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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529359/the-journey-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-india-achievements-and-challenges
#1
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521721/the-importance-of-military-conscripts-for-surveillance-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-risk-behavior-in-thailand
#2
Aladdin Shadyab, Kenrad Nelson, Ram Rangsin
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Thailand began in 1988 among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok. It soon spread to other populations, especially female sex workers (FSWs) and men attending STD clinics. Routine serologic surveillance for HIV began among military conscripts in 1991. The HIV seroprevalence data from military conscripts provided national surveillance data, since the entire population of 21 year old men were conscripted for 2 years' service in the military by a random process during which 10% of men were selected...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513227/temporal-relationship-of-sex-risk-behaviors-and-substance-use-severity-among-men-in-substance-use-treatment
#3
Howard Newville, James L Sorensen, Mary Hatch-Maillette, Donald A Calsyn
Sex risk behaviors and substance use are intertwined. Many men continue to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors even when enrolled in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We hypothesized that changes in sex risk behaviors would coincide with changes in drug/alcohol use severity among men in SUD treatment. During an HIV risk-reduction trial, men in methadone maintenance and outpatient drug-free treatment (N = 359) completed assessments at baseline and six months after. We assessed changes in sex risk and substance use severity, using the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite), controlling for treatment condition...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509569/hiv-1-crf07_bc-with-a-seven-amino-acid-deletion-in-the-gag-p6-region-dominates-in-hiv-1-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#4
Yue Wu, Haiying Wang, Xuqi Ren, Zhengwei Wan, Guifang Hu, Shixing Tang
We examined sequence variation in the HIV-1 gag p6 region from 27 individuals infected with HIV-1 CRF07_BC. An additional 269 gag p6 sequences of CRF07_BC from the Los Alamos National Laboratory database were also analyzed. A unique deletion of seven amino acid (aa) (p6Δ7) (aa 30-36, PIDKELY, in the HXB2 genome) was observed to exist exclusively in CRF07_BC. Indeed, 54.1% (160/296) of the CRF07_BC sequences contained the p6Δ7 mutation. The prevalence of the p6Δ7 mutation was 37.2% (29/78) and 92.3% (48/52) in CRF07_BC-infected intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively...
May 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496958/prevalence-of-hiv-aids-among-iranian-prisoners-a-review-article
#5
REVIEW
Morteza Akbari, Maryam Akbari, Ahmad Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Hassan Joulaei, Maryam Nasiriyan, Maryam Hesampour, Kamran Bagheri-Lankarani
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, prisoners are more at risk of being infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as hepatitis C and B in comparison with other risk groups. The combination of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), addiction and prison are factors that threaten the health of our society. Influence of risky behaviors is so common on transmission of AIDS into prisoners' bodies. This study used available information and reports to investigate the prevalence of HIV in Iranian prisons...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496952/hiv-programs-in-iran-persia-iraq-and-saudi-arabia-a-brief-review-of-current-evidence-in-west-and-southwest-asia
#6
Omid Massah, Afsaneh Moradi, Ali Farhoudian, Mahmood Amini-Lari, Hassan Joulaei, Reza Daneshmand
BACKGROUND: In Western and Southwest Asia, literature is not documented on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The present study is the first brief review that describes HIV programs in these three neighboring countries. METHODS: Data regarding the evidence of HIV programs were gathered through a systematic literature searching. English publications were retrieved through searching online scientific databases. Grey literature was also searched online...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493270/public-health-alternatives-to-incarceration-for-drug-offenders
#7
REVIEW
Nicholas Clark, Kate Dolan, David Farabee
Drug users are vastly overrepresented in prison populations. Once inside they face increased risks of acquiring infections such as HIV, hepatitis and TB, and on release they face an elevated risk of fatal overdose. Relapse and recidivism are the norm following release from prison. The implementation of evidence-based drug treatment programmes in prison is rare, yet drug treatment in prison reduces the transmission of infections, recidivism and fatal overdose on release. Recognising the negative returns associated with incarceration, many jurisdictions have begun to consider alternatives such as depenalisation of the personal use of illicit drugs, provision of treatment and social reintegration of drug offenders, and a shift in focus from supply reduction to demand and harm reduction measures in the community and in prison...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483724/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infection-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-visiting-antiretroviral-therapy-centres-in-nepal-a-first-nationally-representative-study
#8
G Ionita, A Malviya, R Rajbhandari, W William Schluter, G Sharma, S Kakchapati, S Rijal, S Dixit
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infections among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Nepal. METHODS: A sample of 677 PLHIV representing key affected populations (KAP) in Nepal, who were undergoing antiretroviral (ART) therapy in ART clinics around the country, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. Rapid kit-based testing followed by ELISA for validation was performed, focusing on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV)...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482846/a-preliminary-needs-assessment-of-american-indians-who-inject-drugs-in-northeastern-montana
#9
Mike Anastario, Kris FourStar, Adriann Ricker, Rebecca Dick, Monica C Skewes, Elizabeth Rink
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use has not been well documented in American Indians living in the USA. American Indian and Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) show higher rates of substance use compared to the general population, and have historically been subject to a number of risk factors that are known to increase the likelihood of substance use. AI/ANs also experience increased risk for infectious diseases that are transmitted via injection drug use and/or sexual activity. Harm reduction approaches have been shown to be effective for decreasing risk of disease transmission in at-risk populations, and may be well suited for AI/AN injection drug users residing in rural reservation communities...
