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suprachiasmatic nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326909/resynchronization-dynamics-reveal-that-the-ventral-entrains-the-dorsal-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#1
Stephanie R Taylor, Thomas J Wang, Daniel Granados-Fuentes, Erik D Herzog
Although the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has long been considered the master circadian clock in mammals, the topology of the connections that synchronize daily rhythms among SCN cells is not well understood. We combined experimental and computational methods to infer the directed interactions that mediate circadian synchrony between regions of the SCN. We analyzed PERIOD2 (PER2) expression from SCN slices during and after treatment with tetrodotoxin, allowing us to map connections as cells resynchronized their daily cycling following blockade and restoration of cell-cell communication...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324017/a-novel-selective-bombesin-receptor-subtype-3-agonist-promotes-weight-loss-in-male-diet-induced-obese-rats-with-circadian-rhythm-change
#2
Yasunori Nio, Natsu Hotta, Minoru Maruyama, Kenichi Hamagami, Toshimi Nagi, Masaaki Funata, Junichi Sakamoto, Masanori Nakakariya, Nobuyuki Amano, Tomohiro Okawa, Yasuyoshi Arikawa, Shinobu Sasaki, Shoki Okuda, Shizuo Kasai, Yugo Habata, Yasutaka Nagisa
Bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Based on the obese phenotype of male BRS-3-deficient mice, BRS-3 has been considered an attractive target for obesity treatment. Here, we developed a novel selective BRS-3 agonist (Compound-A) and evaluated its anti-obesity effects. Compound-A showed anorectic effects and enhanced energy expenditure in diet-induced obese (DIO)-F344 rats. Moreover, repeated oral administration of Compound-A for 7 days resulted in a significant body weight reduction in DIO-F344 rats...
March 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315588/neuromedin-an-insight-into-its-types-receptors-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Saumitra Gajjar, Bhoomika M Patel
Neuropeptides are small protein used by neurons in signal communications. Neuromedin U was the first neuropeptide discovered from the porcine spinal and showed its potent constricting activities on uterus hence was entitled with neuromedin U. Following neuromedin U another of its isoform was discovered neuromedin S which was observed in suprachiasmatic nucleus hence was entitled neuromedin S. Neuromedin K and neuromedin L are of kanassin class which belong to tachykinin family. Bombesin family consists of neuromedin B and neuromedin C...
January 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288865/retinal-npy-and-5-ht-inputs-to-the-aged-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#4
Rovena C G J Engelberth, Kayo D de Azevedo Silva, Felipe Porto Fiuza, Joacil Germano Soares, Miriam S M O Costa, Ruthnaldo R de Melo Lima, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, José R Dos Santos, José R L P Cavalcanti, Jeferson S Cavalcante
The circadian timing system (CTS) anticipates optimal physiological patterns in response to environmental fluctuations, such as light-dark cycle. Since age-related disruption of circadian synchronization is linked to several pathological conditions, we characterized alterations of neurochemical constituents and retinal projections to the major pacemaker of CTS, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in adult and aged marmosets. We used intraocular injections of neural tracer Cholera toxin b (CTb) to report age-related reductions in CTb, neuropeptide Y and serotonin immunoreactivities...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286126/circadian-rhythms-of-hedonic-drinking-behavior-in-mice
#5
Claire Bainier, Maria Mateo, Marie-Paule Felder-Schmittbuhl, Jorge Mendoza
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the site of the main circadian clock, synchronized by the light-dark cycle, which generates behavioral rhythms like feeding, drinking and activity. Notwithstanding, the main role of the SCN clock on the control of all circadian rhythms has been questioned due to the presence of clock activity in many brain areas, including those implicated in the regulation of feeding and reward. Moreover, whether circadian rhythms of particular motivated behaviors exist is unknown...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285822/astrocytes-control-circadian-timekeeping-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-via-glutamatergic-signaling
#6
Marco Brancaccio, Andrew P Patton, Johanna E Chesham, Elizabeth S Maywood, Michael H Hastings
