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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633458/causes-of-death-and-mortality-trends-of-all-individuals-reported-with-hiv-aids-in-israel-1985-2010
#1
Zohar Mor, Rivka Sheffer, Daniel Chemtob
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed life-expectancy and mortality trends among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) since 1996. This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the mortality epidemiology of PLWHA in Israel and analyze the causes of death. Methods: This cohort study included all adult Israeli-citizens PLWHA between 1985 and 2010 and crossed matched with the Civil Registry to identify those who died. Death certificates were classified into AIDS or non-AIDS deaths related-causes...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632094/the-interactive-effects-of-social-support-and-physical-functioning-on-hiv-medical-outcomes-among-african-americans-whom-inject-drugs
#2
Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Julie A Denison, Roland J Thorpe, Amy R Knowlton
Research suggests a syndemic of substance use, mental illness, and familial conflict is associated with poor HIV medical outcomes among African American persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Social support may facilitate positive health outcomes. This study explores psychosocial correlates of HIV medical outcomes, defined as undetectable viral load (UVL) and acute care minimization. Data were from baseline of the BEACON study (N = 351). UVL was ≤40 copies/mL. Acute care minimization was defined as no ER visits and/or hospitalizations in 6 months...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628527/antiretroviral-prescription-and-viral-suppression-in-a-representative-sample-of-hiv-infected-persons-in-care-in-four-large-metropolitan-areas-of-the-united-states-medical-monitoring-project-2011-figure-dash-2013
#3
Amy Rock Wohl, Nanette Benbow, Judith Tejero, Christopher Johnson, Susan Scheer, Kathleen Brady, Alexandra Gagner, Alison Hughes, Michael Eberhart, Christine Mattson, Jacek Skarbinski
BACKGROUND: Comparisons of ART prescription and viral suppression among people in HIV care across U.S. metropolitan areas are limited. 2011-2013 Medical Monitoring Project data were used to describe and compare associations between socio-demographics and ART prescription and viral suppression for persons receiving HIV care. SETTING: Chicago, Los Angeles County (LAC), Philadelphia, and San Francisco in the United States. METHODS: Bivariate and multivariable methods were used...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618980/evaluating-the-care-cascade-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-latin-america
#4
Marcelo J Wolff, Claudia P Cortes, Fernando A Mejìa, Denis Padgett, Pablo Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark J Giganti, Catherine C McGowan, Peter F Rebeiro
Accelerating antiretroviral therapy (ART) administration, improving retention, and achieving viral suppression in low- and middle-income countries must be prioritized. We evaluated trends and disparities in these milestones in a large Latin American cohort. Adults starting ART (ARTstart) from 2003 to 2014 at Caribbean, Central, and South America network for HIV epidemiology sites were assessed for care cascade outcomes: CD4 cell count >200 cells/mm(3) at ARTstart; retention (≥1 visit at one year after ARTstart); viral suppression (≥1 HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/ml at one year after ARTstart)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618736/frequency-of-human-parvovirus-4-parv4-viremia-among-hbv-infected-patients-and-healthy-donors-in-shiraz-iran
#5
Fereshte Amirahmadi, Jamal Sarvari, Seyed Younes Hosseini, Neda Pirbonyeh, Ali Akbar Gorzin
BACKGROUND/AIM: PARV4, a small DNA virus belonging to the family Parvoviridae, was first isolated in an HBV injecting drug user. Several studies have investigated PARV4 co-infection with HBV and HCV and its effect on the progression of liver disease. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PARV4 among HBV-infected patients and healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 90 HBV patients and a group of 90 healthy subjects were included in this study...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611512/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-and-hepatitis-a-vaccination-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Kuan-Yin Lin, Guan-Jhou Chen, Yu-Lin Lee, Yi-Chia Huang, Aristine Cheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Sui-Yuan Chang, Chun-Eng Liu, Chien-Ching Hung
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common infectious etiologies of acute hepatitis worldwide. The virus is known to be transmitted fecal-orally, resulting in symptoms ranging from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis. HAV can also be transmitted through oral-anal sex. Residents from regions of low endemicity for HAV infection often remain susceptible in their adulthood. Therefore, clustered HAV infections or outbreaks of acute hepatitis A among men who have sex with men and injecting drug users have been reported in countries of low endemicity for HAV infection...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605301/cold-preparation-of-heroin-in-a-black-tar-market
#7
Alexis M Roth, Richard F Armenta, Karla D Wagner, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jesse L Goldshear, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Richard S Garfein
BACKGROUND: Black tar heroin is typically prepared for injection with heat which decreases the risk of HIV transmission by inactivating the virus. We received reports that persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, a black tar heroin market, were using only water to dissolve heroin. OBJECTIVES: Because Tijuana abuts San Diego County, CA, United States, we undertook the present analyses to determine the prevalence of this practice among PWID in San Diego, California...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594786/hospitalizations-for-endocarditis-and-associated-health-care-costs-among-persons-with-diagnosed-drug-dependence-north-carolina-2010-2015
#8
Aaron T Fleischauer, Laura Ruhl, Sarah Rhea, Erin Barnes
Opioid dependence and overdose have increased to epidemic levels in the United States. The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimated that 4.3 million persons were nonmedical users of prescription pain relievers (1). These users are 40 times more likely than the general population to use heroin or other injection drugs (2). Furthermore, CDC estimated a near quadrupling of heroin-related overdose deaths during 2002-2014 (3). Although overdose contributes most to drug-associated mortality, infectious complications of intravenous drug use constitute a major cause of morbidity leading to hospitalization (4)...
