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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232190/the-effects-of-curcuma-longa-and-curcumin-on-reproductive-systems
#1
R Mohebbati, A Anaeigoudari, M R Khazdair
OBJECTIVE: Curcuma longa (C. longa) was used in some countries such as China and India for various medicinal purposes. Curcumin, the active component of C. longa, is commonly used as a coloring agent in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. C. longa and curcumin have been known to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagen, and anti-carcinogenic agents. Th e attempt of the present review was to give an effort on a detailed literature survey concentrated on the protective effects of C...
October 26, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230909/histatins-wound-healing-and-cell-migration
#2
Pedro Torres, Martín Castro, Montserrat Reyes, Vicente A Torres
Wounds in the oral mucosa heal faster and more efficiently than those in the skin, although the mechanisms underlying these differences are not completely clear. In the last 10 years, a group of salivary peptides, the histatins, have gained attention on behalf of their ability to improve several phases of the wound healing process. In addition to their roles as antimicrobial agents and in enamel maintenance, histatins elicit other biological effects, namely by promoting the migration of different cell types contained in the oral mucosa and in non-oral tissues...
December 12, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230688/therapeutic-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-on-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Pusoon Chun
Increasing evidence has shown the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the development and progression of various renal diseases, highlighting its inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent kidney diseases. Accordingly, numerous studies have shown that HDAC inhibitors protect the kidneys from various diseases through their effects on multiple pathways, such as suppression of transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways, augmentation of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230179/transplacental-nutrient-transport-mechanisms-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-rodent-models-and-humans
#4
REVIEW
Elke Winterhager, Alexandra Gellhaus
Although the causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been intensively investigated, important information is still lacking about the role of the placenta as a link from adverse maternal environment to adverse pregnancy outcomes of IUGR and preterm birth. IUGR is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases later in life. Determination of the most important pathways that regulate transplacental transport systems is necessary for identifying marker genes as diagnostic tools and for developing drugs that target the molecular pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230166/the-therapeutic-potential-of-monocyte-macrophage-manipulation-in-the-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-painful-neuropathy
#5
REVIEW
Karli Montague, Marzia Malcangio
In cancer treatments a dose-limiting side-effect of chemotherapeutic agents is the development of neuropathic pain, which is poorly managed by clinically available drugs at present. Chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy (CIPN) is a major cause of premature cessation of treatment and so a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the development of novel, more effective therapies, is greatly needed. In some cases, only a weak correlation between chemotherapy-induced pain and neuronal damage is observed both clinically and preclinically...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230097/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-regulation-on-usp2-s-alternative-splicing-and-the-significance-of-its-products
#6
REVIEW
Han-Qing Zhu, Feng-Hou Gao
Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) has a regulatory function in cell growth or death and is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. USP2 gene can generate 7 splicing variants through alternative splicing, and 5 variants respectively as USP2-201, USP2-202, USP2-204, USP2-205, USP2-206 can encode proteins. The influence of circadian rhythm, nutrition and androgen on specific signaling molecules or cytokines can regulate the alternative splicing of USP2. Specifically, PKC activator, IL-1β, TNF-α, PDGF-BB, TGF-β1 are all regulatory factors for USP2's alternative splicing...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229887/multiple-oncogenic-roles-of-nuclear-beta-catenin
#7
Raju Kumar, Murali D Bashyam
β-Catenin is essential for embryonic development and required for cell renewal/regeneration in adult life. Cellular β-catenin exists in three different pools: membranous, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In this review, we focus on functions of the nuclear pool in relation to tumorigenesis. In the nucleus, beta-catenin functions as both activator and repressor of transcription in a context-dependent manner. It promotes cell proliferation and supports tumour growth by enhancing angiogenesis. β-Catenin-mediated signalling regulates cancer cell metabolism and is associated with tumour-initiating cells in multiple malignancies...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229539/bisphenol-a-bpa-and-cell-signaling-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Masaharu Murata, Jeong-Hun Kang
Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) is an endocrine disruptor that is used as a material for the production of phenol resins, polyacrylates, polyesters, epoxy resins, and polycarbonate plastics. Endocrine-disruptive or toxic effects of BPA on living organisms through a number of cell signaling pathways have been reported. BPA induces carcinogenesis, reproductive toxicity, abnormal inflammatory or immune response, and developmental disorders of brain or nervous system through various cell signaling pathways...
