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Silke Amelung, Maria Hartmann, Ludwig Haas, Lothar Kreienbrock
In Germany, all calves are tested for the presence of bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease virus (BVDV) virus since January 1, 2011. The basis for this compulsory investigation is the BVDV Federal Regulation (BVDVV), which demands testing of calves before the age of six months and according to the new regulation of June 2016 within four weeks or before entering another stock. In 2012, a questionnaire was sent to 7250 Lower Saxony cattle farmers to identify potential factors associated with the presence of BVDV...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Volker Moennig, Paul Becher
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases of cattle with respect to animal health and economic impact. Its stealthy nature, prolonged transient infections, and the presence of persistently infected (PI) animals as efficient reservoirs were responsible for its ubiquitous presence in cattle populations worldwide. Whereas it was initially thought that the infection was impossible to control, effective systematic control strategies have emerged over the last 25 years. The common denominators of all successful control programs were systematic control, removal of PI animals, movement controls for infected herds, strict biosecurity, and surveillance...
March 8, 2018: Pathogens
T J Spore, S P Montgomery, E C Titgemeyer, G A Hanzlicek, C I Vahl, T G Nagaraja, K T Cavalli, W R Hollenbeck, R A Wahl, D A Blasi
Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ponnayyan Sulochana Suresh, Ravi Kumar Jairam, Devaraj V Chandrasekhar, Anera Balakrishna Vinod, Rakesh A Hiremath, Anusha Raj, Mohd Zainuddin, Ravi Kanth Bhamidipati, Ramesh Mullangi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is a novel and selective reversible inhibitor of ERK1/ERK2. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ulixertinib in mice, rats, and dogs followed by prediction of human pharmacokinetic profile by allometric equations with/without correction factors. METHODS: Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic profiles of ulixertinib were generated in mice, rats, and dogs. The human intravenous pharmacokinetics profiles [volume of distribution (Vss ) and clearance (CL)] were predicted employing simple allometry and using correction factors [maximum life span potential (MLP) and brain weight (BW)]...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Andrew M Bate, Glyn Jones, Adam Kleczkowski, Rebecca Naylor, Jon Timmis, Piran C L White, Julia Touza
The maintenance of livestock health depends on the combined actions of many different actors, both within and across different regulatory frameworks. Prior work recognised that private risk management choices have the ability to reduce the spread of infection to trading partners. We evaluate the efficiency of farmers' alternative biosecurity choices in terms of their own-benefits from unilateral strategies and quantify the impact they may have in filtering the disease externality of trade. We use bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in England and Scotland as a case study, since this provides an example of a situation where contrasting strategies for BVD management occur between selling and purchasing farms...
February 12, 2018: EcoHealth
Lena Azbel-Jackson, Claire Heffernan, George Gunn, Joe Brownlie
The article describes the influence of a disease control scheme (the Norfolk-Suffolk Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Disease (BVD) Eradication scheme) on farmers' bio-security attitudes and behaviours. In 2010, a survey of 100 cattle farmers (53 scheme members vs. 47 out of scheme farmers) was undertaken among cattle farmers residing in Norfolk and Suffolk counties in the UK. A cross-sectional independent measures design was employed. The main analytical tool was content analysis. The following variables at the farmer-level were explored: the specific BVD control measures adopted, livestock disease priorities, motivation for scheme membership, wider knowledge acquisition, biosecurity behaviours employed and training course attendance...
2018: PloS One
Anjuman Ara Bhuyan, Atta Muhammad Memon, Ali Akbar Bhuiyan, Li Zhonghua, Bingzhou Zhang, Shiyi Ye, Li Mengying, Qi-Gai He
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the etiological agent of BVD causes substantial economic losses and endemic in world-wide cattle population. Mucosal immunity plays an important role in protection against BVDV infection and Lactobacillus casei is believed as an excellent live vaccine vector for expressing foreign genes. In this study, we have constructed a novel recombinant L. casei/pELX1-E2 strain expressing the most immunogenic E2 antigen of BVDV; using growth phage dependent surface expression system pELX1...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Hellíada Vasconcelos Chaves, Danielle Rocha do Val, Kátia Alves Ribeiro, Jonas Cavalcante Lemos, Ricardo Basto Souza, Francisco Isaac Fernandes Gomes, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da Cunha, Vicente de Paulo Teixeira Pinto, Gerardo Cristino Filho, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte de Souza, Mirna Marques Bezerra, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To investigate the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin (BVD) in the zymosan-induced TMJ arthritis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mechanical threshold was assessed before and 4 h after TMJ arthritis induction in rats. Cell influx, myeloperoxidase activity, and histological changes were measured in the TMJ lavages and tissues. Trigeminal ganglion and periarticular tissues were used for HO-1, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNA time course expression and immunohistochemical analyses...