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus orchestrates daily rhythms of physiology and behavior in mammals. Its circadian (∼24 hr) oscillations of gene expression and electrical activity are generated intrinsically and can persist indefinitely in temporal isolation. This robust and resilient timekeeping is generally regarded as a product of the intrinsic connectivity of its neurons. Here we show that neurons constitute only one "half" of the SCN clock, the one metabolically active during circadian daytime...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270612/synchronous-circadian-voltage-rhythms-with-asynchronous-calcium-rhythms-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#7
Ryosuke Enoki, Yoshiaki Oda, Michihiro Mieda, Daisuke Ono, Sato Honma, Ken-Ichi Honma
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, contains a network composed of multiple types of neurons which are thought to form a hierarchical and multioscillator system. The molecular clock machinery in SCN neurons drives membrane excitability and sends time cue signals to various brain regions and peripheral organs. However, how and at what time of the day these neurons transmit output signals remain largely unknown. Here, we successfully visualized circadian voltage rhythms optically for many days using a genetically encoded voltage sensor, ArcLightD...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268225/pattern-of-nitrergic-neuronal-system-organization-in-the-brain-of-two-holostean-fishes-actinopterygii-ginglymodi
#8
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The study of the nitrergic system, formed by the networks of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been extremely useful in unraveling neuroanatomical features of the organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Thus, data are available for representatives of most vertebrate classes and, in particular, several studies have detailed the organization of this system in teleosts. In contrast, no information is available regarding this neurotransmission system in the brains of holosteans, an early diverged and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes, currently considered a sister group of teleosts that contains only 8 species...
March 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267416/posttranscriptional-mechanisms-controlling-diurnal-gene-expression-cycles-by-body-temperature-rhythms
#9
Ivana Gotic, Ueli Schibler
In mammals, body temperature oscillates in a daily fashion around a set point of 36°C-37°C. These fluctuations are controlled by the circadian master clock residing in the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus and, despite their small amplitudes, contribute to the diurnal expression of genes throughout the organism. By focusing on the mechanisms underlying the temperature-dependent accumulation of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein CIRBP - a factor involved in the tuning of amplitude and phase in circadian clocks of peripheral tissues - we have recently identified a novel mechanism governing temperature-dependent gene expression...
March 2, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261043/the-role-of-circadian-rhythms-in-muscular-and-osseous-physiology-and-their-regulation-by-nutrition-and-exercise
#10
REVIEW
Shinya Aoyama, Shigenobu Shibata
The mammalian circadian clock regulates the day and night cycles of various physiological functions. The circadian clock system consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks in peripheral tissues. According to the results of circadian transcriptomic studies in several tissues, the majority of rhythmic genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and are influenced by tissue-specific circadian rhythms. Here we review the diurnal variations of musculoskeletal functions and discuss the impact of the circadian clock on homeostasis in skeletal muscle and bone...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249777/analyses-of-the-cellular-clock-gene-expression-in-peripheral-tissue-caudal-fin-in-the-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#11
Makoto Mogi, Hayato Yokoi, Tohru Suzuki
Understanding the systems for maintaining the circadian rhythms that give organisms the flexibility to adapt to environmental changes is important in both aquaculture and fish chronobiology, because nursery lighting conditions can affect the survival and growth rates of larvae. We previously demonstrated that in flounder, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) exhibits daily rhythm in per2 expression, in sharp contrast to zebrafish, in which the SCN does not exhibit clear per2 expression rhythm. To examine whether a hierarchy exists in systems that maintain the expression rhythm of peripheral clock genes in flounder, in the present study we analyzed the in vivo and in vitro expression of three clock genes, per2, per1, and cry1, in the caudal fin and the effects of cortisol and melatonin administration on the expression of each clock gene...
