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suprachiasmatic nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821839/circadian-clock-dependent-increase-in-salivary-iga-secretion-modulated-by-sympathetic-receptor-activation-in-mice
#1
Misaki Wada, Kanami Orihara, Mayo Kamagata, Koki Hama, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsuhito Nakao, Shigenobu Shibata
The salivary gland is rhythmically controlled by sympathetic nerve activation from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which functions as the main oscillator of circadian rhythms. In humans, salivary IgA concentrations reflect circadian rhythmicity, which peak during sleep. However, the mechanisms controlling this rhythmicity are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether the timing of parasympathetic (pilocarpine) or sympathetic (norepinephrine; NE) activation affects IgA secretion in the saliva. The concentrations of saliva IgA modulated by pilocarpine activation or by a combination of pilocarpine and NE activation were the highest in the middle of the light period, independent of saliva flow rate...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816086/inducible-knockout-of-mouse-zfhx3-emphasizes-its-key-role-in-setting-the-pace-and-amplitude-of-the-adult-circadian-clock
#2
Ashleigh G Wilcox, Lucie Vizor, Michael J Parsons, Gareth Banks, Patrick M Nolan
The transcription factor zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) plays a key role in coupling intracellular transcriptional-translational oscillations with intercellular synchrony in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). However, like many key players in central nervous system function, ZFHX3 serves an important role in neurulation and neuronal terminal differentiation while retaining discrete additional functions in the adult SCN. Recently, using a dominant missense mutation in mouse Zfhx3, we established that this gene can modify circadian period and sleep in adult animals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811515/localization-of-photoperiod-responsive-circadian-oscillators-in-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#3
Tomoko Yoshikawa, Natsuko F Inagaki, Seiji Takagi, Shigeru Kuroda, Miwako Yamasaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Sato Honma, Ken-Ichi Honma
The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) yields photoperiodic response to transfer seasonal information to physiology and behavior. To identify the precise location involved in photoperiodic response in the SCN, we analyzed circadian Period1 and PERIOD2 rhythms in horizontally sectioned SCN of mice exposed to a long or short day. Statistical analyses of bioluminescence images with respective luciferase reporters on pixel level enabled us to identify the distinct localization of three oscillating regions; a large open-ring-shape region, the region at the posterior end and a sharply demarcated oval region at the center of the SCN...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781050/direct-midbrain-dopamine-input-to-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-accelerates-circadian-entrainment
#4
Ryan M Grippo, Aarti M Purohit, Qi Zhang, Larry S Zweifel, Ali D Güler
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission controls behaviors important for survival, including voluntary movement, reward processing, and detection of salient events, such as food or mate availability. Dopaminergic tone also influences circadian physiology and behavior. Although the evolutionary significance of this input is appreciated, its precise neurophysiological architecture remains unknown. Here, we identify a novel, direct connection between the DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
July 26, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780783/implications-of-circadian-rhythm-in-dopamine-and-mood-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Han Kyoung Choe, Sooyoung Chung, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775376/altered-circadian-feeding-behavior-and-improvement-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-tac1-deficient-mice
#6
C A Maguire, S León, R S Carroll, U B Kaiser, V M Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic function is regulated by the interplay of central and peripheral factors that ultimately regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The tachykinin substance P (SP) has been identified as a novel regulator of energy balance, however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are ill-defined and conflicting data regarding the role of SP on food intake have been reported by different groups. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the metabolic role of the Tac1 gene products (SP and neurokinin A (NKA)) in mice through a series of genetic, metabolic and behavioral studies in Tac1 deficient mice...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763478/individual-differences-in-circadian-locomotor-parameters-correlate-with-anxiety-and-depression-like-behavior
#7
Jeffrey Anyan, Michael Verwey, Shimon Amir
Disrupted circadian rhythms are a core feature of mood and anxiety disorders. Circadian rhythms are coordinated by a light-entrainable master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Animal models of mood and anxiety disorders often exhibit blunted rhythms in locomotor activity and clock gene expression. Interestingly, the changes in circadian rhythms correlate with mood-related behaviours. Although animal models of depression and anxiety exhibit aberrant circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, it is possible that the methodology being used to induce the behavioral phenotype (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754901/scheduled-feeding-restores-memory-and-modulates-c-fos-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-septohippocampal-complex