January 23, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Mustafa Mert Torunbalci, Tanay Arun Gosavi, Kerem Yunus Camsari, Sunil Ashok Bhave
This paper introduces a novel oscillator that combines the tunability of spin Hall-driven nano oscillators with the high quality factor (Q) of high overtone bulk acoustic wave resonators (HBAR), integrating both reference and tunable oscillators on the same chip with CMOS. In such magneto acoustic spin Hall (MASH) oscillators, voltage oscillations across the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that arise from a spin-orbit torque (SOT) are shaped by the transmission response of the HBAR that acts as a multiple peak-bandpass filter and a delay element due to its large time constant, providing delayed feedback...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Subbiah Krishna Kumar, K M Palanivel, K Sukumar, B Samuel Masilamoni Ronald, G Selvaraju, G Ponnudurai
A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 randomly selected dairy herds which were tested for BVD serum antibodies by using an indirect ELISA kit (IDEXX). Results from the chi-square test analysis were interpreted by analyzing by chi-square test. A sum of 500 sera samples were screened and 66 animals (13.20%) showed positive for BVDV antibody. Within herd, BVD seroprevalence was 12-65%. This study concluded that epidemiological risk factors like location, herd size, housing patterns like, tail to tail system, roofing pattern, distance between the manure pit and farm, and distance between farms were significantly associated with BVDV serological status (P < 0...
January 4, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ryan J Sullivan, Jeffrey R Infante, Filip Janku, Deborah Jean Lee Wong, Jeffrey A Sosman, Vicki Keedy, Manish R Patel, Geoffrey I Shapiro, James W Mier, Anthony W Tolcher, Andrea Wang-Gillam, Mario Sznol, Keith Flaherty, Elizabeth Buchbinder, Richard D Carvajal, Anna M Varghese, Mario E Lacouture, Antoni Ribas, Sapna P Patel, Gary A DeCrescenzo, Caroline M Emery, Anna L Groover, Saurabh Saha, Mary Varterasian, Dean J Welsch, David M Hyman, Bob T Li
Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor with potent preclinical activity in BRAF- and RAS-mutant cell lines. In this multicenter phase I trial (NCT01781429), 135 patients were enrolled to an accelerated 3 + 3 dose-escalation cohort and six distinct dose-expansion cohorts. Dose escalation included 27 patients, dosed from 10 to 900 mg twice daily and established the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of 600 mg twice daily. Ulixertinib exposure was dose proportional to the RP2D, which provided near-complete inhibition of ERK activity in whole blood...
December 15, 2017: Cancer Discovery
H-H Thulke, M Lange, J A Tratalos, T A Clegg, G McGrath, L O'Grady, P O'Sullivan, M L Doherty, D A Graham, S J More
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is an infectious production disease of major importance in many cattle sectors of the world. The infection is predominantly transmitted by animal contact. Postnatal infections are transient, leading to immunologically protected cattle. However, for a certain window of pregnancy, in utero infection of the foetus results in persistently infected (PI) calves being the major risk of BVD spread, but also an efficient target for controlling the infection. There are two acknowledged strategies to identify PI animals for removal: tissue tag testing (direct; also known as the Swiss model) and serological screening (indirect by interpreting the serological status of the herd; the Scandinavian model)...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
C Wolff, S Boqvist, K Ståhl, C Masembe, S Sternberg-Lewerin
BACKGROUND: Many low-income countries have a human population with a high number of cattle owners depending on their livestock for food and income. Infectious diseases threaten the health and production of cattle, affecting both the farmers and their families as well as other actors in often informal value chains. Many infectious diseases can be prevented by good biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to describe herd management and biosecurity routines with potential impact on the prevalence of infectious diseases, and to estimate the burden of infectious diseases in Ugandan cattle herds, using the seroprevalence of three model infections...
