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Cognitive disorder biomarker in blood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345376/lessons-from-metabonomics-on-the-neurobiology-of-stroke
#1
Mahim I Qureshi, Panagiotis A Vorkas, Alexander P Coupland, I Harri Jenkins, Elaine Holmes, Alun H Davies
The application of metabonomic science to interrogate stroke permits the study of metabolite entities, small enough to cross the blood-brain barrier, that provide insight into neuronal dysfunction, and may serve as reservoirs of biomarker discovery. This systematic review examines the applicability of metabolic profiling in ischemic stroke research. Six human studies utilizing metabolic profiling to analyze biofluids from ischemic stroke patients have been included, employing (1)H-NMR and/or mass spectrometry to analyze plasma, serum, and/or urine in a targeted or untargeted fashion...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219319/biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-recent-update
#2
Sushil Sharma, Walter Lipincott
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. It is the common cause of dementia in elderly and is a global health concern as the population of people aged 85 and older, is growing alarmingly. Although pharmacotherapy for the treatment of AD has improved, lot of work remains to treat this devastating disease. AD pathology begins even before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies could be more effective if implemented early in the disease progression, it is highly prudent to discover reliable biomarkers, to detect its exact pathophysiology during pre-symptomatic stage...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178960/ultrasound-and-dynamic-functional-imaging-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Branko Malojcic, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Farzaneh A Sorond, Elsa Azevedo, Marina Diomedi, Janja Pretnar Oblak, Nicola Carraro, Marina Boban, Laszlo Olah, Stephan J Schreiber, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Zsolt Garami, Nantan M Bornstein, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: The vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation may be assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). This review summarises the methodology for these widely available, safe and relatively low cost tools and analyses recent work highlighting their potential utility as biomarkers for differentiating subtypes of cognitive impairment and dementia, tracking disease progression and evaluating response to treatment in various neurocognitive disorders...
February 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137310/serum-microrna-mir-501-3p-as-a-potential-biomarker-related-to-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Norikazu Hara, Masataka Kikuchi, Akinori Miyashita, Hiroyuki Hatsuta, Yuko Saito, Kensaku Kasuga, Shigeo Murayama, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Ryozo Kuwano
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are attractive molecules to utilize as one of the blood-based biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) because miRNAs are relatively stable in biofluid, including serum or plasma. To determine blood miRNA biomarkers for AD with next-generation sequencing genome-wide, we first surveyed 45 serum samples. These came from 27 AD patients and 18 controls (discovery set) that underwent autopsy within two weeks after their serum sampling and were neuropathologically diagnosed...
January 31, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117397/sepsis-and-septic-shock
#5
REVIEW
Richard S Hotchkiss, Lyle L Moldawer, Steven M Opal, Konrad Reinhart, Isaiah R Turnbull, Jean-Louis Vincent
For more than two decades, sepsis was defined as a microbial infection that produces fever (or hypothermia), tachycardia, tachypnoea and blood leukocyte changes. Sepsis is now increasingly being considered a dysregulated systemic inflammatory and immune response to microbial invasion that produces organ injury for which mortality rates are declining to 15-25%. Septic shock remains defined as sepsis with hyperlactataemia and concurrent hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, with in-hospital mortality rates approaching 30-50%...
June 30, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110422/interventions-for-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#6
REVIEW
Jacqueline Ellero, Michal Lubomski, Bruce Brew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to evaluate current barriers to HIV cure strategies and interventions for neurocognitive dysfunction with a particular focus on recent advancements over the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal anti-retroviral therapy (ART) poses challenges to minimise neurotoxicity, whilst ensuring blood-brain barrier penetration and minimising the risk of cerebrovascular disease. CSF biomarkers, BCL11B and neurofilament light chain may be implicated with a neuroinflammatory cascade leading to cognitive impairment...
