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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468458/axon-initial-segment-structural-plasticity-is-involved-in-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-rat-model-of-cortical-dysplasia
#1
Zong-Wei Yue, Ye-Lan Wang, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Cortical dysplasia is the most common etiology of intractable epilepsy. Both excitability changes in cortical neurons and neural network reconstitution play a role in cortical dysplasia epileptogenesis. Recent research shows that the axon initial segment, a subcompartment of the neuron important to the shaping of action potentials, adjusts its position in response to changes in input, which contributes to neuronal excitability and local circuit balance. It is unknown whether axon initial segment plasticity occurs in neurons involved in seizure susceptibility in cortical dysplasia...
February 21, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467615/decoding-english-alphabet-letters-using-eeg-phase-information
#2
YiYan Wang, Pingxiao Wang, Yuguo Yu
Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG) contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465899/electroclinical-and-prognostic-characteristics-of-epilepsy-patients-with-photosensitivity
#3
Hülya Olgun Yazar, Günay Gül, Tamer Yazar, Fulya Eren, Demet-Yandım Kuscu, Dursun Kirbas
Background and purpose: Epilepsy with photosensitivity (PSE) is one of the reflex epilepsy types with pathophysiology still unexplained. In our study we aimed to evaluate the clinical, electroencephalogram (EEG) and prognosis of patients with PSE diagnosis. Methods: A total of 44 patients with PSE diagnosis according to international classification were included in this retrospective and cross-sectional study. The age, gender, syndrome, clinical and EEG characteristics of patients, and treatment response were investigated...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464704/epilepsy-with-auditory-features-long-term-outcome-and-predictors-of-terminal-remission
#4
Francesca Bisulli, Veronica Menghi, Luca Vignatelli, Laura Licchetta, Corrado Zenesini, Carlotta Stipa, Francesca Morigi, Matteo Gizzi, Patrizia Avoni, Federica Provini, Barbara Mostacci, Giuseppe d'Orsi, Tommaso Pippucci, Lorenzo Muccioli, Paolo Tinuper
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term outcome of epilepsy with auditory features (EAF) and to identify the clinical predictors for prognosis. METHODS: The study involved consecutive EAF patients with a follow-up of ≥5 years. Terminal remission (TR) was defined as a period of ≥5 consecutive years of seizure freedom at the last follow-up. We used Kaplan-Meier estimate to calculate the cumulative time-dependent probability of conversion to TR. Log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to study the association between time to TR and prognostic determinants...
February 21, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464412/speech-intelligibility-predicted-from-neural-entrainment-of-the-speech-envelope
#5
Jonas Vanthornhout, Lien Decruy, Jan Wouters, Jonathan Z Simon, Tom Francart
Speech intelligibility is currently measured by scoring how well a person can identify a speech signal. The results of such behavioral measures reflect neural processing of the speech signal, but are also influenced by language processing, motivation, and memory. Very often, electrophysiological measures of hearing give insight in the neural processing of sound. However, in most methods, non-speech stimuli are used, making it hard to relate the results to behavioral measures of speech intelligibility. The use of natural running speech as a stimulus in electrophysiological measures of hearing is a paradigm shift which allows to bridge the gap between behavioral and electrophysiological measures...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462975/evaluating-the-influence-of-chromatic-and-luminance-stimuli-on-ssveps-from-behind-the-ears-and-occipital-areas
#6
Alan Floriano, Pablo F Diez, Teodiano Freire Bastos-Filho
This work presents a study of chromatic and luminance stimuli in low-, medium-, and high-frequency stimulation to evoke steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) in the behind-the-ears area. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured on occipital (Oz) and left and right temporal (TP9 and TP10) areas. The SSVEP was evaluated in terms of amplitude, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and detection accuracy using power spectral density analysis (PSDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and temporally local multivariate synchronization index (TMSI) methods...
February 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457644/trajectories-of-frontal-brain-activity-and-socio-emotional-development-in-children
#7
Kristie L Poole, Diane L Santesso, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
Asymmetric frontal brain activity is thought to reflect individual differences in approach- and avoidance-oriented motivation and emotional experience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the authors investigated whether trajectories of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in children (Mage = 6.39 years at enrollment) predicted subjective, behavioral, and autonomic indices of socioemotional processes. Resting frontal EEG activity was measured across four separate repeated assessments spanning approximately 2 years...
