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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725587/multi-parametric-mri-imaging-of-the-prostate-implications-for-focal-therapy
#1
REVIEW
James S Wysock, Herbert Lepor
The primary goal of a focal therapy treatment paradigm is to achieve cancer control through targeted tissue destruction while simultaneously limiting deleterious effects on peri-prostatic structures. Focal therapy approaches are employed in several oncologic treatment protocols, and have been shown to provide equivalent cancer control for malignancies such as breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Efforts to develop a focal therapy approach for prostate cancer have been challenged by several concepts including the multifocal nature of the disease and limited capability of prostate ultrasound and systematic biopsy to reliably localize the site(s) and aggressiveness of disease...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725581/direct-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-biopsy-of-the-prostate-lessons-learned-in-establishing-a-regional-referral-center
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin Addicott, Bryan R Foster, Chenara Johnson, Alice Fung, Christopher L Amling, Fergus V Coakley
MRI-targeted biopsy of the prostate appears to have the potential to reduce the high rates of underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis associated with the current diagnostic standard of transrectal ultrasound guided systematic biopsy. Direct or "in bore" MRI-guided biopsy is one of the three methods for MRI-targeted core needle sampling of suspicious, generally Pi-RADS 4 or 5, foci within the prostate, and our early experience suggests the approach demonstrates substantial utility and promise in the care of patients with prostate cancer...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724596/severe-destructive-nasopharyngeal-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-with-superimposed-skull-base-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-osteomyelitis
#3
Mitchell S von Itzstein, Jithma P Abeykoon, Daniel D Summerfield, Jennifer A Whitaker
Skull base osteomyelitis in the setting of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is rare and entails significant diagnostic challenges. We present a case of a 65-year-old Caucasian man with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, off immunosuppression for 18 months, who presented with 2 years of chronic headaches, severe fatigue, saddle nose deformity and 20-kilogram unintentional weight loss. Maxillofacial CT revealed an extensive destructive sinonasal and erosive skull base process. Laboratory evaluation showed equivocal elevation of antiproteinase 3 antibodies with negative antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody panel...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721494/a-comprehensive-characterization-of-parameters-affecting-high-frequency-irreversible-electroporation-lesions
#4
Tyler Miklovic, Eduardo L Latouche, Matthew R DeWitt, Rafael V Davalos, Michael B Sano
Several focal therapies are being investigated clinically to treat tumors in which surgery is contraindicated. Many of these ablation techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation, rely on thermal damage mechanisms which can put critical nerves or vasculature at risk. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a minimally invasive, non-thermal technique to destroy tumors. A series of short electric pulses create nanoscale defects in the cell membrane, eventually leading to cell death. Typical IRE protocols deliver a series of 50-100 µs monopolar pulses...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721213/diagnostic-approaches-and-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-review-article
#5
REVIEW
Hossein Akhondi
Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a condition that involves eosinophilic influx into the esophageal epithelium. It affects both children and adults; Adults present with dysphagia whereas children with vague abdominal complaints. The clinical symptoms as well as pathologic features of EoE and gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) are similar. Since eosinophilia in the esophagus is a non-specific finding, the clinical presentation in conjunction with endoscopic findings and pathology, is crucial in determining a differential diagnosis...
August 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718341/diagnostic-yield-and-outcomes-of-computed-tomography-of-the-head-in-critically-ill-nontrauma-patients
#6
Fabian Finkelmeier, Sophie Walter, Kai-Henrik Peiffer, Anjali Cremer, Andrea Tal, Thomas Vogl, Stefan Zeuzem, Stephan Fichtlscherer, Mireen Friedrich-Rust, Jörg Bojunga, Harald Farnik
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography of the head (HCT) is a widely used diagnostic tool, especially for emergency and trauma patients. However, the diagnostic yield and outcomes of HCT for patients on medical intensive care units (MICUs) are largely unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all head CTs from patients admitted to a single-center MICU during a 5-year period for CT indications, diagnostic yield, and therapeutic consequences. Uni- and multivariate analyses for the evaluation of risk factors for positive head CT were conducted...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716637/update-on-the-management-of-abnormal-uterine-bleeding
#7
Yael Levy-Zauberman, Anne-Gaëlle Pourcelot, Perrine Capmas, Hervé Fernandez
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common complaint that affects large numbers of women from puberty to menopause. It negatively affects health by causing anemia, and impacts the quality of life of women affected. AUB also has an economic impact for both women and society. Therefore, it should not be under- or overestimate and diagnosis, investigations and treatment should be proposed, taking into account the scientific data available in the current state of medical knowledge. Using the new terminology and etiologic classification of AUB is essential to communicate properly around the subject...
