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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792191/cost-of-provision-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-provision-in-tijuana-mexico
#1
Jose Luis Burgos, Javier A Cepeda, James G Kahn, Maria Luisa Mittal, Emilio Meza, Raúl Rafael Palacios Lazos, Psyché Calderón Vargas, Peter Vickerman, Steffanie A Strathdee, Natasha K Martin
BACKGROUND: Mexico recently enacted drug policy reform to decriminalize possession of small amounts of illicit drugs and mandated that police refer identified substance users to drug treatment. However, the economic implications of drug treatment expansion are uncertain. We estimated the costs of opioid substitution therapy (OST) provision in Tijuana, Mexico, where opioid use and HIV are major public health concerns. METHODS: We adopted an economic health care provider perspective and applied an ingredients-based micro-costing approach to quantify the average monthly cost of OST (methadone maintenance) provision at two providers (one private and one public) in Tijuana, Mexico...
May 23, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781305/the-high-incidence-of-late-presenters-for-hiv-aids-infection-in-the-lodz-province-poland-in-the-years-2009-2016-we-are-still-far-from-the-unaids-90-target
#2
Kamila Wójcik-Cichy, Olga Jabłonowska, Anna Piekarska, Elżbieta Jabłonowska
The present study retrospectively analyses the prevalence of late diagnosis in patients with newly-diagnosed HIV infection in Lodz, Poland from January 2009 to December 2016, and assesses the predictive factors associated with late presenters. Late presentation is defined as a diagnosis of HIV with a CD4 count<350 cells/μL, or the occurrence of an AIDS- defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Two hundred and fifty-nine (62.86%) patients were late presenters, 178 of whom (68.72%) were advanced late presenters (CD4 cell count below 200 cells/μL)...
May 20, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771680/factors-associated-with-time-between-using-a-drug-and-injection-initiation-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kermanshah-iran
#3
Mehdi Noroozi, Mohammad Hassan Farhadi, Bahram Armoon, Ali Farhoudian, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Asaad Sharhani, Salah Eddin Karimi, Mohammad Sayadnasiri, Omid Rezaei, Hesam Ghiasvand
Background The transition from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically increases the risk of transmitting HIV and other blood borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among drug users. Methods Using snowball sampling and convenience sampling through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), we recruited 500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kermanshah, between September and December 2014...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770215/heterogeneity-in-geographical-trends-of-hiv-epidemics-among-key-populations-in-pakistan-a-mathematical-modeling-study-of-survey-data
#4
Dessalegn Y Melesse, Leigh Anne Shafer, Faran Emmanuel, Tahira Reza, Baseer K Achakzai, Sofia Furqan, James F Blanchard
Background: Assessing patterns and trends in new infections is key to better understanding of HIV epidemics, and is best done through monitoring changes in incidence over time. In this study, we examined disparities in geographical trends of HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWIDs), female sex workers (FSWs) and hijra /transgender/male sex workers (H/MSWs), in Pakistan. Methods: The UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) mathematical model was used to explore geographical trends in HIV epidemics...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765441/suspected-unexpected-and-other-adverse-reactions-to-antiretroviral-drugs-used-as-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv-infection-five-year-experience-from-clinical-practice
#5
Justyna D Kowalska, Ewa Pietraszkiewicz, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Andrzej Horban
Introduction: With increased use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in HIV uninfected persons, proper reporting on suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs) and continued insight into adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are needed for adequate information on safety of ARVs in such populations. Material and methods: Medical documentation of persons receiving ARVs after non-occupational HIV exposure (non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis - nPEP) during 5 successive years (2009-2013) was evaluated by two HIV physicians...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762174/reasons-for-non-adherence-to-the-dapivirine-vaginal-ring-results-of-the-mtn-032-aha-study
#6
Elizabeth T Montgomery, Jonathan Stadler, Sarita Naidoo, Ariana Katz, Nicole Laborde, Morgan Garcia, Krishnaveni Reddy, Leila Mansoor, Juliane Etima, Chifundo Zimba, Miria Chitukuta, Lydia Soto-Torres
OBJECTIVE(S): METHODS:: Former ASPIRE participants were stratified by age group (18-21; 22-45) and randomly selected at seven sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe, 12-17 months after trial exit. Using in-depth interviews or focus group discussions, ring use barriers were explored using structured guides and visual tools including individual-level depictions of dapivirine levels detected in plasma and returned rings. RESULTS: 187 were enrolled; 37% were 18-21 when they began ASPIRE...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758049/user-evaluations-offer-promise-for-pod-intravaginal-ring-as-a-drug-delivery-platform-a-mixed-methods-study-of-acceptability-and-use-experiences
#7