February 19, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454641/beyond-the-frn-broadening-the-time-course-of-eeg-and-erp-components-implicated-in-reward-processing
#8
REVIEW
James E Glazer, Nicholas J Kelley, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Vijay A Mittal, Robin Nusslock
Most reward-related electroencephalogram (EEG) studies focus exclusively on the feedback-related negativity (FRN, also known as feedback negativity or FN, medial-frontal negativity or MFN, feedback error-related negativity or fERN, and reward positivity or RewP). This component is usually measured approximately 200-300 ms post-feedback at a single electrode in the frontal-central area (e.g., Fz or FCz). The present review argues that this singular focus on the FRN fails to leverage EEG's greatest strength, its temporal resolution, by underutilizing the rich variety of event-related potential (ERP) and EEG time-frequency components encompassing the wider temporal heterogeneity of reward processing...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453169/randomized-eeg-functional-brain-networks-in-major-depressive-disorders-with-greater-resilience-and-lower-rich-club-coefficient
#9
Minghui Zhang, Haiyan Zhou, Liqing Liu, Lei Feng, Jie Yang, Gang Wang, Ning Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have shown that the functional electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) networks in those with major depressive disorders (MDDs) have an abnormal random topology. In this study we aimed to further investigate the characteristics of the randomized functional brain networks in MDDs by examining resting-state scalp-EEG data. METHODS: Based on the methods of independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretic analysis, the abnormalities in the power spectral density (PSD) functional brain networks were compared between 13 MDDs and 13 matched healthy controls (HCs)...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451071/childhood-emotional-invalidation-and-right-hemispheric-mu-suppression-during-a-pain-empathy-task-an-eeg-study
#10
Kirsten Arnett, Alexandra Roach, Meredith Elzy, Laura Jelsone-Swain
Empathy is a critical aspect of social behavior, and impairment in empathic processing is linked to hindered social interactions and several disorders. Despite much interest in this topic, our understanding of the developmental and neural involvement for empathic processing is limited. Recent evidence suggests the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) may play a role in this behavior, and that mu rhythm suppression found over the sensorimotor cortices may be a proxy for the MNS. Therefore, we aimed to measure mu rhythm oscillations in response to empathic processing during observation of painful action-based situations using electroencephalogram (EEG)...
February 16, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449649/predicting-sex-from-brain-rhythms-with-deep-learning
#11
Michel J A M van Putten, Sebastian Olbrich, Martijn Arns
We have excellent skills to extract sex from visual assessment of human faces, but assessing sex from human brain rhythms seems impossible. Using deep convolutional neural networks, with unique potential to find subtle differences in apparent similar patterns, we explore if brain rhythms from either sex contain sex specific information. Here we show, in a ground truth scenario, that a deep neural net can predict sex from scalp electroencephalograms with an accuracy of >80% (p < 10 -5 ), revealing that brain rhythms are sex specific...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444533/relationship-between-blood-glucose-fluctuation-and-brain-damage-in-the-hypoglycemia-neonates
#12
Yuan Lv, Ling-Ling Zhu, Gui-Hua Shu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between blood glucose fluctuation and brain damage in the hypoglycemia neonates. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study including all neonates hospitalized due to hypoglycemia from September 2013 to August 2016 was performed. All the 58 hypoglycemia infants were divided into two groups-the brain-damaged group and the nonbrain-damaged group, according to head magnetic resonance imaging and/or amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443785/can-endotracheal-intubation-be-the-first-step-in-management-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-a-case-report
#13
Saad Warraich, Abbas Ali, Atif Nizami, Moiz Bakhiet
RATIONALE: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is prolonged seizure activity without motor manifestations. Clinically, there are certain examination findings, in addition to elements of history, that help differentiate it from other encephalopathies. When diagnosing NCSE, the physician faces significant difficulties due to inconsistent clinical presentation and somewhat nonspecific electroencephalogram (EEG) criteria. PATIENT CONCERNS: To highlight the problems faced when dealing with such a patient, a case of a 29-year-old male who presented with an altered state of consciousness is put forth for the reader...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442363/increased-neuronal-synchrony-prepares-mesial-temporal-networks-for-seizures-of-neocortical-origin
#14
Amrit Misra, Xianda Long, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Karen A Moxon
OBJECTIVE: To gain understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying regional seizure spread, the impact of regional synchrony between seizure focus and downstream networks on neuronal activity during the transition to seizure in those downstream networks was assessed. METHODS: Seven patients undergoing diagnostic intracranial electroencephalographic studies for surgical resection of epileptogenic regions were implanted with subdural clinical electrodes into the cortex (site of seizure initiation) and mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures (downstream) as well as microwires into MTL...
