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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035230/a-deep-machine-learning-method-for-classifying-cyclic-time-series-of-biological-signals-using-time-growing-neural-network
#1
Arash Gharehbaghi, Maria Linden
This paper presents a novel method for learning the cyclic contents of stochastic time series: the deep time-growing neural network (DTGNN). The DTGNN combines supervised and unsupervised methods in different levels of learning for an enhanced performance. It is employed by a multiscale learning structure to classify cyclic time series (CTS), in which the dynamic contents of the time series are preserved in an efficient manner. This paper suggests a systematic procedure for finding the design parameter of the classification method for a one-versus-multiple class application...
October 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034902/a-robust-statistical-framework-for-instantaneous-electroencephalogram-phase-and-frequency-estimation-and-analysis
#2
Reza Sameni, Esmaeil Seraj
The instantaneous phase (IP) and instantaneous frequency (IF) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) are considered as notable complements for the EEG spectrum. The calculation of these parameters commonly includes narrow-band filtering, followed by the calculation of the signal's analytical form. The calculation of the IP and IF is highly susceptible to the filter parameters and background noise level, especially in low analytical signal amplitudes. The objective of this study is to propose a robust statistical framework for EEG IP/IF estimation and analysis...
October 16, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034646/index-of-theta-alpha-ratio-of-the-quantitative-electroencephalogram-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#3
Golshan Fahimi, Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei, Elnaz Fahimi, Hamid Rajebi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder in human beings associated with cognitive, behavioral and motor impairments. The main symptom of AD is dementia, which causes difficulties in carrying out daily practices. Brain waves are altered in people with AD. Relative indices of brain waves can be beneficial in the diagnosis of AD. In this case-control study, 50 patients with AD and 50 matched healthy individuals were enrolled in case and control groups respectively. With recording and analyzing of brain waves with the utilization of quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG), index of theta/alpha ratio was assessed in both groups...
August 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034451/cortical-light-scattering-during-interictal-epileptic-spikes-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-in-children-a-fast-optical-signal-and-electroencephalographic-study
#4
Mana Manoochehri, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Emilie Bourel-Ponchel, Fabrice Wallois
OBJECTIVE: Interictal epileptic spikes (IES) represent a signature of the transient synchronous and excessive discharge of a large ensemble of cortical heterogeneous neurons. Epilepsy cannot be reduced to a hypersynchronous activation of neurons whose functioning is impaired, resulting on electroencephalogram (EEG) in epileptic seizures or IES. The complex pathophysiological mechanisms require a global approach to the interactions between neural synaptic and nonsynaptic, vascular, and metabolic systems...
October 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033807/walking-through-architectural-spaces-the-impact-of-interior-forms-on-human-brain-dynamics
#5
Maryam Banaei, Javad Hatami, Abbas Yazdanfar, Klaus Gramann
Neuroarchitecture uses neuroscientific tools to better understand architectural design and its impact on human perception and subjective experience. The form or shape of the built environment is fundamental to architectural design, but not many studies have shown the impact of different forms on the inhabitants' emotions. This study investigated the neurophysiological correlates of different interior forms on the perceivers' affective state and the accompanying brain activity. To understand the impact of naturalistic three-dimensional (3D) architectural forms, it is essential to perceive forms from different perspectives...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033335/alpha-band-activity-reveals-spontaneous-representations-of-spatial-position-in-visual-working-memory
#6
Joshua J Foster, Emma M Bsales, Russell J Jaffe, Edward Awh
An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced when memoranda appear at the same location where they were encoded [3-5], and accessing non-spatial information elicits shifts of spatial attention to the original position of the stimulus [6, 7]...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031830/action-observation-facilitates-motor-cortical-activity-in-patients-with-stroke-and-hemiplegia
#7
Marina Tani, Yumie Ono, Miku Matsubara, Satoko Ohmatsu, Yoshihiro Yukawa, Masashi Kohno, Takanori Tominaga