#8
Norman F Ruby, Nathan Fisher, Danica F Patton, Matthew J Paul, Fabian Fernandez, H Craig Heller
Disruptions in circadian timing impair spatial memory in humans and rodents. Circadian-arrhythmic Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit substantial deficits in spatial working memory as assessed by a spontaneous alternation (SA) task. The present study found that daily scheduled feeding rescued spatial memory deficits in these arrhythmic animals. Improvements in memory persisted for at least 3 weeks after the arrhythmic hamsters were switched back to ad libitum feeding. During ad libitum feeding, locomotor activity resumed its arrhythmic state, but performance on the SA task varied across the day with a peak in daily performance that corresponded to the previous daily window of food anticipation...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747460/carbon-monoxide-preserves-circadian-rhythm-to-reduce-the-severity-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-mice
#9
Nils Schallner, Judith-Lisa Lieberum, David Gallo, Robert H LeBlanc, Patrick M Fuller, Khalid A Hanafy, Leo E Otterbein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with a temporal pattern of stroke incidence. We hypothesized that natural oscillations in gene expression controlling circadian rhythm affect the severity of neuronal injury. We moreover predict that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/Hmox1) and its product carbon monoxide (CO) contribute to the restoration of rhythm and neuroprotection. METHODS: Murine SAH model was used where blood was injected at various time points of the circadian cycle...
July 26, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730123/iprgcs-possible-causation-accounts-for-the-higher-prevalence-of-sleep-disorders-in-glaucoma-patients
#10
Zhen-Zhen Guo, Shan-Ming Jiang, Li-Ping Zeng, Li Tang, Ni Li, Zhu-Ping Xu, Xin Wei
Sleep accounts for a third of one's lifetime, partial or complete deprivation of sleep could elicit sever disorders of body function. Previous studies have reported the higher prevalence of sleep disorders in glaucoma patients, but the definite mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. On the other hand, it is well known by us that the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) serve additional ocular functions, called non-image-forming (NIF) functions, in the regulation of circadian rhythm, melatonin secretion, sleep, mood and others...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721279/age-related-circadian-disorganization-caused-by-sympathetic-dysfunction-in-peripheral-clock-regulation
#11
Yu Tahara, Yuta Takatsu, Takuya Shiraishi, Yosuke Kikuchi, Mayu Yamazaki, Hiroaki Motohashi, Aya Muto, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Daisuke Kuriki, Takahiro J Nakamura, Shigenobu Shibata
The ability of the circadian clock to adapt to environmental changes is critical for maintaining homeostasis, preventing disease, and limiting the detrimental effects of aging. To date, little is known about age-related changes in the entrainment of peripheral clocks to external cues. We therefore evaluated the ability of the peripheral clocks of the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland to be entrained by external stimuli including light, food, stress, and exercise in young versus aged mice using in vivo bioluminescence monitoring...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707700/deleting-the-arntl-clock-gene-in-the-granular-layer-of-the-mouse-cerebellum-impact-on-the-molecular-circadian-clockwork
#12
Tenna Bering, Mikkel Bloss Carstensen, Martin Fredensborg Rath
The suprachiasmatic nucleus houses the central circadian clock and is characterized by the timely regulated expression of clock genes. However, neurons of the cerebellar cortex also contain a circadian oscillator with circadian expression of clock genes being controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. It has been suggested that the cerebellar circadian oscillator is involved in food anticipation, but direct molecular evidence of the role of the circadian oscillator of the cerebellar cortex is currently unavailable...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699027/erratum-to-increased-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-depression
#13
Xueyan Wu, Rawien Balesar, Jing Lu, Sahar Farajnia, Qiongbin Zhu, Manli Huang, Ai-Min Bao, Dick F Swaab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687372/effects-of-a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-on-brain-per2-and-bmal1-protein-expression-in-mice
#14
Aurea Blancas-Velazquez, Susanne E la Fleur, Jorge Mendoza
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) times the daily rhythms of behavioral processes including feeding. Beyond the SCN, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), involved in feeding regulation and metabolism, and the epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb), implicated in reward processing, show circadian rhythmic activity. These brain oscillators are functionally coupled to coordinate the daily rhythm of food intake. In rats, a free choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet leads to a rapid increase of calorie intake and body weight gain...