February 14, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441456/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-kap-study-of-pediatricians-on-infantile-spasms
#15
Vamsi Krishna Vaddi, Jitendra Kumar Sahu, Sumeet R Dhawan, Renu Suthar, Naveen Sankhyan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Infantile Spasms among pediatricians. METHODS: A survey was carried out among pediatricians serving in Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. The survey was done by Survey Monkey Software through emails by using a structured questionnaire between July 2016 and December 2017. RESULTS: A total of 236 pediatricians responded to the survey. Most of the respondents (95...
February 14, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438803/sleep-state-dependence-of-optogenetically-evoked-responses-in-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-positive-cells-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#16
Dmitry Gerashchenko, Michelle A Schmidt, Mark R Zielinski, Michele E Moore, Jonathan P Wisor
Slow-wave activity (SWA) in the electroencephalogram during slow-wave sleep (SWS) varies as a function of sleep-wake history. A putative sleep-active population of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing interneurons in the cerebral cortex, defined as such by the expression of Fos in animals euthanized after protracted deep sleep, may be a local regulator of SWA. We investigated whether electrophysiological responses to activation of these cells are consistent with their role of a local regulator of SWA...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435090/investigating-neural-efficiency-of-elite-karate-athletes-during-a-mental-arithmetic-task-using-eeg
#17
Adil Deniz Duru, Moataz Assem
Neural efficiency is proposed as one of the neural mechanisms underlying elite athletic performances. Previous sports studies examined neural efficiency using tasks that involve motor functions. In this study we investigate the extent of neural efficiency beyond motor tasks by using a mental subtraction task. A group of elite karate athletes are compared to a matched group of non-athletes. Electroencephalogram is used to measure cognitive dynamics during resting and increased mental workload periods. Mainly posterior alpha band power of the karate players was found to be higher than control subjects under both tasks...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434539/sleep-and-sedative-states-induced-by-targeting-the-histamine-and-noradrenergic-systems
#18
REVIEW
Xiao Yu, Nicholas P Franks, William Wisden
Sedatives target just a handful of receptors and ion channels. But we have no satisfying explanation for how activating these receptors produces sedation. In particular, do sedatives act at restricted brain locations and circuitries or more widely? Two prominent sedative drugs in clinical use are zolpidem, a GABA A receptor positive allosteric modulator, and dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist. By targeting hypothalamic neuromodulatory systems both drugs induce a sleep-like state, but in different ways: zolpidem primarily reduces the latency to NREM sleep, and is a controlled substance taken by many people to help them sleep; DEX produces prominent slow wave activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) resembling stage 2 NREM sleep, but with complications of hypothermia and lowered blood pressure-it is used for long term sedation in hospital intensive care units-under DEX-induced sedation patients are arousable and responsive, and this drug reduces the risk of delirium...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433117/-non-cirrhotic-portal-systemic-encephalopathy-with-total-aphasia-and-right-hemiplegia-following-transient-right-hemiparesis-a-case-report
#19
Hirofumi Goto, Tatsuya Tanaka, Natsuki Suetsugi, Yoshihito Kubotsu, Nobuaki Momozaki, Toshihiko Mizuta
A 77-year-old right-handed woman without any liver diseases was admitted to our hospital because of transient right hemiparesis. She developed total aphasia with right hemiplegia on the third hospital day. We suspected that she had a cerebral infarction following a transient ischemic attack. However, brain diffusion-weighted images revealed no abnormal-intensity lesions, and cerebral angiography showed patent arteries. Additionally, her serum ammonia level was elevated. Theta waves without triphasic waves were detected by electroencephalogram...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432111/toward-drowsiness-detection-using-non-hair-bearing-eeg-based-brain-computer-interfaces
#20
Chun-Shu Wei, Yu-Te Wang, Chin-Teng Lin, Tzyy-Ping Jung
Drowsy driving is one of the major causes that lead to fatal accidents worldwide. For the past two decades, many studies have explored the feasibility and practicality of drowsiness detection using electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. However, on the pathway of transitioning laboratory-oriented BCI into real-world environments, one chief challenge is to obtain high-quality EEG with convenience and long-term wearing comfort. Recently, acquiring EEG from non-hair-bearing (NHB) scalp areas has been proposed as an alternative solution to avoid many of the technical limitations resulted from the interference of hair between electrodes and the skin...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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