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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682811/upregulation-of-hypothalamic-arginine-vasopressin-by-peripherally-administered-furosemide-in-transgenic-rats-expressing-arginine-vasopressin-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#1
Hiromichi Ueno, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Haruki Nishimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Tetsu Miyamoto, Ryota Serino, Masahito Tamura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yutaka Otsuji, Yoichi Ueta
Furosemide, which is used worldwide as a diuretic agent, inhibits sodium reabsorption in the Henle's loop, resulting in diuresis and natriuresis. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The synthesis AVP in the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN physiologically regulated by plasma osmolality and blood volume and contributed water homeostasis by increasing water reabsorption in the collecting duct...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682634/commentary-mir-132-212-modulates-seasonal-adaptation-and-dendritic-morphology-of-the-central-circadian-clock
#2
Lucia Mendoza-Viveros, Karl Obrietan, Hai-Ying M Cheng
Daily rhythms in behavior and physiology are coordinated by an endogenous clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. This central pacemaker also relays day length information to allow for seasonal adaptation, a process for which melatonin signaling is essential. How the SCN encodes day length is not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by directing target mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. The miR-132/212 cluster plays a key role in facilitating neuronal plasticity, and miR-132 has been shown previously to modulate resetting of the central clock...
2018: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681926/photoperiod-induced-neuroplasticity-in-the-circadian-system
#3
REVIEW
Alessandra Porcu, Malini Riddle, Davide Dulcis, David K Welsh
Seasonal changes in light exposure have profound effects on behavioral and physiological functions in many species, including effects on mood and cognitive function in humans. The mammalian brain's master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), transmits information about external light conditions to other brain regions, including some implicated in mood and cognition. Although the detailed mechanisms are not yet known, the SCN undergoes highly plastic changes at the cellular and network levels under different light conditions...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671710/functionally-complete-excision-of-conditional-alleles-in-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-by-vgat-ires-cre
#4
David R Weaver, Vincent van der Vinne, E Lela Giannaris, Thomas J Vajtay, Kristopher L Holloway, Christelle Anaclet
Mice with targeted gene disruption have provided important information about the molecular mechanisms of circadian clock function. A full understanding of the roles of circadian-relevant genes requires manipulation of their expression in a tissue-specific manner, ideally including manipulation with high efficiency within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). To date, conditional manipulation of genes within the SCN has been difficult. In a previously developed mouse line, Cre recombinase was inserted into the vesicular GABA transporter (Vgat) locus...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644786/potential-role-of-the-pancreatic-hormone-insulin-in-resetting-human-peripheral-clocks
#5
Jun Kajimoto, Ritsuko Matsumura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Mammalian circadian rhythms are phase-adjusted and amplified by external cues such as light and food. While the light input pathway via the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced circadian resetting remains undefined, particularly in humans. Animal studies have indicated that insulin, a pancreatic hormone that is secreted rapidly in response to feeding, is an input factor for a few peripheral clocks, such as liver and adipose tissue. In this study, using plucked and cultured hair follicles as a representative human peripheral clock, we examined the effect of insulin on circadian characteristics of clock gene expression...
