis in the preclinical stages of AD, and for objective prognostic assessments in clinical intervention trials. These biomarkers may also be helpful in the screening of CF. The present study reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews of cohort studies and other authoritative reports...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Gaurav Gulati, Philip H Iffland, Damir Janigro, Bin Zhang, Michael E Luggen
Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In animal models, antibodies to NR2 subunit of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (anti-NR2) cause memory impairment, but only with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption or intrathecal administration. Several studies have failed to find association of aNR2 with CD, but none have assessed BBB integrity. S100B, an astrocyte-specific protein, has been used as biomarker of BBB disruption in traumatic brain injury and some neurodegenerative disorders...
June 29, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Judit Marsillach, Lucio G Costa, Clement E Furlong
Acute and chronic exposures to widely used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are common. Children's detoxification mechanisms are not well developed until several years after birth. The increased cases of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, together with their increased susceptibility to OP neurotoxicity cannot be explained by genetic factors alone but could be related to gene-environment interactions. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme that can detoxify OPs but its catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis to certain OPs is modulated by the Q192R polymorphism...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Wiebke Schrempf, Istvan Katona, Imis Dogan, Verena V Felbert, Miriam Wienecke, Julia Heller, Andrea Maier, Andreas Hermann, Katharina Linse, Moritz D Brandt, Heinz Reichmann, Jörg B Schulz, Johannes Schiefer, Wolfgang H Oertel, Alexander Storch, Joachim Weis, Kathrin Reetz
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) has been increasingly acknowledged to be an initial specific manifestation of alpha-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Recent findings suggest that cutaneous abnormalities like small fiber neuropathy and alpha-synuclein deposition might reflect brain pathology and might function as early biomarkers in PD. This is the first study to elucidate whether iRBD patients already suffer from distinctive cutaneous features...
August 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Petra E Vértes, Shaun M Flint, Lorinda Turner, Syed Mustafa, Alex Hatton, Kenneth G C Smith, Paul A Lyons, Edward T Bullmore
BACKGROUND: Hypothetically, psychotic disorders could be caused or conditioned by immunological mechanisms. If so, one might expect there to be peripheral immune system phenotypes that are measurable in blood cells as biomarkers of psychotic states. METHODS: We used multi-parameter flow cytometry of venous blood to quantify and determine the activation state of 73 immune cell subsets for 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia (17 treated with clozapine), and 18 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex, BMI and smoking...
2016: PloS One
Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Jennifer A Honeycutt, Freedom H Holland, Prabarna Ganguly, Heather C Brenhouse
Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21)...
September 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Meryl S Lillenes, Alberto Rabano, Mari Støen, Tahira Riaz, Dorna Misaghian, Linda Møllersen, Ying Esbensen, Clara-Cecilie Günther, Per Selnes, Vidar T V Stenset, Tormod Fladby, Tone Tønjum
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is the main cause of dementia globally. AD is associated with increased oxidative stress, resulting from imbalance in production and clearance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS can damage DNA and other macromolecules, leading to genome instability and disrupted cellular functions. Base excision repair (BER) plays a major role in repairing oxidative DNA lesions. Here, we compared the expression of BER components APE1, OGG1, PARP1 and Polβ in blood and postmortem brain tissue from patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC)...
2016: Molecular Brain
Chan-Woo Yeom, Young-Ja Park, Sam-Wook Choi, Soo-Young Bhang
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to affect development, cognition, attention and behavior. However, few studies have investigated preschool children with regard to these areas. We evaluated the relationship between cognition, attention and peripheral blood concentration of BDNF in preschool children. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (mean age: 6.16 ± 0.60 years) were recruited. For all subjects, serum and plasma BDNF levels were assessed; intelligence was assessed using the Korean standardisation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (KEDI-WISC); attention was assessed using the computerised continuous performance test (CCPT), the children's color trails test (CCTT), the Stroop color-word test for preschool children, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder rating scale (K-ARS); and finally emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the child behavior checklist (K-CBCL)...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
M M Rive, M W J Koeter, D J Veltman, A H Schene, H G Ruhé
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are an important feature of both remitted and depressed major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In particular, deficits in executive functioning may hamper everyday functioning. Identifying the neural substrates of impaired executive functioning would improve our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying these disorders, and may eventually aid in discriminating between MDD and BD, which is often difficult during depression and remission...
