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Cognitive disorder biomarker in blood

W Richard Bevan-Jones, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Robert Arnold, Elijah Mak, Li Su, Jonathan P Coles, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Guy Williams, Franklin Aigbirhio, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation of the central nervous system is increasingly regarded as having a role in cognitive disorders such as dementia and depression, but it is not clear how such inflammation relates to other aspects of neuropathology, structural and functional changes in the brain and symptoms (as assessed via clinical and neuropsychological assessment and MRI). This study will explore these pathophysiological mechanisms using positron emission tomography (PET) which allows in vivo imaging of inflammation, amyloid and τ deposition, together with neuropsychological profiling, MRI and peripheral biomarker analysis...
January 7, 2017: BMJ Open
Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang, Cheng-Ho Chang, Chih-Ching Wu, Hsing-Ling Chen, Shih-Hsien Lin, Chin-Liang Chu, Ti Lu, Ru-Band Lu
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and pregnenolone may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar II disorder (BP-II). The aims of the current study are to determine (a) the differences in DHEA, DHEA-S and pregnenolone in patients with BP-II and controls; and (b) the correlation of levels of the above hormones, cognitive function, and clinical symptoms. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with BP-II and healthy controls were recruited from psychiatric department...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Francesca Pescini, Ida Donnini, Francesca Cesari, Serena Nannucci, Raffaella Valenti, Valentina Rinnoci, Anna Poggesi, Anna Maria Gori, Betti Giusti, Angela Rogolino, Alessandra Carluccio, Silvia Bianchi, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Maurizio Balestrino, Enrico Adriano, Rosanna Abbate, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebral microangiopathy presenting with variable features, including migraine, psychiatric disorders, stroke, and cognitive decline and variable disability. On neuroimaging, CADASIL is characterized by leukoencephalopathy, multiple lacunar infarcts, and microbleeds. Previous studies suggest a possible role of endothelial impairment in the pathogenesis of the disease...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
M-L Gougeon
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in infected individuals with adequate immunological and virological status. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include hepatitis C virus co-infection, host genetic factors predisposing to HAND, the early establishment of the virus in the CNS and its persistence under HAART; thus, the CNS is an important reservoir for HIV. Microglial cells are permissive to HIV-1, and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated genes were found expressed in brains of HIV-1-infected persons, contributing to brain disease...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Lulu Sun, Peiyu Jia, Junfeng Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yiwei Zhang, Hong Jiang, Wei Jiang, Yong Guo
AIM: Pathophysiological disorders after surgery might be related to postoperative delirium (POD). This study was designed to elucidate the pathogenesis of POD in elderly oral cancer patients by determining the perioperative kinetics of inflammatory cytokines, cortisol, and amyloid β1-40 (Aβ1-40). METHODS: A total of 257 elderly oral cancer patients who underwent tumor resection surgery were selected. Venous blood was collected prior to surgery (T0), at the end of surgery (T1), and at 12 hours after surgery (T2)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
K Baek, L S Morris, P Kundu, V Voon
BACKGROUND: The efficient organization and communication of brain networks underlie cognitive processing and their disruption can lead to pathological behaviours. Few studies have focused on whole-brain networks in obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Here we used multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) along with a data-driven graph theory approach to assess brain network characteristics in obesity and BED. METHOD: Multi-echo rsfMRI scans were collected from 40 obese subjects (including 20 BED patients) and 40 healthy controls and denoised using multi-echo independent component analysis (ME-ICA)...
November 2, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Maj Vinberg
This study investigated a high-risk sample in order to elucidate risk factors for affective disorder. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with and without a co-twin with a history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Two risk groups were identified: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected)...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Charles Laidi, Josselin Houenou
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have contributed to the understanding of bipolar disorder. However the effect of medication on brain activation remains poorly understood. We conducted an extensive literature review on PubMed and ScienceDirect to investigate the influence of medication in fMRI studies, including both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, which aimed at assessing this influence. Although we reported all reviewed studies, we gave greater emphasis to studies with the most robust methodology...
November 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dejiang Wang, Xiangjun Di, Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Xiao Han, Hui Wu, Linjun Cai, Xiangyu Meng, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong, Weiheng Su
As a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a global health concern. Despite the availability of psychological testing, neuroimaging, genetic testing, and biochemical assays of cerebrospinal fluid, convenient and accurate blood biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and preclinical studies of AD are still lacking. The present study aims to longitudinally evaluate the feasibility of β-amyloid proteins, α2-macroglobulin (α-2M), complement factor H (CFH), and clusterin as blood biomarkers of AD...