April 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626648/abnormal-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-and-per-gene-expression-in-six-month-old-triple-transgenic-mice-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Meina Wu, Fang Zhou, Xiuli Cao, Junting Yang, Yu Bai, Xudong Yan, Jimin Cao, Jinshun Qi
Circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD) is one of the iconic manifestations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease tightly associated with age, but the characteristics and gender difference of CRD occurred in AD have not been well demonstrated. Using 6-month-old triple transgenic AD mouse model (3xTg-AD) without obvious brain pathological changes, we demonstrated the gender difference of CRD at this age. We further showed abnormal Per gene expression in the central clock suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the 3xTg-AD mice...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614021/non-metastatic-cutaneous-melanoma-induces-chronodisruption-in-central-and-peripheral-circadian-clocks
#7
Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Maria Nathália Moraes, Keila Karoline Magalhães-Marques, Gabriela Sarti Kinker, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
The biological clock has received increasing interest due to its key role in regulating body homeostasis in a time-dependent manner. Cancer development and progression has been linked to a disrupted molecular clock; however, in melanoma, the role of the biological clock is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of the tumor on its micro- (TME) and macro-environments (TMaE) in a non-metastatic melanoma model. C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with murine B16-F10 melanoma cells and 2 weeks later the animals were euthanized every 6 h during 24 h...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610316/long-term-in-vivo-recording-of-circadian-rhythms-in-brains-of-freely-moving-mice
#8
Long Mei, Yanyan Fan, Xiaohua Lv, David K Welsh, Cheng Zhan, Eric Erquan Zhang
Endogenous circadian clocks control 24-h physiological and behavioral rhythms in mammals. Here, we report a real-time in vivo fluorescence recording system that enables long-term monitoring of circadian rhythms in the brains of freely moving mice. With a designed reporter of circadian clock gene expression, we tracked robust Cry1 transcription reporter rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of WT, Cry1 -/- , and Cry2 -/- mice in LD (12 h light, 12 h dark) and DD (constant darkness) conditions and verified that signals remained stable for over 6 mo...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593785/circadian-regulation-of-hippocampal-dependent-memory-circuits-synapses-and-molecular-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Kaitlin H Snider, Kyle A Sullivan, Karl Obrietan
Circadian modulation of learning and memory efficiency is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, occurring in organisms ranging from invertebrates to higher mammalian species, including humans. While the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master mammalian pacemaker, recent evidence suggests that forebrain regions, including the hippocampus, exhibit oscillatory capacity. This finding, as well as work on the cellular signaling events that underlie learning and memory, has opened promising new avenues of investigation into the precise cellular, molecular, and circuit-based mechanisms by which clock timing impacts plasticity and cognition...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577327/gamma-and-infra-slow-oscillations-shape-neuronal-firing-in-the-rat-subcortical-visual-system
#10
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Jagoda Stanislawa Jeczmien-Lazur, Tomasz Blasiak, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
Physiological function of rhythmic firing in the neuronal networks of sensory systems has been linked with information coding. Also, neuronal oscillations in different frequency bands often change as a signature of brain state or sensory processing. Infra-slow oscillation (ISO) in the neuronal firing dependent on the retinal network has been previously described in the structures of the subcortical visual system. In this paper, we show for the first time that firing of ISO neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus is also characterised by a harmonic discharge pattern, i...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560549/role-of-gaba-in-the-regulation-of-the-central-circadian-clock-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#11
REVIEW
Daisuke Ono, Ken-Ichi Honma, Yuchio Yanagawa, Akihiro Yamanaka, Sato Honma
In mammals, circadian rhythms, such as sleep/wake cycles, are regulated by the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN consists of thousands of individual neurons, which exhibit circadian rhythms. They synchronize with each other and produce robust and stable oscillations. Although several neurotransmitters are expressed in the SCN, almost all SCN neurons are γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic. Several studies have attempted to understand the roles of GABA in the SCN; however, precise mechanisms of the action of GABA in the SCN are still unclear...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560509/light-rescues-circadian-behavior-and-brain-dopamine-abnormalities-in-diurnal-rodents-exposed-to-a-winter-like-photoperiod
#12
Jacob Itzhacki, Daniel Clesse, Yannick Goumon, Eus J Van Someren, Jorge Mendoza
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), beyond mood changes, is characterized by alterations in daily rhythms of behavior and physiology. The pathophysiological conditions of SAD involve changes in day length and its first-line treatment is bright light therapy. Animal models using nocturnal rodents have been studied to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms of depression, but might be ill suited to study the therapeutic effects of light in SAD since they exhibit light-aversive responses. Here Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent, was used to determine behavioral, molecular and brain dopamine changes in response to exposure to a winter-like photoperiod consisting of a light-dark cycle with 8 h of light, under diminished light intensity, and 16 h of darkness...