May 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479413/self-reported-bothersome-symptoms-across-different-socioepidemiological-groups-of-people-living-with-hiv-attending-french-hospitals-results-from-the-anrs-vespa2-survey
#10
Véronique Boyer, Antoine Vilotitch, Fabienne Marcellin, Baptiste Demoulin, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Bruno Spire
CONTEXT: Twenty years after the advent of combined antiretroviral therapies (cART), there is a growing need for up-to-date information about the daily experience of people living with HIV (PLWH). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between socio-epidemiological groups and the types of bothersome symptoms reported by PLWH participating in a national survey in France. METHODS: We analyzed self-reported bothersome symptoms in a representative sample of PLWH (ANRS VESPA2 survey), most of whom were receiving ART treatment...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478870/intent-to-use-preexposure-prophylaxis-prep-hiv-risk-behaviors-and-self-report-neurocognitive-symptoms-by-high-risk-drug-users-a-mediation-analysis
#11
Roman Shrestha, Pramila Karki, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Michael Copenhaver
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and HIV risk are significant correlates of intent to use preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The extent to which similar outcomes could occur when these factors operate together, particularly for people who use drugs (PWUD), remains an important unanswered question. We therefore sought evidence that HIV risk behavior mediated the relationship between NCI and intent to use PrEP in high-risk PWUD in treatment. HIV-uninfected, methadone-maintained people who reported HIV-risk behaviors were enrolled (n = 400)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478706/interest-in-use-of-mhealth-technology-in-hiv-prevention-and-associated-factors-among-high-risk-drug-users-enrolled-in-methadone-maintenance-program
#12
Roman Shrestha, Pramila Karki, Michael Copenhaver
The adoption of mobile technologies for health (mHealth) in healthcare has grown considerably in recent years, but systematic assessment of interest in the use of mHealth in HIV prevention efforts among people who use drugs (PWUD) is lacking. We therefore examined interest in use of mHealth technology in HIV prevention and associated individual-level factors among high-risk PWUD enrolled in methadone maintenance program. A total of 400 HIV-negative PWUD, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors completed a standardized assessment using audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI)...
May 8, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470547/disparities-in-us-healthcare-provider-screening-and-advice-for-cessation-across-chronic-medical-conditions-and-tobacco-products
#13
Diana R Keith, Cassandra A Stanton, Diann E Gaalema, Janice Y Bunn, Nathan J Doogan, Ryan Redner, Allison N Kurti, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Alexa A Lopez, Adam L Morehead, Megan E Roberts, Stephen T Higgins
BACKGROUND: Disparities in tobacco use are worsening in the United States, disproportionately affecting those with chronic medical conditions. One possible contributor is that physicians may not screen and advise cessation uniformly across patients and/or tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: This study examined provider communications regarding cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco products among adults with chronic conditions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study drawn from two waves (2013-2014) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462622/trends-in-hiv-continuum-of-care-outcomes-over-10-years-of-follow-up-at-a-large-hiv-primary-medical-home-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#14
Michael K Ghiam, Peter Rebeiro, Megan Turner, William B Rogers, Sally Bebawy, Stephen P Raffanti, Anna Kristine Person, April C Pettit
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of retention in care (RIC) and viral suppression (VS) in the southeastern United States (US), a region disproportionately affected by HIV-infection, are lacking. METHODS: HIV-infected adults with ≥1 medical visit at the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (Nashville, Tennessee) from 2004-2013 were included. RIC was ≥2 (a) laboratory dates [CD4+ counts or HIV-1 viral loads (VL)] or (b) provider encounters and/or laboratory dates in the year of interest, ≥90 days apart...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458170/down-in-the-valley-trajectories-of-injection-initiation-among-young-injectors-in-california-s-central-valley
#15
Jennifer L Syvertsen, Catherine E Paquette, Robin A Pollini
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use initiation represents a critical point of public health intervention, as injection increases risk for blood borne infections including Hepatitis C and HIV. In this paper, we explore pathways to injection initiation among youth (≤30) in the rural context of California's Central Valley, where rates of injection drug use are among the highest in the nation. METHODS: We draw on semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 young injectors to examine drug use histories, including the factors that participants associated with their transition to injection drug use...