December 8, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229532/inflammation-and-renal-fibrosis-recent-developments-on-key-signaling-molecules-as-potential-therapeutic-targets
#9
REVIEW
Wenshan Lv, George W Booz, Yangang Wang, Fan Fan, Richard J Roman
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue. At the histological level, renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of progressive kidney disease irrespective of the initial injury. Considerable evidence now indicates that renal inflammation plays a central role in the initiation and progression of CKD. Some of the inflammatory signaling molecules involved in CKD include: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229182/exploiting-metabolic-vulnerabilities-of-cancer-with-precision-and-accuracy
#10
REVIEW
Adam J Wolpaw, Chi V Dang
Links between oncogenic drivers and cancer cell metabolism have emerged over the past several decades, indicating that constitutive oncogenic growth signaling can render cancers susceptible to metabolic interventions. While significant progress has been achieved in the identification of metabolic vulnerabilities of cancer cells, the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the dynamic nature of organismal circadian metabolism challenge the precision of targeting cancer metabolism. Here current progress in the areas of cancer metabolism and TME metabolism is reviewed, highlighting how cancer metabolism can be accurately and precisely targeted...
December 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228789/a-mechanistic-review-on-medicinal-plants-used-for-diabetes-mellitus-in-traditional-persian-medicine
#11
Fatemeh Farzaei, Mohammad Reza Morovati, Fatemeh Farjadmand, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional medicines worldwide suggest a wide range of natural remedies for the prevention and treatment of chronic disorders, including diabetes mellitus. This mechanistic review aims to highlight the significance of medicinal plants traditionally used as dietary supplements in Persian medicine in adjunct with restricted conventional drugs for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Mounting evidence suggests that these natural agents perform their protective and therapeutic effect on diabetes mellitus via several cellular mechanisms, including regeneration of pancreatic β cell, limitation of glycogen degradation and gluconeogenesis, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, antiapoptosis, antioxidative stress, as well as modulation of intracellular signaling transduction pathways...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228762/phosphodiesterase-type-5-and-cancers-progress-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Ines Barone, Cinzia Giordano, Daniela Bonofiglio, Sebastiano Andò, Stefania Catalano
Cancers are an extraordinarily heterogeneous collection of diseases with distinct genetic profiles and biological features that directly influence response patterns to various treatment strategies as well as clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, our growing understanding of cancer cell biology and tumor progression is gradually leading towards rational, tailored medical treatments designed to destroy cancer cells by exploiting the unique cellular pathways that distinguish them from normal healthy counterparts. Recently, inhibition of the activity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is emerging as a promising approach to restore normal intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling, and thereby resulting into the activation of various downstream molecules to inhibit proliferation, motility and invasion of certain cancer cells...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228644/exosomes-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-prostate-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Jun Pan, Meng Ding, Kai Xu, Chunhua Yang, Li-Jun Mao
Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the cargos of exosomes such as miRNAs, lncRNAs and proteins...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228642/soluble-pd-1-and-pd-l1-predictive-and-prognostic-significance-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Xinxin Zhu, Jinghe Lang
The membrane-bound molecules programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 (PD-1/PD-L1) belong to the immune checkpoint pathway. PD-1 pathway downregulates effector T cells in immune response, thereby causing immune suppression. Recent studies have revealed that membrane-bound PD-1 and PD-L1 also have soluble forms. These soluble forms increase the complexity and diversity of the composition and function of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway. However, the exact roles of these molecules remain unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to elucidate the biological significance of soluble PD-1/PD-L1 in human cancers and evaluate whether they are potential diagnostic, therapeutic, or prognostic biomarkers...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228434/functional-roles-of-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-disorders-a-systematic-review
#15
H-J Sun, X-X Zhu, W-W Cai, L-Y Qiu
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of people death associated with high mortality and disability. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles containing protein, lipid, transcription factors, mRNAs, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and nucleic acid contents, which are critical players of intercellular communication via long-range signals or cell-to-cell contact. The emergence of exosomes provides favorable strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Exosomes-based molecular mechanisms are important for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular events...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228156/feedback-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#16
Xiaohua Yan, Xiangyang Xiong, Ye-Guang Chen
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multi-functional polypeptide that plays a critical role in regulating a broad range of cellular functions and physiological processes. Signaling is initiated when TGF-β ligands bind to two types of cell membrane receptors with intrinsic Ser/Thr kinase activity and transmitted by the intracellular Smad proteins, which act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in the nucleus. Although it is relatively simple and straight-forward, this TGF-β/Smad pathway is regulated by various feedback loops at different levels, including the ligand, the receptor, Smads and transcription, and is thus fine-tuned in terms of signaling robustness, duration, specificity, and plasticity...