October 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679229/the-asymmetry-of-the-entrainment-range-induced-by-the-difference-in-intrinsic-frequencies-between-two-subgroups-within-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#15
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang
The rhythms of physiological and behavioral activities in mammals, which are regulated by the main clock suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain, can not be only synchronized to the natural 24 h light-dark cycle, but also to cycles with artificial periods. The range of the artificial periods that the animal can be synchronized to is called entrainment range. In the absence of the light-dark cycle, the animal can also maintain the circadian rhythm with an endogenous period close to 24 h. Experiments found that the entrainment range is not symmetrical with respect to the endogenous period...
June 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675567/a-modulatory-role-of-the-rax-homeobox-gene-in-mature-pineal-gland-function-investigating-the-photoneuroendocrine-circadian-system-of-a-rax-conditional-knockout-mouse
#16
Kristian Rohde, Tenna Bering, Takahisa Furukawa, Martin Fredensborg Rath
The retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox gene (Rax) controls development of the eye and the forebrain. Postnatal expression of Rax in the brain is restricted to the pineal gland, a forebrain structure devoted to melatonin synthesis. The role of Rax in pineal function is unknown. In order to investigate the role of Rax in pineal function while circumventing forebrain abnormalities of the global Rax knockout, we generated an eye and pineal-specific Rax conditional knockout mouse. Deletion of Rax in the pineal gland did not affect morphology of the gland, suggesting that Rax is not essential for pineal gland development...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671110/alterations-of-clock-gene-rna-expression-in-brain-regions-of-a-triple-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Francesco Bellanti, Giuseppina Iannelli, Maria Blonda, Rosanna Tamborra, Rosanna Villani, Adele Romano, Silvio Calcagnini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Manlio Vinciguerra, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Tommaso Cassano, Gaetano Serviddio
A disruption to circadian rhythmicity and the sleep/wake cycle constitutes a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The maintenance of circadian rhythmicity is regulated by endogenous clock genes and a number of external Zeitgebers, including light. This study investigated the light induced changes in the expression of clock genes in a triple transgenic model of AD (3×Tg-AD) and their wild type littermates (Non-Tg). Changes in gene expression were evaluated in four brain areas¾suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), hippocampus, frontal cortex and brainstem¾of 6- and 18-month-old Non-Tg and 3×Tg-AD mice after 12 h exposure to light or darkness...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666896/circadian-neurons-in-the-lateral-habenula-clocking-motivated-behaviors
#18
REVIEW
Jorge Mendoza
The main circadian clock in mammals is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), however, central timing mechanisms are also present in other brain structures beyond the SCN. The lateral habenula (LHb), known for its important role in the regulation of the monoaminergic system, contains such a circadian clock whose molecular and cellular mechanisms as well as functional role are not well known. However, since monoaminergic systems show circadian activity, it is possible that the LHb-clock's role is to modulate the rhythmic activity of the dopamine, serotonin and norephinephrine systems, and associated behaviors...
June 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661071/scheduled-meal-accelerates-entrainment-to-a-6-h-phase-advance-by-shifting-central-and-peripheral-oscillations-in-rats
#19
L M Ubaldo-Reyes, R M Buijs, C Escobar, M Ángeles-Castellanos
Travelling across several time zones requires a fast adjustment of the circadian system and the differential adjustment speeds of organs and systems results in what is commonly referred as jet lag. During this transitory state of circadian disruption, individuals feel discomfort, appetite loss, fatigue, disturbed sleep and deficient performance of multiple tasks. We have demonstrated that after a 6-h phase advance of the light-dark cycle (LD) scheduled food in phase with the new night onset can speed up re-entrainment...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649228/ras-activity-tunes-the-period-and-modulates-the-entrainment-of-the-suprachiasmatic-clock
#20
REVIEW
Tsvetan Serchov, Rolf Heumann
The small GTPase Ras is a universal eukaryotic cytoplasmic membrane-anchored protein, which regulates diverse downstream signal transduction pathways that play an important role in the proper functioning of neurons. Ras activity is a central regulator of structural and functional synaptic plasticity in the adult nervous system, where it channels neuronal responses to various extracellular cues allowing the organism to adapt to complex environmental stimuli. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principle pacemaker of the circadian clock, and the circadian and photic regulation of Ras activity in the SCN is an important modulator of the clockwork...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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