June 9, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594232/revisiting-the-aids-epidemic-in-pakistan-where-we-stand-and-what-we-must-aim-for
#9
Hamza Arshad Dar, Areeba Mubashir, Manal Adil, Aiman Farzeen, Hasaan Naseer, Gohar Ayub, Sajid Mansoor, Aneela Javed
Human Immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in humans, where the immune system totally succumbs to the virus. Large proportion of the AIDS infected belong to developing countries and AIDS prevalence is intensified by severe poverty, malnutrition and famine; fatal illnesses with a scorn shortage of medical amenities complemented with the lack of education and development. Current Pakistani health system setting is in a dire need of improvement. Low literacy rates, high birth rates and associated maternal mortality plus a lack of clean drinking water and appropriate sanitation system have a serious impact on general living conditions contributing to a relatively short life-span...
June 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589452/on-demand-microbicide-products-design-matters
#10
REVIEW
Sravan Kumar Patel, Lisa Cencia Rohan
Sexual intercourse (vaginal and anal) is the predominant mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Topical microbicides used in an on-demand format (i.e., immediately before or after sex) can be part of an effective tool kit utilized to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. The effectiveness of prevention products is positively correlated with adherence, which is likely to depend on user acceptability of the product. The development of an efficacious and acceptable product is therefore paramount for the success of an on-demand product...
June 6, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583339/off-label-use-of-phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitor-erectile-dysfunction-medication-to-enhance-sex-among-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-australia-results-from-the-flux-study
#11
Mohamed A Hammoud, Fengyi Jin, Toby Lea, Lisa Maher, Jeffrey Grierson, Garrett Prestage
BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) use oral erectile dysfunction medications (EDMs) often with little evidence of medical indication necessitating their use. AIM: To investigate the prevalence, contexts, and motivations for oral EDM use and its relation to sexual risk behavior. METHODS: A total of 2,250 Australian GBM completed an online survey of licit and illicit drug use and their associated behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with use of EDMs in the previous 6 months and, for those who had used EDMs, factors associated with use on a weekly basis...
June 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578543/lessons-learned-from-the-implementation-of-seek-test-treat-retain-interventions-using-mobile-phones-and-text-messaging-to-improve-engagement-in-hiv-care-for-vulnerable-populations-in-the-united-states
#12
Katerina A Christopoulos, William E Cunningham, Curt G Beckwith, Irene Kuo, Carol E Golin, Kevin Knight, Patrick M Flynn, Anne C Spaulding, Lara S Coffin, Bridget Kruszka, Ann Kurth, Jeremy D Young, Sharon Mannheimer, Heidi M Crane, Shoshana Y Kahana
In the United States, little is known about interventions that rely on mobile phones and/or text messaging to improve engagement in HIV care for vulnerable populations. Domestic studies using these technologies as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse "Seek, Test, Treat, Retain" research initiative were queried regarding intervention components, implementation issues, participant characteristics, and descriptive statistics of mobile phone service delivery. Across five studies with 1,135 predominantly male, minority participants, implementation challenges occurred in three categories: (1) service interruptions; (2) billing/overage issues, and; (3) the participant user experience...
June 3, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574740/people-who-inject-drugs-and-have-mood-disorders-a-brief-assessment-of-health-risk-behaviors
#13
Stacey Carroll Williams, Melissa Ann Davey-Rothwell, Karin E Tobin, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs have a greater risk of infectious disease and mortality than other substance abusers and nondrug users. Variation in risk behavior among people who inject drugs is likely associated with comorbid mental health disorders. OBJECTIVES: Examine the association between a history of mood disorder and recent risk behavior among people who inject drugs. METHODS: With baseline data from a behavioral HIV prevention clinical trial in a population of people who inject drugs, we used logistic regression models to compare the risk behaviors of people who report a past diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 113) or depression (n = 237) to a comparison group with no history of diagnosed mental illness (n = 446)...