July 14, 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713796/multimodal-imaging-in-focal-therapy-planning-and-assessment-in-primary-prostate-cancer
#8
Hossein Jadvar
PURPOSE: There is increasing interest in focal therapy (male lumpectomy) of localized low-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Focal therapy is typically associated with low morbidity and provides the possibility of retreatment. Imaging is pivotal in stratification of men with localized prostate cancer for active surveillance, focal therapy or radical intervention. This article provides a concise review of focal therapy and the evolving role of imaging in this clinical setting. METHODS: We performed a narrative and critical literature review by searching PubMed/Medline database from January 1997 to January 2017 for articles in the English language and the use of search keywords "focal therapy", "prostate cancer", and "imaging"...
June 2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712848/a-short-region-of-connexin43-reduces-human-glioma-stem-cell-migration-invasion-and-survival-through-src-pten-and-fak
#9
Myriam Jaraíz-Rodríguez, Ma Dolores Tabernero, María González-Tablas, Alvaro Otero, Alberto Orfao, Jose M Medina, Arantxa Tabernero
Connexin43 (CX43), a protein that forms gap junction channels and hemichannels in astrocytes, is downregulated in high-grade gliomas. Its relevance for glioma therapy has been thoroughly explored; however, its positive effects on proliferation are counterbalanced by its effects on migration and invasion. Here, we show that a cell-penetrating peptide based on CX43 (TAT-Cx43266-283) inhibited c-Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and upregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog in glioma stem cells (GSCs) derived from patients...
July 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711901/secondary-focal-form-of-yersinia-enterocolitica-infection-with-prolonged-polyarthritis-in-young-caucasian-male-a-case-report
#10
Aniuta S Sydorchuk, Oksana I Holyar, Yurii O Randiuk, Vasyl D Sorokhan, Leonid I Sydorchuk, Nonna A Bohachyk, Yadviga V Venglovska, Andrii M Sokol
Current issue deals with an interesting clinical case of a rare infectious disease in a Caucasian young male patient, caused by Yersinia enterocоlitica. Infection proceeded in the development of secondary focal form, which was accompanied by prolonged polyarthritis. We described a clinical case of secondary focal form with prolonged polyarthritis caused by Y. enterocolitica O:3 serogroup in young patient with the purpose of focusing on the early clinical and laboratory diagnosistics of Yersiniosis that would minimize the role of medical errors in diagnostics made by general practitioners...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710023/transient-brain-hypothermia-reduces-the-reperfusion-injury-of-delayed-tissue-plasminogen-activator-and-extends-its-therapeutic-time-window-in-a-focal-embolic-stroke-model
#11
Mohammadreza Zarisfi, Fatemeh Allahtavakoli, Mahsa Hassanipour, Mohammad Khaksari, Hossain Rezazadeh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Mohammad Mohsen Taghavi
It has been reported that restriction of reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke may reduce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) adverse effects and extend its time window. We examined whether shortIt has been reported that restriction of reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke may reduce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) adverse effects and extend its time window. We examined whether short-term and mild local brain cooling can prevent hyperemia and/or adverse effects of delayed tPA in rat embolic stroke model...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708548/predicting-locations-of-high-risk-plaques-in-coronary-arteries-in-patients-receiving-statin-therapy
#12
Ling Zhang, Andreas Wahle, Zhi Chen, John J Lopez, Tomas Kovarnik, Milan Sonka
Features of high-risk coronary artery plaques prone to major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were identified by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) virtual histology (VH). These plaque features are: Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), plaque burden PB≥70%, or minimal luminal area MLA≤4mm². Identification of arterial locations likely to later develop such high-risk plaques may help prevent MACE. We report a machine learning method for prediction of future high-risk coronary plaque locations and types in patients under statin therapy...
July 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707483/investigational-drugs-in-development-for-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#13
Howard Trachtman
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is an important cause of end stage kidney disease and is a paradigm for the study of glomerular scarring. There are no FDA approved treatments for this condition. Current therapies, assessed based on reduction in proteinuria, are generally effective in a subset of patients which suggests that FSGS is a heterogeneous group of glomerular disorders or podocytopathies that converge on a common histopathological phenotype. Areas covered: We searched for investigational drugs agents that target different pathophysiological pathways using the key words 'FSGS' and 'podocyte' in American and European clinical trial registers (clinicaltrials...
