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focal therapy

Xavier Cathelineau, Rafael Sanchez-Salas
Focal therapy (FT) represents a potential shift in clinical practice by featuring a tissue-sparing approach for prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. It stands midway between active surveillance (AS) and more aggressive options like radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy. The field has enormously evolved in the last few years but there are still pending questions to answer in the future. The manuscript overlooks FT in terms of indications, available energies, situation of tumor microenvironment, follow-up, re-interventions, and the future of this approach for PCa...
December 2016: Current Urology Reports
Taiye Remi Fasola, Blessing Ukwenya, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Temitayo Olabisi Ajibade
BACKGROUND: Croton lobatus contains a high amount of antioxidant phytochemicals that probably account for its wide use as food and medicine in the traditional communities of West Africa. METHODS: The study evaluated the modulatory role of methanol extract of Croton lobatus leaf on alloxan-induced diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Male rats were randomly selected and assigned to one of six groups (A to F) of eight animals each: A (distilled water); B (corn oil); C (Alloxan); D (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 Croton lobatus); E: (Alloxan + 200 mg kg-1 C...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
M G Basáñez, M Walker, H C Turner, L E Coffeng, S J de Vlas, W A Stolk
Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the few neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) whose control strategies have been informed by mathematical modelling. With the change in focus from elimination of the disease burden to elimination of Onchocerca volvulus, much remains to be done to refine, calibrate and validate existing models. Under the impetus of the NTD Modelling Consortium, the teams that developed EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have joined forces to compare and improve these frameworks to better assist ongoing elimination efforts...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Yair Rubinstein, Chen Weiner, Adi Einan-Lifshitz, Noa Chetrit, Nadav Shoshany, David Zadok, Isaac Avni, Eran Pras
PURPOSE: This study reports the presentation of 2 families with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD). The aim of this study was to show whether ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can, based on posterior changes of the cornea in MCD, assist in the choice of surgery, either anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) or penetrating keratoplasty (PK), compared with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Scheimpflug. METHODS: Six patients with MCD were examined for their best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp, OCT, UBM, and Scheimpflug findings...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
Imen Gorsane, I Helal, I Yacoub, F Ben Hamida, E Abderrahim, T Ben Abdallah
Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a heterogeneous entity. Previous few studies have evaluated the efficacy of calcineurin inhibitors in primary FSGS and have suggested positive benefit. In this single-center, retrospective study (1975-2014), we report our experience in Tunisian adults with primary FSGS treated with cyclosporine A (CsA). It includes patients histologically proven FSGS and managed in the Charles Nicolle Hospital at Tunis, Tunisia. The dose of CsA was adjusted to maintain a whole blood trough level of 80-150 ng/mL...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Saima Riaz, Humayun Bashir, Aamna Hassan, Sajid Mushtaq, Arif Jamshed, Ahmad Murtaza
We report an aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with focal undifferentiated component in a 32-year-old female. She had limited disease confined within the thyroid gland at diagnosis. Within 12 months of thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were elevated. Second radioiodine ablative dose was given, however, stimulated Tg levels showed an upward trend with negative iodine scan within 12 months. An 18F fludeoxyglucose-avid solitary pulmonary nodule that was detected on positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was resected followed by empiric radioiodine therapy...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Julia Schellong, Franziska Epple, Kerstin Weidner, Andrea Möllering
A non-neglectable portion of people that have fled to Germany have been subjected to expulsion, violence, torture and grave human loss. In some of them, signs of secondary mental problems are obvious. In the light of the efforts at integration, these diseases must not be neglected. Outlined are the federal legal requirements and how the cost coverage, as well as the admission to health care system, is structured. Additionally, 2 exemplary regional models for psychosomatic health care are being introduced: Dresden's "Stepped Care Model for Psychologically Vulnerable Refugees" includes phased offers for prevention and treatment of acute mental crises, as well as somatoform disorders in refugees and their volunteer helpers...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Michele De Benedetto, Luana Conte, Francesco De Nuccio
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive interruptions of breathing, causing a Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) that can be a key step in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, in fact, there is scientific evidence showing the close relationship between OSA and atherosclerosis, even in those patients who do not show co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cigarette smoking and obesity, which normally are able to activate the endothelium...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Andrew J Wyman, Bruce N Mayes, Jackeline Hernandez-Nino, Nigel Rozario, Sandra K Beverly, Andrew W Asimos
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Seizures account for 1.2% of all emergency department (ED) visits, with 24% of those representing first-time seizures. Our primary goal is to determine whether obtaining an electroencephalogram (EEG) in the ED after a first-time seizure can identify individuals appropriate for initiation of anticonvulsant therapy on ED discharge. Our secondary goals are to determine the association of historical and clinical seizure features with epileptic EEGs and to determine the interobserver agreement for the EEG interpretation...