April 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454556/molecular-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-hiv-1-subtypes-among-libyan-patients
#16
Mohamed A Daw, Abdallah El-Bouzedi, Mohamed O Ahmed, Aghnyia A Dau
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological and clinical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus subtypes are of great interest worldwide. These subtypes are rarely studied in North African countries. Libya is a large country with the longest coast on the Mediterranean Sea, facing the Southern European countries. Studies on the characterization of HIV-1 subtypes are limited in Libya. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of the HIV problem among the Libyan population and to better understand the genetic diversity and the epidemiologic dynamics of HIV 1, as well as to correlate that with the risk factors involved...
April 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454044/unintended-impacts-of-regulatory-changes-to-british-columbia-methadone-maintenance-program-on-addiction-and-hiv-related-outcomes-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#17
M Eugenia Socías, Evan Wood, Ryan McNeil, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Jean Shoveller, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: In February 2014, several regulatory reforms were introduced to the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in British Columbia, Canada, including a switch to a ten-times more concentrated methadone formulation and restrictions in pharmacy delivery services. We evaluated possible unintended effects of these changes on illicit drug use patterns and HIV treatment outcomes among HIV-positive opioid users. METHODS: Data was drawn from ACCESS, a prospective community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451688/boosting-quality-registries-with-clinical-decision-support-functionality-user-acceptance-of-a-prototype-applied-to-hiv-tb-drug%C3%A2-therapy
#18
Carolina Wannheden, Helena Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Elena Eftimovska, Katarina Westling, Johan Ellenius
BACKGROUND: The care of HIV-related tuberculosis (HIV/TB) is complex and challenging. Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can contribute to improve quality of care, but more knowledge is needed on factors determining user acceptance of CDS. OBJECTIVES: To analyze physicians' and nurses' acceptance of a CDS prototype for evidence-based drug therapy recommendations for HIV/TB treatment. METHODS: Physicians and nurses were involved in designing a CDS prototype intended for future integration with the Swedish national HIV quality registry...
April 28, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450920/detection-and-analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-guangxi-province-of-china
#19
Shu-Zhi Wu, Jin-Lu Wei, Bin Xu, Peng-Hai Wei, Yan Yang, Bin Qin, Zhi-Chun Xie
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals and to study the infection status of HCV RNA in HIV-infected individuals who did not have anti-HCV antibodies in the Guangxi province of China, in order to provide basis for screening and clinical treatment of hepatitis C in future. Data were collected from patients recruited via a questionnaire. Between August 2008 and January 2009, 300 HIV-infected individuals were randomly selected from various HIV monitoring points in Liuzhou and Qinzhou (Guangxi, China)...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443684/genetic-variants-of-hiv-type-1-in-msm-in-russia
#20
Elena Kazennova, Vita Laga, Konstantin Gromov, Natalya Lebedeva, Eugenia Zhukova, Alexander Pronin, Liliya Grezina, Nataliya Dement'eva, Andrey Shemshura, Marina Bobkova
The MSM population infected with HIV is poorly studied in Russia due to stigma and discrimination. In the first years of the HIV epidemic, the only HIV genetic variant that circulated among MSM was subtype B, usually acquired abroad. Meanwhile, the massive epidemic of HIV in Russia was caused by a highly homogenic subtype A variant, AFSU (A6), and spread mainly among drug users. In this study, 155 HIV pol sequences from MSM collected during the period of 2006-2016 were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis found that 19...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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