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cell signalling review

Ke Liu, Bing Lin Zhang, Wen Ying Zhang, Yun Bo Zhang, Xiao Hai Tian
Non-invasive microsensing technique has been widely used in evaluating the adaptive responses of plant cells and tissues to abiotic stresses. One of the representative techniques is the microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE), which allows concurrent quantification of net fluxes with high spatial and temporal resolution. More importantly, this technique permits simultaneous recording of ion concentration and mobility with less intervention to the in situ physiological status. With the availability of such advanced technique, the last three decades have seen a significant progress towards the role of ion signaling in a variety of abiotic stresses including salinity, extreme temperature, osmotic stress, hypoxia, and drought...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ranjay Chakraborty, Lisa A Ostrin, Debora L Nickla, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue, Richard A Stone
PURPOSE: Despite extensive research, mechanisms regulating postnatal eye growth and those responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. With the marked recent increases in myopia prevalence, robust and biologically-based clinical therapies to normalize refractive development in childhood are needed. Here, we review classic and contemporary literature about how circadian biology might provide clues to develop a framework to improve the understanding of myopia etiology, and possibly lead to rational approaches to ameliorate refractive errors developing in children...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Jaimin S Shah, Reem Sabouni, Kamaria C Cayton Vaught, Carter M Owen, David F Albertini, James H Segars
PURPOSE: Mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis share a dynamic connection that is critical for gamete development. For maintenance of quiescence or follicular activation, follicles must respond to soluble signals (growth factors and hormones) and physical stresses, including mechanical forces and osmotic shifts. Likewise, mechanical processes are involved in cortical tension and cell polarity in oocytes. Our objective was to examine the contribution and influence of biomechanical signaling in female mammalian gametogenesis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Luca Fagnocchi, Vittoria Poli, Alessio Zippo
Cancer heterogeneity arises during tumor progression as a consequence of genetic insults, environmental cues, and reversible changes in the epigenetic state, favoring tumor cell plasticity. The role of enhancer reprogramming is emerging as a relevant field in cancer biology as it supports adaptation of cancer cells to those environmental changes encountered during tumor progression and metastasis seeding. In this review, we describe the cancer-related alterations that drive oncogenic enhancer activity, leading to dysregulated transcriptional programs...
April 24, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Heven Sze, Salil Chanroj
Plants remodel their cells through the dynamic endomembrane system. Intracellular pH is important for membrane trafficking, but the determinants of pH homeostasis are poorly defined in plants. Electrogenic proton (H+) pumps depend on counter-ion fluxes to establish transmembrane pH gradients at the plasma membrane and endomembranes. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated acidification of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is crucial for secretion and membrane recycling. Pump and counter-ion fluxes are unlikely to fine-tune pH; rather, alkali cation/H+ antiporters, which can alter pH and/or cation homeostasis locally and transiently, are prime candidates...
April 24, 2018: Plant Physiology
Chloe J Peach, Viviane W Mignone, Maria Augusta Arruda, Diana C Alcobia, Stephen J Hill, Laura E Kilpatrick, Jeanette Woolard
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a key mediator of angiogenesis, signalling via the class IV tyrosine kinase receptor family of VEGF Receptors (VEGFRs). Although VEGF-A ligands bind to both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, they primarily signal via VEGFR2 leading to endothelial cell proliferation, survival, migration and vascular permeability. Distinct VEGF-A isoforms result from alternative splicing of the Vegfa gene at exon 8, resulting in VEGFxxx a or VEGFxxx b isoforms. Alternative splicing events at exons 5⁻7, in addition to recently identified posttranslational read-through events, produce VEGF-A isoforms that differ in their bioavailability and interaction with the co-receptor Neuropilin-1...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Galo Garcia, David R Raleigh, Jeremy F Reiter
Cilia, organelles that move to execute functions like fertilization and signal to execute functions like photoreception and embryonic patterning, are composed of a core of nine-fold doublet microtubules overlain by a membrane. Distinct types of cilia display distinct membrane morphologies, ranging from simple domed cylinders to the highly ornate invaginations and membrane disks of photoreceptor outer segments. Critical for the ability of cilia to signal, both the protein and the lipid compositions of ciliary membranes are different from those of other cellular membranes...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Huan Pang, Yang Zang, Jing Fan, Ju Yun, Huai Guo Xue
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) analysis is a new detection technique developed in recent years, which has the advantages of high sensitivity, low background signal and desirable selectivity, obtaining the great progress in sensing applications. Semiconductor nanomaterials with excellent photoelectric activity have played a vital role in the construction of PEC sensing platform. Thus, this review introduces the recent advances of semiconductor nanomaterials-based PEC analysis, and describes the typical PEC sensing strategies...
April 24, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Meegun Hong, Dae Hee Han, Jitaek Hong, Dong Joon Kim, Ki Tae Suk
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders including steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Despite intensive research in the last two decades, there is currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for treating ALD. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut-liver axis and gut microbiome on the pathogenesis of ALD. Alcohol may induce intestinal dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability, which in turn result in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and translocation of microbial products from the gut to the liver (bacterial translocation)...