August 2016: Psychological Medicine
Vincent Primo, Mark Graham, Alexander A Bigger-Allen, Joel M Chick, Carolina Ospina, Yakeel T Quiroz, Jan Manent, Steven P Gygi, Francisco Lopera, Patricia A D'Amore, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez
Mutations in NOTCH 3 are the cause of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a neurological disorder characterized by stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. Loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and accumulation of granular osmiophilic material (GOM) deposits are hallmarks of CADASIL. There are no therapies for CADASIL and experimental endpoints to examine the preclinical efficacy of potential drugs are lacking. This study aims to use a mouse carrying the C455R mutation in Notch 3 to identify biomarkers associated with CADASIL...
August 1, 2016: Brain Research
T V Pinheiro, S Brunetto, J G L Ramos, J R Bernardi, M Z Goldani
UNLABELLED: The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy complicate up to 10% of pregnancies worldwide and are a leading cause of maternal, foetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to present an overview of recent studies addressing offspring's medium and long-term health outcomes after intrauterine exposure to maternal hypertension. A search on PubMed/MEDLINE and Bireme databases was conducted to identify observational studies that reported any offspring outcome measured after the 6th month of life...
August 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Matthieu Lilamand, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Matthieu Plichart, Laura W De Jong, Emmanuelle Duron, Olivier Hanon
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. Arterial stiffness could be involved in the mechanisms of vascular cognitive impairment and in Alzheimer's disease. We examined the association between arterial stiffness, assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy, a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Elderly community-dwelling study participants (n = 149) with memory complaints were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (n = 62) or mild cognitive impairment (n = 87) at a memory clinic...
July 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pejman Rahimian, Johnny J He
HIV infection often causes neurological symptoms including cognitive and motor dysfunction, which have been collectively termed HIV/neuroAIDS. Neuropsychological assessment and clinical symptoms have been the primary diagnostic criteria for HIV/neuroAIDS, even for the mild cognitive and motor disorder, the most prevalent form of HIV/neuroAIDS in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Those performance-based assessments and symptoms are generally descriptive and do not have the sensitivity and specificity to monitor the diagnosis, progression, and treatment response of the disease when compared to objective and quantitative laboratory-based biological markers, or biomarkers...
April 12, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Zhuo Wang, Daniel P Stefanko, Yumei Guo, William A Toy, Giselle M Petzinger, Michael W Jakowec, Daniel P Holschneider
Neuroimaging, especially functional brain mapping, may provide insights into the distributed involvement of multiple brain regions and loops in disorders classically associated with pathology of a localized region. One example is Huntington's disease (HD), typically classified as a basal ganglia disorder. Here, we report genotypic differences in cerebral perfusion mapping in an HD mouse model characterized by a gene knock-in (KI) of a human exon 1 CAG140 expansion repeat (CAG140 KI mice). Animals were examined at 6 months and compared with wild-type littermates...
June 15, 2016: Neuroreport
B Cabrera, M Bioque, R Penadés, A González-Pinto, M Parellada, J Bobes, A Lobo, B García-Bueno, J C Leza, M Bernardo
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are present from the onset of psychosis and are considered a core feature of the disorder. Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function is associated with inflammatory processes. This study evaluated the association between cognition and inflammatory biomarkers in first-episode psychosis (FEP), in order to identify cognitive phenotypes from inflammatory expression profiles. METHOD: A case-control study of 92 FEP patients and 80 matched controls was used...
July 2016: Psychological Medicine
Lorraine F Clark, Thomas Kodadek
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a loss of neurons that leads to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people in the United States and worldwide, followed by Parkinson's disease (PD). While some early onset forms of AD and PD are hereditary, the sporadic or late-onset cases are believed to result from lifestyle and environmental factors. On the contrary, Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease solely caused by mutations in the gene for huntingtin protein...
May 18, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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