October 10, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Kamil Kowalski, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Maria Helena Sikorska, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Paulina Cichosz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Maria A Ciemerych, Edyta Brzoska
The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Amr Shaaban Hanafy
BACKGROUND: There is no global consensus for the optimal management of HCC. Most of patients at the time of diagnosis are not candidate for potentially curative therapy. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low dose capecitabine combined with sorafenib in subset of Egyptian HCV patients presented with advanced HCC unfit for surgical or locoregional therapies. METHODS: 15 patients with advanced HCC, unfit for surgical or locoregional intervention, with PS <2 recieved Capecitabine 500 mg/day with sorafeneb 200 mg twice daily till normalization of AFP then the treatment was modified to capecitabine 250 mg every other day and sorafenib 400 mg once daily...
2016: SpringerPlus
Yanwen Jiang, Ana Ortega-Molina, Huimin Geng, Hsia-Yuan Ying, Katerina Hatzi, Sara Parsa, Dylan McNally, Ling Wang, Ashley S Doane, Xabier Agirre Ena, Matt Teater, Cem Meydan, Zhuoning Li, David Poloway, Shenqiu Wang, Daisuke Ennishi, David W Scott, Kristy R Stengel, Janice E Kranz, Edward Holson, Sneh Sharma, James W Young, Chi-Shuen Chu, Robert G Roeder, Rita Shaknovich, Scott W Hiebert, Randy D Gascoyne, Wayne Tam, Olivier Elemento, Hans-Guido Wendel, Ari M Melnick
Somatic mutations in CREBBP occur frequently in B-cell lymphoma. Here, we show that loss of CREBBP facilitates development of germinal center derived lymphomas in mice. In both human and murine lymphomas CREBBP loss of function resulted in focal depletion of enhancer H3K27 acetylation and aberrant transcriptional silencing of genes that regulate B-cell signaling and immune responses including class II MHC. Mechanistically, CREBBP regulated enhancers are counter-regulated by the BCL6 transcriptional repressor in a complex with SMRT and HDAC3, which we find bind extensively to MHC class II loci...
October 12, 2016: Cancer Discovery
Takao Hirano, Yuichi Toriyama, Yasuhiro Iesato, Akira Imai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Taiji Nagaoka, Yoshihiro Takamura, Masahiko Sugimoto, Toshinori Murata
PURPOSE: The effect of combination therapy using intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections and short pulse focal/grid laser photocoagulation was evaluated for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: The current investigation was a preliminary single-arm, open-label, prospective clinical study conducted on 21 eyes at 4 sites in Japan. Treatment protocol consisted of two phases. The induction IVR phase included two monthly IVRs followed by PRN IVR phase in which additional IVR was administered if the central macular thickness (CMT) exceeded 300 μm...