Motor imagery (MI) is a mental practice that reproduces the visual- and/or kinesthetic-modality brain activations accompanying movement. It is a useful rehabilitation technique as the affected motor cortex can be stimulated in patients with stroke and hemiplegia. However, most patients with stroke have difficulty with MI owing to advanced age and/or higher-cognitive dysfunction, thus impairing their ability to internally simulate the action. We therefore investigated whether action observation (AO), an alternative form of motor stimulation that works via the mirror-neuron system, could facilitate motor cortical activity in such patients...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031745/sleep-architecture-in-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#8
Jaidaa F Mekky, Sonia M Elbhrawy, Mohamed F Boraey, Horeya M Omar
AIM: The aim is to analyze the sleep architecture using polysomnography (PSG) in patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME): (newly diagnosed and those on valproate drug) attending epilepsy clinic at Alexandria University Hospitals. METHODS: This study involved 20 patients with JME on valproate (age: 22.40 ± 5.80 years; M:F = 6:14), 20 newly diagnosed patients (age: 18.55 ± 6.0 years; M:F = 6:14), and 20 matched healthy controls (age: 22.10 ± 5...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031545/social-modeling-of-eating-mediated-by-mirror-neuron-activity-a-causal-model-moderated-by-frontal-asymmetry-and-bmi
#9
Laura McGeown, Ron Davis
The social modeling of eating effect refers to the consistently demonstrated phenomenon that individuals tend to match their quantity of food intake to their eating companion. The current study sought to explore whether activity within the mirror neuron system (MNS) mediates the social modeling of eating effect as a function of EEG frontal asymmetry and body mass index (BMI). Under the guise of rating empathy, 93 female undergraduates viewed a female video confederate "incidentally" consume either a low or high intake of chips while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded...
October 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031194/the-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-epilepsy-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-nordland-county-norway
#10
Espen Benjaminsen, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Karl B Alstadhaug
PURPOSE: The prevalence of epilepsy among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been found higher than in the general population. Although cortical pathology may be involved, the causal link between MS and epileptic seizures is still unclear. We aimed to identify and describe the patients with active epilepsy in a previously described population based MS-cohort. METHODS: Medical records of all patients with MS in Nordland County on January 1, 2010, were scrutinizing for evidence of comorbid seizures and epilepsy...
October 6, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028805/what-drives-slow-wave-activity-during-early-non-rem-sleep-learning-during-prior-wake-or-effort
#11
Ziyang Li, Aarohi B Sheth, Bhavin R Sheth
What is the function of sleep in humans? One claim is that sleep consolidates learning. Slow wave activity (SWA), i.e. slow oscillations of frequency < 4 Hz, has been observed in electroencephalograms (EEG) during sleep; it increases with prior wakefulness and decreases with sleep. Studies have claimed that increase in SWA in specific regions of the sleeping brain is correlated with overnight improved performance, i.e. overnight consolidation, on a demanding motor learning task. We wondered if SWA change during sleep is attributable to overnight consolidation or to metabolic demand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028500/neural-network-topology-in-adhd-evidence-for-maturational-delay-and-default-mode-network-alterations
#12
T W P Janssen, A Hillebrand, A Gouw, K Geladé, R Van Mourik, A Maras, J Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with widespread brain abnormalities in white and grey matter, affecting not only local, but global functional networks as well. In this study, we explored these functional networks using source-reconstructed electroencephalography in ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. We expected evidence for maturational delay, with underlying abnormalities in the default mode network. METHODS: Electroencephalograms were recorded in ADHD (n=42) and TD (n=43) during rest, and functional connectivity (phase lag index) and graph (minimum spanning tree) parameters were derived...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024302/reduced-electroencephalogram-responses-to-standard-and-target-auditory-stimuli-in-bipolar-disorder-and-the-impact-of-psychotic-features-analysis-of-event-related-potentials-spectral-power-and-inter-trial-coherence
#13
Nancy B Lundin, Lisa A Bartolomeo, Brian F O'Donnell, William P Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with reductions in the P3b event-related potential (ERP) response to target auditory stimuli, which suggests deficits in context updating. Previous studies have typically examined these responses in the temporal domain, which may not capture alterations in specific frequencies of phase-locked or induced electrophysiological activity. Therefore, the present study examined early and late ERPs in temporal and frequency domains in a bipolar sample with and without current psychotic features...