March 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245070/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-is-involved-in-immune-modulation-but-not-basal-functioning-of-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-circadian-clock
#12
S M O'Keeffe, A L Beynon, J S Davies, P N Moynagh, A N Coogan
Circadian rhythms are recurring near-twenty four hour patterns driven by an endogenous circadian timekeeping system. The master pacemaker in this system is the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Recently interest has been drawn to how the SCN clock responds to immune system stimulation. A major signalling component in the immune system is nuclear factor (NF)-κB. In the present study we examined the role of NF-κB in SCN function. Whilst serum shocked fibroblasts showed rhythmic nuclear localisation of p65 and p65-dependent transcription, there were no circadian changes in the SCN in expression of the NF-κB components p65, c-Rel, p-IκB or p-IKK...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244152/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-regulates-photic-signaling-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#13
Jodi R Paul, Alex S McKeown, Jennifer A Davis, Stacie K Totsch, Eric M Mintz, Timothy W Kraft, Rita M Cowell, Karen L Gamble
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates mammalian circadian rhythms at the behavioral, molecular and neurophysiological levels. In the central circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3 exhibits a rhythm across the 24h day. We have recently shown that GSK3 is capable of influencing both the molecular clock and SCN neuronal activity rhythms. However, it is not known whether GSK3 regulates the response to environmental cues such as light...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229109/interaction-between-circadian-rhythms-and-stress
#14
REVIEW
C E Koch, B Leinweber, B C Drengberg, C Blaum, H Oster
Life on earth has adapted to the day-night cycle by evolution of internal, so-called circadian clocks that adjust behavior and physiology to the recurring changes in environmental conditions. In mammals, a master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus receives environmental light information and synchronizes peripheral tissues and central non-SCN clocks to geophysical time. Regulatory systems such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both being important for the regulation of stress responses, receive strong circadian input...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226198/olanzapine-induced-early-cardiovascular-effects-are-mediated-by-the-biological-clock-and-prevented-by-melatonin
#15
Francisco Romo-Nava, Frederik N Buijs, Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Gloria Benítez-King, MariCarmen Basualdo, Mercedes Perusquía, Gerhard Heinze, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic side-effects contributing to premature mortality in patients. While mechanisms mediating these cardiometabolic side-effects remain poorly understood, three independent studies recently demonstrated that melatonin was protective against cardiometabolic risk in SGA-treated patients. Since one of the main target areas of circulating melatonin in the brain is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), we hypothesized that the SCN is involved in SGA-induced early cardiovascular effects in Wistar rats...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224417/neuroanatomical-circuitry-between-kidney-and-rostral-elements-of-brain-a-virally-mediated-transsynaptic-tracing-study-in-mice
#16
Ye-Ting Zhou, Zhi-Gang He, Tao-Tao Liu, Mao-Hui Feng, Ding-Yu Zhang, Hong-Bing Xiang
The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control renal function is not well understood. We identified specific neural populations of rostral elements of brain regions that project multisynaptically to the kidneys in 3-6 days after injecting a retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 into kidney of 13 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice. PRV-614 infected neurons were detected in a number of mesencephalic (e.g. central amygdala nucleus), telencephalic regions and motor cortex...
February 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223912/diet-induced-obesity-and-circadian-disruption-of-feeding-behavior
#17
REVIEW
Aurea Blancas-Velazquez, Jorge Mendoza, Alexandra N Garcia, Susanne E la Fleur
Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218891/blood-transcriptome-based-biomarkers-for-human-circadian-phase
#18
Emma E Laing, Carla S Möller-Levet, Norman Poh, Nayantara Santhi, Simon N Archer, Derk-Jan Dijk
Diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders both require assessment of circadian phase of the brain's circadian pacemaker. The gold-standard univariate method is based on collection of a 24-hr time series of plasma melatonin, a suprachiasmatic nucleus-driven pineal hormone. We developed and validated a multivariate whole-blood mRNA-based predictor of melatonin phase which requires few samples. Transcriptome data were collected under normal, sleep-deprivation and abnormal sleep-timing conditions to assess robustness of the predictor...
February 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217893/geniculohypothalamic-gabaergic-projections-gate-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-responses-to-retinal-input
#19
Lydia Hanna, Lauren Walmsley, Abigail Pienaar, Michael Howarth, Timothy M Brown
Sensory input to the master mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is vital in allowing animals to optimise physiology and behaviour alongside daily changes in the environment. Retinal inputs encoding changes in external illumination provide the principle source of such information. The SCN also receives input from other retinorecipient brain regions, primarily via the geniculohypothalamic tract (GHT), but the contribution of these indirect projections to circadian photoreception are currently poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198033/synchrony-between-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-driven-signals-and-the-light-dark-cycle-is-essential-for-liver-homeostasis
#20
Ruud M Buijs, Natali Guerrero Vargas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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