October 11, 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Romuald Zdrojowy, Janusz Dembowski, Bartosz Małkiewicz, Krzysztof Tupikowski, Wojciech Krajewski
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer among males in Europe and a leading cause of cancer deaths, with similar proportion in other developed countries. For more than twenty years, external-beam radiation therapy, alongside with radical prostatectomy, has been used as a primary radical therapeutic approach for localized prostate cancer. Yet, EBRT failures relate to 22-69% following curative radiotherapy (± androgen deprivation therapy). Additionally, a proportion of these men will have a biopsy-proven local recurrence...
2016: Central European Journal of Urology
Vadim Gospodarev, Justin Câmara, Vikram Chakravarthy, Arie Perry, Matthew Wood, Robin Dietz, Jun Wang, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Ravi Raghavan
IgG4-related pachymeningitis is a serious inflammatory condition that can present with symptoms of mass effect and focal deficits. The first-line therapy is steroids and second-line is chemotherapy (methotrexate, azathioprine, etc.). We describe a patient with IgG4-related pachymeningitis in whom steroid use was contraindicated and methotrexate was ineffective. During the course of treatment, the patient presented to the emergency department with receptive and expressive aphasia, slurred speech, right-sided neglect, and loss of sensation...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Yuichiro Ogura, Fumio Shiraga, Hiroko Terasaki, Masahito Ohji, Susumu Ishida, Taiji Sakamoto, Akito Hirakata, Tatsuro Ishibashi
PURPOSE: To elucidate the current clinical practice patterns of diabetic macular edema (DME) management by retinal specialists in Japan in the era of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. METHODS: Forty-six retinal specialists were administered a survey regarding the pathology and clinical practice of DME. RESULTS: Nearly, half of the specialists (45.2 %) think that the main biochemical factor involved in DME development is the vascular permeability-potentiating action of VEGF-A...
October 8, 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Anna Julie Peired, Alessandro Sisti, Paola Romagnani
Mesenchymal stem cells form a population of self-renewing, multipotent cells that can be isolated from several tissues. Multiple preclinical studies have demonstrated that the administration of exogenous MSC could prevent renal injury and could promote renal recovery through a series of complex mechanisms, in particular via immunomodulation of the immune system and release of paracrine factors and microvesicles. Due to their therapeutic potentials, MSC are being evaluated as a possible player in treatment of human kidney disease, and an increasing number of clinical trials to assess the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of MSC-based therapy in various kidney diseases have been proposed...
2016: Stem Cells International
Shawna Cutting, Elizabeth Regan, Vivien H Lee, Shyam Prabhakaran
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Following transient ischemic attack (TIA), there is increased risk for ischemic stroke. The American Heart Association recommends admission of patients with ABCD2 scores ≥3 for observation, rapid performance of diagnostic tests, and potential acute intervention. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between ABCD2 scores, in-hospital ischemic events, and in-hospital treatments after TIA admission. METHODS: We reviewed consecutive patients admitted between 2006 and 2011 following a TIA, defined as transient focal neurological symptoms attributed to a specific vascular distribution and lasting <24 h...
October 8, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based treatment and management for patients with bronchiectasis remain challenging. There is a need for regional disease measurements as focal distribution of disease is common. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect regional ventilation impairment and response to airway clearance therapy (ACT) in patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, providing a new way to objectively and regionally evaluate response to therapy...
October 4, 2016: Academic Radiology
Didier Frappaz, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Pierre-Aurelien Beuriat, Claire Alapetite, Jacques Grill, Alexandru Szathmari, Cécile Faure-Conter
Ependymomas represent 10% of pediatric brain tumors. In the recent WHO 2016 classification, pathology is enriched by localization and molecular biology. Whatever the age, total removal by one or several looks when required remains a major prognostic factor. In children, focal radiation remains a standard, while the role of chemotherapy is matter of randomized studies. In infants, front line chemotherapy is the standard. Inclusion in the SIOP ependymoma II protocol is encouraged. In case of relapse, further surgery and radiation are advised, while inclusion in innovative trials including re-irradiation, and phase I-II should be encouraged...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
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