October 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020372/tolcapone-enhanced-neurocognition-in-healthy-adults-neural-basis-and-predictors
#14
Savita G Bhakta, Gregory A Light, Jo A Talledo, Bryan Balvaneda, Erica Hughes, Alexis Alvarez, Brinda K Rana, Jared W Young, Neal R Swerdlow
Background: Failure of pro-cognitive drug trials in schizophrenia (SZ) may reflect the clinical heterogeneity of SZ, underscoring the need to identify biomarkers of treatment sensitivity. We used an experimental medicine design to test the pro-cognitive effects of a putative pro-cognitive agent, tolcapone using an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based cognitive control task in healthy subjects. Methods: Healthy men and women (N=27; ages 18-35 yrs), homozygous for either the Met/Met or Val/Val rs4680 genotype, received placebo and tolcapone 200 mg orally across 2 test days separated by 1 week in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, within-subject design...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018638/automatic-sleep-monitoring-using-ear-eeg
#15
Takashi Nakamura, Valentin Goverdovsky, Mary J Morrell, Danilo P Mandic
The monitoring of sleep patterns without patient's inconvenience or involvement of a medical specialist is a clinical question of significant importance. To this end, we propose an automatic sleep stage monitoring system based on an affordable, unobtrusive, discreet, and long-term wearable in-ear sensor for recording the electroencephalogram (ear-EEG). The selected features for sleep pattern classification from a single ear-EEG channel include the spectral edge frequency and multi-scale fuzzy entropy, a structural complexity feature...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018634/detection-of-paroxysms-in-long-term-single-channel-eeg-monitoring-of-patients-with-typical-absence-seizures
#16
Troels W Kjaer, Helge B D Sorensen, Sabine Groenborg, Charlotte R Pedersen, Jonas Duun-Henriksen
Absence seizures are associated with generalized 2.5-5 Hz spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Rarely are patients, parents, or physicians aware of the duration or incidence of seizures. Six patients were monitored with a portable EEG-device over four times 24 h to evaluate how easily outpatients are monitored and how well an automatic seizure detection algorithm can identify the absences. Based on patient-specific modeling, we achieved a sensitivity of 98.4% with only 0.23 false detections per hour...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017647/-early-evaluation-of-patients-with-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalogram-on-brain-function-prognosis-after-cardiopulmonary-cerebral-resuscitation
#17
Xin Dong, Huanzhang Shao, Yanan Yang, Lijie Qin, Zhisong Guo, Huifeng Zhang, Xueyan Zhang, Bingyu Qin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristic of early evaluation of patients with amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) on brain function prognosis after cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of patients with adult CPCR in intensive care unit (ICU) of Henan Provincial People's Hospital from March 2016 to March 2017 was performed. The length of stay, recovery time, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, aEEG and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) within 72 hours were recorded...
October 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994124/disclosing-hidden-information-in-the-electroencephalogram-using-advanced-signal-analytical-techniques
#18
Annika Lüttjohann
Recording of brain activity with the aid of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be regarded as one of the gold standards in the diagnosis of epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent periods of hypersynchronous activity, visible as sharp spike- or polyspike-wave complexes in the recording traces of the EEG. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985231/inferring-oscillatory-modulation-in-neural-spike-trains
#19
Kensuke Arai, Robert E Kass
Oscillations are observed at various frequency bands in continuous-valued neural recordings like the electroencephalogram (EEG) and local field potential (LFP) in bulk brain matter, and analysis of spike-field coherence reveals that spiking of single neurons often occurs at certain phases of the global oscillation. Oscillatory modulation has been examined in relation to continuous-valued oscillatory signals, and independently from the spike train alone, but behavior or stimulus triggered firing-rate modulation, spiking sparseness, presence of slow modulation not locked to stimuli and irregular oscillations with large variability in oscillatory periods, present challenges to searching for temporal structures present in the spike train...
October 6, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984777/anti-ma2-associated-limbic-encephalitis-with-coexisting-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-in-a-patient-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-case-report
#20
Weina Ju, Baochang Qi, Xu Wang, Yu Yang
RATIONALE: We report the rare case of a 74-year-old man with anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (PNS), and review and analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient presented with a 5-month history of muscle weakness, progressive body aches, and weakness and numbness in both lower extremities. Before his hospitalization, he had experienced cognitive function decline; ptosis, inward gaze, and vertical gaze palsy in the right eye; and occasional visual hallucinations...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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