Kate M Guthrie, Rochelle K Rosen, Sara E Vargas, Melissa L Getz, Lauren Dawson, Melissa Guillen, Jaime J Ramirez, Marc M Baum, Kathleen L Vincent
BACKGROUND: Effective HIV prevention requires efficient delivery of safe and efficacious drugs and optimization of user adherence. The user's experiences with the drug, delivery system, and use parameters are critical to product acceptability and adherence. Prevention product developers have the opportunity to directly control a drug delivery system and its impact on acceptability and adherence, as well as product efficacy. Involvement of potential users during preclinical design and development can facilitate this process...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743682/preoperative-screening-for-illicit-drug-use-in-patients-undergoing-emergency-surgery-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Jingyi Li, He Ma, Ren Liao, Yanjuan Huang, Guiyong Chen
Knowledge of illicit drug users (IDUs) is important because of the comorbidity related to drug use. In this prospective, observational study, we screened 1007 patients undergoing emergency surgery and found that 75 of them (7.5%) were IDUs The results of preoperative screening showed that the rates of HIV and syphilis infection were significantly higher in IDUs (HIV (+) 2.6%, syphilis (+) 10.7%) than in non-IDUs (HIV (+) 0, syphilis (+) 0.5%). Intraoperative consumption of remifentanil (IDUs: 1.85 ± 1...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742524/prevalence-and-incidence-of-hepatitis-delta-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-spain
#9
Antonio Aguilera, Rocio Trastoy, Javier Rodríguez-Calviño, Tamara Manso, Carmen de Mendoza, Vicente Soriano
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective agent that only replicates in the presence of the hepatitis B virus. Accordingly, HDV acquisition may occur as superinfection of HBsAg+ carriers or following acute dual HDV and hepatitis B virus exposure. Herein, we examined the global and incident rates of HDV infections in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of anti-HDV antibody and new HDV superinfections was examined in all HBsAg+ patients who attended one large tertiary outclinic in Spain since year 2000...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740676/adverse-reactions-associated-with-first-line-regimens-in-patient-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Jullye Campos Mendes, Palmira de Fátima Bonolo, Maria das Graças Braga Ceccato, Juliana de Oliveira Costa, Adriano Max Moreira Reis, Henrique Dos Santos, Micheline Rosa Silveira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and associated factors during the use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in patients initiating treatment. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective study conducted in three public referral services specialized in HIV/AIDS care in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Self-reported ADR and explanatory variables were obtained from face-to-face interview and from Information Systems...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740232/hiv-epidemiology-in-nigeria
#11
REVIEW
Awoyemi Abayomi Awofala, Olusegun Emmanuel Ogundele
Nigeria realizes the devastating effects of HIV/AIDS on its people, health, economic, and social progress fairly recently. This paper analyses descriptively the HIV epidemiology in Nigeria based on the sentinel surveillance system in place. Recently, it is estimated that about 3, 229, 757 people live with HIV in Nigeria and about 220, 393 new HIV infections occurred in 2013 and 210,031 died from AIDS related cases. People practicing low-risk sex are the driving force of HIV epidemic in Nigeria while the high risk groups involving female sex workers, men who have sex with men and injecting drug users contribute substantially to new infections...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718426/geno2pheno-ngs-freq-a-genotypic-interpretation-system-for-identifying-viral-drug-resistance-using-next-generation-sequencing-data
#12
Matthias Döring, Joachim Büch, Georg Friedrich, Alejandro Pironti, Prabhav Kalaghatgi, Elena Knops, Eva Heger, Martin Obermeier, Martin Däumer, Alexander Thielen, Rolf Kaiser, Thomas Lengauer, Nico Pfeifer
Identifying resistance to antiretroviral drugs is crucial for ensuring the successful treatment of patients infected with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). In contrast to Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect resistance mutations in minority populations. Thus, genotypic resistance testing based on NGS data can offer novel, treatment-relevant insights. Since existing web services for analyzing resistance in NGS samples are subject to long processing times and follow strictly rules-based approaches, we developed geno2pheno[ngs-freq], a web service for rapidly identifying drug resistance in HIV-1 and HCV samples...
May 1, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714154/high-prevalence-of-abandoned-needlesticks-from-injecting-drug-users-in-milton-keynes-uk-analysing-access-to-needle-exchange-centres-and-drug-dependency-services
#13
Dushyant Mital, Steve Conway, Joanne Trueman
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Milton Keynes (MK) Council waste management team shows an increase in the numbers of abandoned used needles being found across MK. MK is an area of high Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence and high Hepatitis C (HCV) in People Who Inject Drugs (PWID), the overriding concern was for the safety of the public. METHODS: Analysis of data collection to understand the scale and spread of the problem, preventing/ reducing the incidence of abandoned needles and looking at access to the designated Drug Dependency Unit (DDU) and the Blood Borne Virus (BBV) service...