April 23, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Chrysi Kanellopoulou, Stefan A Muljo
How a single genome can give rise to many different transcriptomes and thus all the different cell lineages in the human body is a fundamental question in biology. While signaling pathways, transcription factors, and chromatin architecture, to name a few determinants, have been established to play critical roles, recently, there is a growing appreciation of the roles of non-coding RNAs and RNA-binding proteins in controlling cell fates posttranscriptionally. Thus, it is vital that these emerging players are also integrated into models of gene regulatory networks that underlie programs of cellular differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tanapat Palaga, Wipawee Wongchana, Patipark Kueanjinda
Macrophages play both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting roles depending on the microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are often associated with poor prognosis in most, but not all cancer. Understanding how macrophages become TAMs and how TAMs interact with tumor cells and shape the outcome of cancer is one of the key areas of interest in cancer therapy research. Notch signaling is involved in macrophage activation and its effector functions. Notch signaling has been indicated to play roles in the regulation of macrophage activation in pro-inflammatory and wound-healing processes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Anita A Wasik, Sanna Lehtonen
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes and a common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. DKD manifests as an increased urinary protein excretion (albuminuria). Multiple studies have shown that insulin resistance correlates with the development of albuminuria in non-diabetic and diabetic patients. There is also accumulating evidence that glomerular epithelial cells or podocytes are insulin sensitive and that insulin signaling in podocytes is essential for maintaining normal kidney function...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
John B Allard, Cunming Duan
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are key growth-promoting peptides that act as both endocrine hormones and autocrine/paracrine growth factors. In the bloodstream and in local tissues, most IGF molecules are bound by one of the members of the IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) family, of which six distinct types exist. These proteins bind to IGF with an equal or greater affinity than the IGF1 receptor and are thus in a key position to regulate IGF signaling globally and locally. Binding to an IGFBP increases the half-life of IGF in the circulation and blocks its potential binding to the insulin receptor...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Kenya Kamimura, Ryosuke Inoue, Takuro Nagoya, Norihiro Sakai, Ryo Goto, Masayoshi Ko, Yusuke Niwa, Shuji Terai
To date, various signal transducers, cytokines, growth factors, and hormones have been reported to play an important role in homeostasis of various organs. Various cells and organs are involved in the hepatic regeneration process, which proceeds as a result of the coordination of many factors. While these factors are well known to be involved in the liver regeneration after the liver injury, however, as the details of such mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated, the practical applicability of hepatic regeneration based on the action of these and cytokines growth factors is still unclear...
April 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Damri Odeya, Agam Galila, Toker Lilah
Upregulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma (BCL)2 expression following lithium treatment is seemingly well established and has been related to the neuroprotective property of the drug. However, while demonstrated by some (but not all) studies based on low-throughput techniques (e.g. qPCR) this effect is not reflected in high-throughput studies, such as microarrays and RNAseq. This manuscript presents a systematic review of currently available reports of lithium's effect on BCL2 expression. To our surprise, we found that the majority of the literature does not support the effect of lithium on BCL2 transcript or protein levels...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Catarina Nabais, Sónia Gomes Pereira, Mónica Bettencourt-Dias
Centrioles and basal bodies (CBBs) organize centrosomes and cilia within eukaryotic cells. These organelles are composed of microtubules and hundreds of proteins performing multiple functions such as signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, and cell motility. The CBB is present in all branches of the eukaryotic tree of life and, despite its ultrastructural and protein conservation, there is diversity in its function, occurrence (i.e., presence/absence), and modes of biogenesis across species. In this review, we provide an overview of the multiple pathways through which CBBs are formed in nature, with a special focus on the less studied, noncanonical ways...
April 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Kai P Hoefig, Vigo Heissmeyer
T helper cell subsets orchestrate context- and pathogen-specific responses of the immune system. They mostly do so by secreting specific cytokines that attract or induce activation and differentiation of other immune or nonimmune cells. The differentiation of T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, T follicular helper, Th17, and induced regulatory T cell subsets from naive T cells depends on the activation of intracellular signal transduction cascades. These cascades originate from T cell receptor and costimulatory receptor engagement and also receive critical input from cytokine receptors that sample the cytokine milieu within secondary lymphoid organs...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
A Crombé, F Le Loarer, N Alberti, X Buy, E Stoeckle, S Cousin, M Toulmonde, J M Coindre, A Italiano, M Kind
OBJECTIVES: Myxoid liposarcoma (M-LPS) is the second most frequent subtype of liposarcoma. Foci of fat on MRI are strongly suggestive of this diagnosis. The aims of this study are to (i) assess the prevalence of perfectly homogeneous M-LPS-mimicking cyst and characterize their associated clinical and pathological features and to (ii) identify helpful clues to prevent misdiagnosis when encountered with a cyst-like lesion in soft tissue parts. METHODS: MR images from 32 consecutive pathologically proven M-LPS and round cell liposarcomas (RC-LPS) were retrospectively reviewed independently by two radiologists at our institution...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Alan H Zhang, Gagan Sharma, Eivind A B Undheim, Xinying Jia, Mehdi Mobli
Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) are specialised ion channels that have a voltage dependent mode of action, where ion conduction, or gating, is controlled by a voltage-sensing mechanism. VGICs are critical for electrical signalling and are therefore important pharmacological targets. Among these, voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV s) have attracted particular attention as potential analgesic targets. NaV s, however, comprise several structurally similar subtypes with unique localisations and distinct functions, ranging from amplification of action potentials in nociception (e...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Frank Birklein, Alaa Ibrahim, Tanja Schlereth, Wade S Kingery
Distal limb fracture is the most common cause of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), thus the rodent tibia fracture model (TFM) was developed to study CRPS pathogenesis. This comprehensive review summarizes the published TFM research and compares these experimental results with the CRPS literature. The TFM generated spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors, inflammatory symptoms (edema, warmth) and trophic changes (skin thickening, osteoporosis) resembling symptoms in early CRPS. Neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines, and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been linked to pain behaviors, inflammation, and trophic changes in the TFM model and proliferating keratinocytes were identified as the primary source of cutaneous cytokines and NGF...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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