March 20, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559915/circadian-atp-release-in-organotypic-cultures-of-the-rat-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-is-dependent-on-p2x7-and-p2y-receptors
#13
Irena Svobodova, Anirban Bhattaracharya, Milorad Ivetic, Zdenka Bendova, Hana Zemkova
The circadian rhythms in physiological and behavioral functions are driven by a pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The rhythms continue in constant darkness and depend on cell-cell communication between neurons and glia. The SCN astrocytes generate also a circadian rhythm in extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) accumulation, but molecular mechanisms that regulate ATP release are poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP is released via the plasma membrane purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) and P2Y receptors (P2YRs) which have been previously shown to be expressed in the SCN tissue at transcriptional level...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555746/mtor-signaling-in-vip-neurons-regulates-circadian-clock-synchrony-and-olfaction
#14
Dong Liu, Adam Stowie, Nuria de Zavalia, Tanya Leise, Salil Saurav Pathak, Lester R Drewes, Alec J Davidson, Shimon Amir, Nahum Sonenberg, Ruifeng Cao
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling controls cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism in dividing cells. Less is known regarding its function in postmitotic neurons in the adult brain. Here we created a conditional mTOR knockout mouse model to address this question. Using the Cre-LoxP system, the mTOR gene was specifically knocked out in cells expressing Vip (vasoactive intestinal peptide), which represent a major population of interneurons widely distributed in the neocortex, suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), olfactory bulb (OB), and other brain regions...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547750/alterations-in-glutamatergic-signaling-contribute-to-the-decline-of-circadian-photoentrainment-in-aged-mice
#15
Stephany M Biello, David R Bonsall, Lynsey A Atkinson, Penny C Molyneux, Mary E Harrington, Gurprit S Lall
Robust physiological circadian rhythms form an integral part of well-being. The aging process has been found to negatively impact systems that drive circadian physiology, typically manifesting as symptoms associated with abnormal/disrupted sleeping patterns. Here, we investigated the age-related decline in light-driven circadian entrainment in male C57BL/6J mice. We compared light-driven resetting of circadian behavioral activity in young (1-2 months) and old (14-18 months) mice and explored alterations in the glutamatergic pathway at the level of the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540683/the-choroid-plexus-is-an-important-circadian-clock-component
#16
Jihwan Myung, Christoph Schmal, Sungho Hong, Yoshiaki Tsukizawa, Pia Rose, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Erik De Schutter, Hanspeter Herzel, Grigory Bordyugov, Toru Takumi
Mammalian circadian clocks have a hierarchical organization, governed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. The brain itself contains multiple loci that maintain autonomous circadian rhythmicity, but the contribution of the non-SCN clocks to this hierarchy remains unclear. We examine circadian oscillations of clock gene expression in various brain loci and discovered that in mouse, robust, higher amplitude, relatively faster oscillations occur in the choroid plexus (CP) compared to the SCN...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540298/behavioral-and-scn-neurophysiological-disruption-in-the-tg-swdi-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Jodi R Paul, Hira A Munir, Thomas van Groen, Karen L Gamble
Disruption of circadian rhythms is commonly reported in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurons in the primary circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), exhibit daily rhythms in spontaneous neuronal activity which are important for maintaining circadian behavioral rhythms. Disruption of SCN neuronal activity has been reported in animal models of other neurodegenerative disorders; however, the effect of AD on SCN neurophysiology remains unknown. In this study we examined circadian behavioral and electrophysiological changes in a mouse model of AD, using male mice from the Tg-SwDI line which expresses human amyloid precursor protein with the familial Swedish (K670N/M671L), Dutch (E693Q), Iowa (D694N) mutations...
March 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535612/neural-damage-in-experimental-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense-infection-hypothalamic-peptidergic-sleep-and-wake-regulatory-neurons
#18
Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520059/mice-with-reduced-dat-levels-recreate-seasonal-induced-switching-between-states-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
Jared W Young, Zackary A Cope, Benedetto Romoli, Esther Schrurs, Aniek Joosen, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Richard F Sharp, Davide Dulcis
Developing novel therapeutics for bipolar disorder (BD) has been hampered by limited mechanistic knowledge how sufferers switch between mania and depression-how the same brain can switch between extreme states-described as the "holy grail" of BD research. Strong evidence implicates seasonally-induced switching between states, with mania associated with summer-onset, depression with winter-onset. Determining mechanisms of and sensitivity to such switching is required. C57BL/6J and dopamine transporter hypomorphic (DAT-HY 50% expression) mice performed a battery of psychiatry-relevant behavioral tasks following 2-week housing in chambers under seasonally relevant photoperiod extremes...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516445/immunohistochemical-mapping-of-neurotensin-in-the-alpaca-diencephalon
#20
Manuel Lisardo Sánchez, Arturo Mangas, Luis Enrique Medina, Luis Angel Aguilar, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, José Angel Narváez, Rafael Coveñas
INTRODUCTION: The distribution of the immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers containing neurotensin in the alpaca diencephalon was determined by an immunohistochemical technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in four male alpacas that lived at sea level. Brains of deeply anesthetized animals were fixed by perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde. Cryostat sections were stained by a standard IHC method. RESULTS: Cell bodies containing neurotensin were observed in the zona incerta and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2018: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
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