December 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Yuan Shi, Lutz Katzschner, Edward Ng
Urban heat island (UHI) effect significantly raises the health burden and building energy consumption in the high-density urban environment of Hong Kong. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal pattern of UHI is essential to health risk assessments and energy consumption management but challenging in a high-density environment due to the sparsely distributed meteorological stations and the highly diverse urban features. In this study, we modelled the spatiotemporal pattern of UHI effect using the land use regression (LUR) approach in geographic information system with meteorological records of the recent 4years (2013-2016), sounding data and geographic predictors in Hong Kong...
October 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Emeli Torsson, Mikael Berg, Gerald Misinzo, Ida Herbe, Tebogo Kgotlele, Malin Päärni, Nils Roos, Anne-Lie Blomström, Karl Ståhl, Jonas Johansson Wensman
Introduction: Livestock husbandry is critical for food security and poverty reduction in a low-income country like Tanzania. Infectious disease is one of the major constraints reducing the productivity in this sector. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important diseases affecting small ruminants, but other infectious diseases may also be present. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for exposure to PPR, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bluetongue (BT), and bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in sheep and goats in Tanzania...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Kerstin Wernike, Jörn Gethmann, Horst Schirrmeier, Ronald Schröder, Franz J Conraths, Martin Beer
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases in cattle, causing major economic losses worldwide. Therefore, control programs have been implemented in several countries. In Germany, an obligatory nationwide eradication program has been in force since 2011. Its centerpiece is the detection of animals persistently infected (PI) with BVD virus, primarily based on the testing of ear tissue samples of all newborn calves for viral genome or antigen, and their removal from the cattle population...
October 18, 2017: Pathogens
Minhaj Alam, Damber Thapa, Jennifer I Lim, Dingcai Cao, Xincheng Yao
As a new optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging modality, there is no standardized quantitative interpretation of OCT angiography (OCTA) characteristics of sickle cell retinopathy (SCR). This study is to demonstrate computer-aided SCR classification using quantitative OCTA features, i.e., blood vessel tortuosity (BVT), blood vessel diameter (BVD), vessel perimeter index (VPI), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ contour irregularity, parafoveal avascular density (PAD). It was observed that combined features show improved classification performance, compared to single feature...
September 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Ursula A Germann, Brinley F Furey, William Markland, Russell R Hoover, Alex M Aronov, Jeffrey J Roix, Micheal Hale, Diane M Boucher, David A Sorrell, Gabriel Martinez-Botella, Matthew Fitzgibbon, Paul Shapiro, Michael J Wick, Ramin Samadani, Kathryn Meshaw, Anna Groover, Gary DeCrescenzo, Mark Namchuk, Caroline M Emery, Saurabh Saha, Dean J Welsch
Aberrant activation of signaling through the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway is implicated in numerous cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target. Although BRAF- and MEK-targeted combination therapy has demonstrated significant benefit beyond single-agent options, the majority of patients develop resistance and disease progression after approximately 12 months. Reactivation of ERK signaling is a common driver of resistance in this setting. Here we report the discovery of BVD-523 (ulixertinib), a novel, reversible, ATP-competitive ERK1/2 inhibitor with high potency and ERK1/2 selectivity...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
A W Stott, G J Gunn
Generic frameworks for the economic analysis of farm animal disease are now well established. The paper, therefore, uses bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) as an example to explore how these frameworks need to be adapted to fit the characteristics of a particular disease and the specific objectives of the analysis. In the case of BVD, given the relative strength of tests available to correctly identify virus-positive animals, thus enabling them to be culled, the emphasis has been on cost-benefit analysis of regional and national certification/eradication schemes...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
B Thomann, A Tschopp, I Magouras, M Meylan, G Schüpbach-Regula, B Häsler
Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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