June 2, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572838/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-against-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-among-hiv-negative-people-in-china
#14
Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi
BACKGROUND: Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia. METHODS: In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570926/predictive-utility-and-measurement-properties-of-the-strength-of-implementation-intentions-scale-siis-for-condom-use
#15
Liesl A Nydegger, Susan L Ames, Alan W Stacy
BACKGROUND: Implementation intentions are situation-linked action plans that increase health behaviors such as condom use. Few studies have measured the strength of implementation intentions, especially regarding condom use. Non-injection drug users are at high risk for HIV due to risky sexual practices. Substance use before sex may increase risky sexual behaviors, and implementation intentions are a promising, practical route for HIV prevention. PURPOSE: This prospective study assessed the measurement properties of the newly developed Strength of Implementation Intentions Scale (SIIS) for condom use and investigated whether the SIIS predicted condom use one-year later...
May 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569291/misadventure-in-muirhouse-hiv-infection-a-modern-plague-and-persisting-public-health-problem
#16
R Robertson
This story is of particular interest and importance to Edinburgh and Scottish medicine. It describes the events in one general medical practice in Edinburgh, the Muirhouse Medical Group, and their impact and relationship to the AIDS pandemic. For many, the origin of HIV in the UK is now history. Since the introduction of HIV/AIDS into the intravenous illegal drug using community, much has changed but problems remain that should concern policy makers and clinicians. Reflections on the recent history of the HIV epidemic among drug users in the UK provide important insights into risks for current policy making and the potentially problematic direction that policy has taken...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567550/hiv-prevalence-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-among-polydrug-users-in-brazil-a-biological-survey-using-respondent-driven-sampling
#17
Cremildo João Baptista, Inês Dourado, Tarcísio Matos de Andrade, Sandra Brignol, Neilane Bertoni, Francisco Inácio Bastos
Brazil has a concentrated HIV epidemic among key populations. In 2009, the Ministry of Health conducted a survey in 10 Brazilian cities aiming to estimate HIV prevalence, knowledge, and associated risk behaviors of polysubstance users (PSU). Using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS), 3449 PSU were recruited, answered an Audio-Computer Self Assisted Interview (ACASI) and were tested for HIV and syphilis. Analyses were weighted by individual's social network size generated on RDSAT. Pooled HIV prevalence was 5...
May 31, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560499/the-impact-of-substance-use-on-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-women-in-the-united-states
#18
Yuehan Zhang, Tracey E Wilson, Adebola Adedimeji, Daniel Merenstein, Joel Milam, Jennifer Cohen, Mardge Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub
Research is scant regarding differential effects of specific types of recreational drugs use on antiretroviral therapy adherence among women, particularly to single-tablet regimens (STR). This is increasingly important in the context of marijuana legalization. We examined the effects of self-reported substance use on suboptimal (<95%) adherence in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, 2003-2014. Among 1799 HIV-infected women, the most prevalent substance used was marijuana. In multivariable Poisson GEE regression, substance use overall was significantly associated with suboptimal adherence (adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR = 1...
May 30, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553295/developing-an-integrated-brief-biobehavioral-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-high-risk-drug-users-in-treatment-the-process-and-outcome-of-formative-research
#19
Roman Shrestha, Frederick Altice, Pramila Karki, Michael Copenhaver
To date, HIV prevention efforts have largely relied on singular strategies (e.g., behavioral or biomedical approaches alone) with modest HIV risk-reduction outcomes for people who use drugs (PWUD), many of whom experience a wide range of neurocognitive impairments (NCI). We report on the process and outcome of our formative research aimed at developing an integrated biobehavioral approach that incorporates innovative strategies to address the HIV prevention and cognitive needs of high-risk PWUD in drug treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551495/capsular-specific-igm-enhances-complement-mediated-phagocytosis-and-killing-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-methamphetamine-treated-j774-16-macrophage-like-cells
#20
Lilit Aslanyan, Vaibhav V Ekhar, Carlos M DeLeon-Rodriguez, Luis R Martinez
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system of users in the United States and worldwide, and its consumption is associated to the acquisition of HIV and AIDS-related infections. METH enhances cryptococcosis in mice, an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Due to its ability to survive within macrophages, C. neoformans is an ideal model to study pathogen-macrophage interactions. METH abrogates normal macrophage function, which might contribute to the higher rate and more rapid progression of infections in drug abusers...
May 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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