July 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705822/focal-low-and-global-high-permeability-predict-the-possibility-risk-and-location-of-hemorrhagic-transformation-following-intra-arterial-thrombolysis-therapy-in-acute-stroke
#14
Y Li, Y Xia, H Chen, N Liu, A Jackson, M Wintermark, Y Zhang, J Hu, B Wu, W Zhang, J Tu, Z Su, G Zhu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The contrast volume transfer coefficient (K(trans)), which reflects blood-brain barrier permeability, is influenced by circulation and measurement conditions. We hypothesized that focal low BBB permeability values can predict the spatial distribution of hemorrhagic transformation and global high BBB permeability values can predict the likelihood of hemorrhagic transformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 106 patients with hemispheric stroke who received intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700967/eosinophilic-granuloma-at-the-cerebellopontine-angle-in-an-adult-a-rare-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Arash Safarian, Nima Derakhshan, Mousa Taghipour, Amirreza Dehghanian
INTRODUCTION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare immunologic disorder, identified by immature proliferation of histiocytes which may present as systemic or focal lesions. Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is localized from of LCH mainly involving bones such as skull, femur, spine, ribs, mandible and pelvis. Cerebello-pontine (CP) angle is a rare anatomic location for involvement by EG. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 32 year old man was being evaluated in our neuro-oncology clinic due to diplopia since 4 months ago...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699523/altered-homeostatic-functions-in-reactive-astrocytes-and-their-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target-after-brain-ischemic-injury
#16
Helena Pivonkova, Miroslava Anderova
Brain ischemic injury represents one of the greatest medical challenges for the aging population in developed countries, yet despite strong efforts, possibilities to treat ischemic injury still remain poor. Stroke, the most common type of brain ischemic injury in humans, is caused by brain artery occlusion, and represents a focal form of ischemia, which leads to neuronal loss in the ischemic core, and glial scar formation in the penumbral region around the core. Such glial scar mainly comprises reactive astrocytes, reactive NG2 glia and activated microglia...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697804/ang-ii-at2r-increases-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-by-signaling-through-the-fak-and-rhoa-cdc42-pathways-in-vitro
#17
Xiu-Ping Xu, Hong-Li He, Shu-Ling Hu, Ji-Bin Han, Li-Li Huang, Jing-Yuan Xu, Jian-Feng Xie, Ai-Ran Liu, Yi Yang, Hai-Bo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate via the bloodstream to sites of injury and are possibly attracted by inflammatory factors. As a proinflammatory mediator, angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances the migration of various cell types by signaling via the Ang II receptor in vitro. However, few studies have focused on the effects of Ang II on MSC migration and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Human bone marrow MSCs migration was measured using wound healing and Boyden chamber migration assays after treatments with different concentrations of Ang II, an AT1R antagonist (Losartan), and/or an AT2R antagonist (PD-123319)...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697197/increased-and-normalized-uptake-of-18-f-fdg-in-a-case-of-bone-periprosthetic-infection-treated-by-antibiotics
#18
Valentina Lavelli, Cristina Ferrari, Artor Niccoli Asabella, Corinna Altini, Francesco Saverio Vella, Giuseppe Rubini
We report the case of a 69 years old man with left hip prosthesis, who presented clinical, biochemical and imaging signs of periprosthetic infection treated with linezolid, an antibacterial agent of the oxazolidinone class. Two weeks after this treatment, a fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) scan showed increased uptake in the skeleton and also increased uptake in several focal areas in the spine and near the prosthesis and the surgical wound on the left gluteus medius...
July 12, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694862/primary-hepatic-marginal-zone-lymphoma-in-a-patient-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#19
George S Gherlan, Razvan Stoia, Mihaly Enyedi, Camelia Dobrea, Petre I Calistru
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a low-grade malignant lymphoma that appears frequently in the stomach, but other sites can also be involved: the intestinal tract, lungs, head, neck, skin, thyroid, breasts and liver. Recently, epidemiological evidences support the idea that there is an association between hepatitis C and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (that include MALT as a subtype). Primary non-Hodgkin lymphomas confi ned only to the liver are very rare (only 0...
September 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693291/diagnostic-clue-of-nodular-fasciitis-mimicking-metastasis-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer-mismatching-findings-on-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-and-123-i-whole-body-scan-a-case-report
#20
Minjung Seo, Misung Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Hongbo Sim, Sungmin Jun, Seol Hoon Park
This study reports a case of nodular fasciitis incidentally detected in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer. A 47-year-old woman underwent a total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy for papillary thyroid cancer. On a follow-up fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) scan after 12 months, a focal (18)F-FDG-avid lesion was incidentally detected in the paraspinal muscle. It was well-enhanced on CT and magnetic resonance imaging, indicating metastasis. However, the lesion was not iodine avid on the (123)I whole body scan, which favored benign etiology over metastasis from thyroid cancer...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
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