February 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107809/plasma-protein-profiling-for-potential-biomarkers-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Yuki Kitamura, Ryoko Usami, Sahoko Ichihara, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Mariko Murata, Shinji Oikawa
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly persons. Since the pathology of AD develops slowly from a preclinical or early phase into a fully expressed clinical syndrome, at the time of diagnosis the disease has been progressing for many years. To facilitate the early diagnosis of AD, we performed protein profiling of blood in patients with mild AD as defined by the Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) scale. METHODS: Plasma samples from mild AD patients and healthy controls were analyzed using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS) followed by peptide mass fingerprinting...
March 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064175/neuroimaging-of-inflammation-in-memory-and-related-other-disorders-nimrod-study-protocol-a-deep-phenotyping-cohort-study-of-the-role-of-brain-inflammation-in-dementia-depression-and-other-neurological-illnesses
#8
W Richard Bevan-Jones, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Robert Arnold, Elijah Mak, Li Su, Jonathan P Coles, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Guy Williams, Franklin Aigbirhio, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation of the central nervous system is increasingly regarded as having a role in cognitive disorders such as dementia and depression, but it is not clear how such inflammation relates to other aspects of neuropathology, structural and functional changes in the brain and symptoms (as assessed via clinical and neuropsychological assessment and MRI). This study will explore these pathophysiological mechanisms using positron emission tomography (PET) which allows in vivo imaging of inflammation, amyloid and τ deposition, together with neuropsychological profiling, MRI and peripheral biomarker analysis...
January 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914864/serum-dhea-s-concentration-correlates-with-clinical-symptoms-and-neurocognitive-function-in-patients-with-bipolar-ii-disorder-a-case-controlled-study
#9
Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang, Cheng-Ho Chang, Chih-Ching Wu, Hsing-Ling Chen, Shih-Hsien Lin, Chin-Liang Chu, Ti Lu, Ru-Band Lu
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and pregnenolone may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar II disorder (BP-II). The aims of the current study are to determine (a) the differences in DHEA, DHEA-S and pregnenolone in patients with BP-II and controls; and (b) the correlation of levels of the above hormones, cognitive function, and clinical symptoms. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with BP-II and healthy controls were recruited from psychiatric department...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876311/circulating-biomarkers-in-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy-patients
#10
Francesca Pescini, Ida Donnini, Francesca Cesari, Serena Nannucci, Raffaella Valenti, Valentina Rinnoci, Anna Poggesi, Anna Maria Gori, Betti Giusti, Angela Rogolino, Alessandra Carluccio, Silvia Bianchi, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Maurizio Balestrino, Enrico Adriano, Rosanna Abbate, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebral microangiopathy presenting with variable features, including migraine, psychiatric disorders, stroke, and cognitive decline and variable disability. On neuroimaging, CADASIL is characterized by leukoencephalopathy, multiple lacunar infarcts, and microbleeds. Previous studies suggest a possible role of endothelial impairment in the pathogenesis of the disease...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862491/alarmins-and-central-nervous-system-inflammation-in-hiv-associated-neurological-disorders
#11
M-L Gougeon
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in infected individuals with adequate immunological and virological status. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include hepatitis C virus co-infection, host genetic factors predisposing to HAND, the early establishment of the virus in the CNS and its persistence under HAART; thus, the CNS is an important reservoir for HIV. Microglial cells are permissive to HIV-1, and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated genes were found expressed in brains of HIV-1-infected persons, contributing to brain disease...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822051/production-of-inflammatory-cytokines-cortisol-and-a%C3%AE-1-40-in-elderly-oral-cancer-patients-with-postoperative-delirium
#12
Lulu Sun, Peiyu Jia, Junfeng Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yiwei Zhang, Hong Jiang, Wei Jiang, Yong Guo
AIM: Pathophysiological disorders after surgery might be related to postoperative delirium (POD). This study was designed to elucidate the pathogenesis of POD in elderly oral cancer patients by determining the perioperative kinetics of inflammatory cytokines, cortisol, and amyloid β1-40 (Aβ1-40). METHODS: A total of 257 elderly oral cancer patients who underwent tumor resection surgery were selected. Venous blood was collected prior to surgery (T0), at the end of surgery (T1), and at 12 hours after surgery (T2)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804899/disrupted-resting-state-brain-network-properties-in-obesity-decreased-global-and-putaminal-cortico-striatal-network-efficiency
#13
K Baek, L S Morris, P Kundu, V Voon
BACKGROUND: The efficient organization and communication of brain networks underlie cognitive processing and their disruption can lead to pathological behaviours. Few studies have focused on whole-brain networks in obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Here we used multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) along with a data-driven graph theory approach to assess brain network characteristics in obesity and BED. METHOD: Multi-echo rsfMRI scans were collected from 40 obese subjects (including 20 BED patients) and 40 healthy controls and denoised using multi-echo independent component analysis (ME-ICA)...