April 18, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707384/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-predictors-and-genetic-diversity-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infections-among-drug-users-in-three-major-kenyan-cities
#14
Micah Oyaro, John Wylie, Chien-Yu Chen, Raphael O Ondondo, Anna Kramvis
Background: Drug users act as reservoirs and transmission channels for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections to the general population worldwide. Periodic epidemiological studies to monitor the prevalence and genetic diversity of these infections to inform on interventions are limited. Objective of the study: The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of HIV infection and genetic diversity of HBV and HCV among drug users in Kenya...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700352/epidemics-of-hiv-hcv-and-syphilis-infection-among-synthetic-drugs-only-users-heroin-only-users-and-poly-drug-users-in-southwest-china
#15
Shu Su, Limin Mao, Jinxian Zhao, Liang Chen, Jun Jing, Feng Cheng, Lei Zhang
The number of poly-drug users who mix use heroin and synthetic drugs (SD) is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to measure the risk factors for being infected with hepatitis C (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis among SD-only users, heroin-only users and poly-drug users. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 from a national HIV surveillance site in Southwest China, 447 poly-drug, 526 SD-only and 318 heroin-only users were recruited. Poly-drug users have higher drug-use frequency, higher rates of drug-sharing and unsafe sexual acts than other users (p < 0...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688777/frequency-of-cannabis-use-and-medical-cannabis-use-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#16
Lauren R Pacek, Sheri L Towe, Andrea L Hobkirk, Denis Nash, Renee D Goodwin
Little is known about cannabis use frequency, medical cannabis use, or correlates of use among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in United States nationally representative samples. Data came from 626 PLWH from the 2005-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression identified characteristics associated with frequency of cannabis use. Chi-squares identified characteristics associated with medial cannabis use. Non-daily and daily cannabis use was reported by 26.9% and 8.0%. Greater perceived risk of cannabis use was negatively associated with daily and non-daily use...
April 2018: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687402/verbal-and-spatial-working-memory-among-drug-using-hiv-infected-men-and-women
#17
Eileen Martin, M K Keutmann, J S Fogel, P M Maki, R Gonzalez, J Vassileva, L H Rubin, D Hardy
Working memory (WM) is a critical component of many neurocognitive functions. The literature has demonstrated consistently that WM impairment is more frequent and severe among substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) infected with HIV compared with uninfected SDIs; however, the SDIs who participated in these previous studies were primarily male. There are few published data on WM performance among HIV+ women with or without substance use disorders, and essentially no direct comparisons of WM performance between HIV+ men and women, regardless of substance use...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685329/cohort-study-of-hiv-positive-and-negative-methamphetamine-users
#18
Vladimir W Spolsky, Jason Clague, Vivek Shetty
BACKGROUND: The effects of methamphetamine (MA) on caries have been well documented. Little, however, is known about its effects on the periodontium. The authors conducted this study to determine the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in an urban population of HIV-positive MA users. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in one of the most populous urban areas of Los Angeles County, California, beset with high rates of MA use. Participants were recruited by a combination of street outreach methods, referral from drug treatment centers, and word of mouth...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672222/macrophage-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediates-smooth-muscle-hyperplasia-role-of-altered-mirna-cargo-in-response-to-hiv-infection-and-substance-abuse
#19
Himanshu Sharma, Mahendran Chinnappan, Stuti Agarwal, Pranjali Dalvi, Sumedha Gunewardena, Amy O'Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
Our previous studies consistently demonstrate enhanced pulmonary vascular remodeling in HIV-infected intravenous drug users, and in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques or HIV-transgenic rats exposed to opioids or cocaine. Although we reported an associated increase in perivascular inflammation, the exact role of inflammatory cells in the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling remains unknown. In this study, HIV-infected and cocaine (H+C)-treated human monocyte derived macrophages released a higher number of extracellular vesicles (EVs), compared to HIV-infected or uninfected cocaine-treated macrophages, with a significant increase in the particle size range to 100-150 nm...
April 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671365/queering-the-evidence-remaking-homosexuality-and-hiv-risk-to-end-aids-in-kenya
#20
Eileen Moyer, Emmy Igonya
Until recently, HIV in Africa was presumed to be driven by poverty, gender inequality and poor governance. The last decade has seen a shift in global and national public health discourses, especially in eastern Africa where new statistical evidence is used to justify prevention efforts to target Key Populations, i.e. men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users, and sex workers. In this article, we focus on Kenya to examine state, NGO and community HIV treatment and prevention efforts targeting MSM, specifically male sex workers...
April 19, 2018: Global Public Health
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