October 19, 2016: Neuroreport
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Antonio Greco, Zhuowei Yu
Cognitive frailty (CF) overlaps with early neuropathological alterations associated with aging‑related major neurocognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fluid biomarkers for these pathological brain alterations allow for early diagnosis in the preclinical stages of AD, and for objective prognostic assessments in clinical intervention trials. These biomarkers may also be helpful in the screening of CF. The present study reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews of cohort studies and other authoritative reports...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Gaurav Gulati, Philip H Iffland, Damir Janigro, Bin Zhang, Michael E Luggen
Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In animal models, antibodies to NR2 subunit of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (anti-NR2) cause memory impairment, but only with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption or intrathecal administration. Several studies have failed to find association of aNR2 with CD, but none have assessed BBB integrity. S100B, an astrocyte-specific protein, has been used as biomarker of BBB disruption in traumatic brain injury and some neurodegenerative disorders...
December 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Judit Marsillach, Lucio G Costa, Clement E Furlong
Acute and chronic exposures to widely used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are common. Children's detoxification mechanisms are not well developed until several years after birth. The increased cases of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, together with their increased susceptibility to OP neurotoxicity cannot be explained by genetic factors alone but could be related to gene-environment interactions. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme that can detoxify OPs but its catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis to certain OPs is modulated by the Q192R polymorphism...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Wiebke Schrempf, Istvan Katona, Imis Dogan, Verena V Felbert, Miriam Wienecke, Julia Heller, Andrea Maier, Andreas Hermann, Katharina Linse, Moritz D Brandt, Heinz Reichmann, Jörg B Schulz, Johannes Schiefer, Wolfgang H Oertel, Alexander Storch, Joachim Weis, Kathrin Reetz
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) has been increasingly acknowledged to be an initial specific manifestation of alpha-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Recent findings suggest that cutaneous abnormalities like small fiber neuropathy and alpha-synuclein deposition might reflect brain pathology and might function as early biomarkers in PD. This is the first study to elucidate whether iRBD patients already suffer from distinctive cutaneous features...
August 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Petra E Vértes, Shaun M Flint, Lorinda Turner, Syed Mustafa, Alex Hatton, Kenneth G C Smith, Paul A Lyons, Edward T Bullmore
BACKGROUND: Hypothetically, psychotic disorders could be caused or conditioned by immunological mechanisms. If so, one might expect there to be peripheral immune system phenotypes that are measurable in blood cells as biomarkers of psychotic states. METHODS: We used multi-parameter flow cytometry of venous blood to quantify and determine the activation state of 73 immune cell subsets for 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia (17 treated with clozapine), and 18 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex, BMI and smoking...
2016: PloS One
Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Jennifer A Honeycutt, Freedom H Holland, Prabarna Ganguly, Heather C Brenhouse
Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21)...
September 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Meryl S Lillenes, Alberto Rabano, Mari Støen, Tahira Riaz, Dorna Misaghian, Linda Møllersen, Ying Esbensen, Clara-Cecilie Günther, Per Selnes, Vidar T V Stenset, Tormod Fladby, Tone Tønjum
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is the main cause of dementia globally. AD is associated with increased oxidative stress, resulting from imbalance in production and clearance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS can damage DNA and other macromolecules, leading to genome instability and disrupted cellular functions. Base excision repair (BER) plays a major role in repairing oxidative DNA lesions. Here, we compared the expression of BER components APE1, OGG1, PARP1 and Polβ in blood and postmortem brain tissue from patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC)...
2016: Molecular Brain
Chan-Woo Yeom, Young-Ja Park, Sam-Wook Choi, Soo-Young Bhang
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to affect development, cognition, attention and behavior. However, few studies have investigated preschool children with regard to these areas. We evaluated the relationship between cognition, attention and peripheral blood concentration of BDNF in preschool children. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (mean age: 6.16 ± 0.60 years) were recruited. For all subjects, serum and plasma BDNF levels were assessed; intelligence was assessed using the Korean standardisation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (KEDI-WISC); attention was assessed using the computerised continuous performance test (CCPT), the children's color trails test (CCTT), the Stroop color-word test for preschool children, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder rating scale (K-ARS); and finally emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the child behavior checklist (K-CBCL)...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
M M Rive, M W J Koeter, D J Veltman, A H Schene, H G Ruhé
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are an important feature of both remitted and depressed major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In particular, deficits in executive functioning may hamper everyday functioning. Identifying the neural substrates of impaired executive functioning would improve our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying these disorders, and may eventually aid in discriminating between MDD and BD, which is often difficult during depression and remission...
August 2016: Psychological Medicine
Vincent Primo, Mark Graham, Alexander A Bigger-Allen, Joel M Chick, Carolina Ospina, Yakeel T Quiroz, Jan Manent, Steven P Gygi, Francisco Lopera, Patricia A D'Amore, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez
Mutations in NOTCH 3 are the cause of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a neurological disorder characterized by stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. Loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and accumulation of granular osmiophilic material (GOM) deposits are hallmarks of CADASIL. There are no therapies for CADASIL and experimental endpoints to examine the preclinical efficacy of potential drugs are lacking. This study aims to use a mouse carrying the C455R mutation in Notch 3 to identify biomarkers associated with CADASIL...
August 1, 2016: Brain Research
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