December 8, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226950/syndecans-in-chronic-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-diseases-pathological-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#17
REVIEW
Solomon A Agere, Eugene Y Kim, Nahid Akhtar, Salahuddin Ahmed
Syndecans (SDCs) are a family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) glycoproteins ubiquitously expressed on the cell surfaces and extracellular matrix of all mammalian tissues. There are four mammalian syndecans, SDC-1 thorough 4, which play a critical role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis through independent and growth factor mediated signaling. An altered expression of SDCs is often observed in autoimmune disorders, cancer, HIV infection, and many other pathological conditions...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226477/cell-therapy-for-critical-limb-ischemia-an-integrated-review-of-pre-clinical-and-clinical-studies
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Qadura, Daniella C Terenzi, Subodh Verma, Mohammed Al-Omran, David A Hess
Critical limb ischemia (CLI), the most severe form of peripheral artery disease, is characterized by pain at rest and non-healing ulcers in the lower extremities. For patients with CLI, where the extent of atherosclerotic artery occlusion is too severe for surgical bypass or percutaneous interventions, limb amputation remains the only treatment option. Thus, cell-based therapy to restore perfusion and promote wound healing in patients with CLI is under intense investigation. Despite promising preclinical studies in animal models, transplantation of bone marrow (BM) derived cell populations in patients with CLI has shown limited benefit preventing limb amputation...
December 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226075/prediction-of-target-genes-for-mir-140-5p-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-using-bioinformatics-methods
#19
Fangwei Li, Wenhua Shi, Yixin Wan, Qingting Wang, Wei Feng, Xin Yan, Jian Wang, Limin Chai, Qianqian Zhang, Manxiang Li
The expression of microRNA (miR)-140-5p is known to be reduced in both pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients and monocrotaline-induced PAH models in rat. Identification of target genes for miR-140-5p with bioinformatics analysis may reveal new pathways and connections in PAH. This study aimed to explore downstream target genes and relevant signaling pathways regulated by miR-140-5p to provide theoretical evidences for further researches on role of miR-140-5p in PAH. Multiple downstream target genes and upstream transcription factors (TFs) of miR-140-5p were predicted in the analysis...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225710/novel-developments-in-the-pathogenesis-and-diagnosis-of-extranodal-marginal-zone-lymphoma
#20
REVIEW
Max I Schreuder, Michiel van den Brand, Konnie M Hebeda, Patricia J T A Groenen, J Han van Krieken, Blanca Scheijen
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL), mostly represented by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, also referred to as MALT lymphoma, is a clinically heterogeneous entity within the group of low-grade B cell lymphomas that arises in a wide range of different extranodal sites, including the stomach, lung, ocular adnexa, and skin. It represents the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Western world, and the median age of occurrence is around 60 years. One characteristic aspect in a subset of EMZL detectable in about 25% of the cases is the presence of specific chromosomal translocations involving the genes MALT1 and BCL10, which lead to activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway...
December 2017: Journal of Hematopathology
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