November 2, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737697/loss-of-cerebellar-neurons-in-the-progression-of-lentiviral-disease-effects-of-cns-permeant-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697135/risk-impact-of-having-a-first-degree-relative-with-affective-disorder-a-7-year-follow-up-study
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Maj Vinberg
This study investigated a high-risk sample in order to elucidate risk factors for affective disorder. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with and without a co-twin with a history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Two risk groups were identified: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected)...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617780/brain-functional-effects-of-psychopharmacological-treatments-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Charles Laidi, Josselin Houenou
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have contributed to the understanding of bipolar disorder. However the effect of medication on brain activation remains poorly understood. We conducted an extensive literature review on PubMed and ScienceDirect to investigate the influence of medication in fMRI studies, including both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, which aimed at assessing this influence. Although we reported all reviewed studies, we gave greater emphasis to studies with the most robust methodology...
November 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541273/analysis-of-serum-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptides-%C3%AE-2-macroglobulin-complement-factor-h-and-clusterin-levels-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-during-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Dejiang Wang, Xiangjun Di, Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Xiao Han, Hui Wu, Linjun Cai, Xiangyu Meng, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong, Weiheng Su
As a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a global health concern. Despite the availability of psychological testing, neuroimaging, genetic testing, and biochemical assays of cerebrospinal fluid, convenient and accurate blood biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and preclinical studies of AD are still lacking. The present study aims to longitudinally evaluate the feasibility of β-amyloid proteins, α2-macroglobulin (α-2M), complement factor H (CFH), and clusterin as blood biomarkers of AD...
October 19, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511317/potential-fluid-biomarkers-for-pathological-brain-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implication-for-the-screening-of-cognitive-frailty
#18
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Antonio Greco, Zhuowei Yu
Cognitive frailty (CF) overlaps with early neuropathological alterations associated with aging‑related major neurocognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fluid biomarkers for these pathological brain alterations allow for early diagnosis in the preclinical stages of AD, and for objective prognostic assessments in clinical intervention trials. These biomarkers may also be helpful in the screening of CF. The present study reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews of cohort studies and other authoritative reports...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357716/anti-nr2-antibodies-blood-brain-barrier-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#19
Gaurav Gulati, Philip H Iffland, Damir Janigro, Bin Zhang, Michael E Luggen
Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In animal models, antibodies to NR2 subunit of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (anti-NR2) cause memory impairment, but only with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption or intrathecal administration. Several studies have failed to find association of aNR2 with CD, but none have assessed BBB integrity. S100B, an astrocyte-specific protein, has been used as biomarker of BBB disruption in traumatic brain injury and some neurodegenerative disorders...
December 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325068/paraoxonase-1-and-early-life-environmental-exposures
#20
REVIEW
Judit Marsillach, Lucio G Costa, Clement E Furlong
Acute and chronic exposures to widely used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are common. Children's detoxification mechanisms are not well developed until several years after birth. The increased cases of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, together with their increased susceptibility to OP neurotoxicity cannot be explained by genetic factors alone but could be related to gene-environment interactions. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme that can detoxify OPs but its catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis to certain OPs is modulated by the Q192R polymorphism...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
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