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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092803/ox40-structure-and-function-what-questions-remain
#1
REVIEW
Jane Willoughby, Jordana Griffiths, Ivo Tews, Mark S Cragg
OX40 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, reported nearly 30 years ago as a cell surface antigen expressed on activated T cells. Since its discovery, it has been validated as a bone fide costimulatory molecule for T cells and member of the TNF receptor family. However, many questions still remain relating to its function on different T cell sub-sets and with recent interest in its utility as a target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy, there is a growing need to gain a better understanding of its biology...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092771/plant-peroxisomes-a-nitro-oxidative-cocktail
#2
REVIEW
Francisco J Corpas, Juan B Barroso, José M Palma, Marta Rodriguez-Ruiz
Although peroxisomes are very simple organelles, research on different species has provided us with an understanding of their importance in terms of cell viability. In addition to the significant role played by plant peroxisomes in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), data gathered over the last two decades show that these organelles are an endogenous source of nitric oxide (NO) and related molecules called reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Molecules such as NO and H2O2 act as retrograde signals among the different cellular compartments, thus facilitating integral cellular adaptation to physiological and environmental changes...
January 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090315/chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis-disease-associated-with-inborn-errors-of-il-17-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Satoshi Okada, Anne Puel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Masao Kobayashi
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans. CMC is an infectious phenotype in patients with inherited or acquired T-cell deficiency. Patients with autosomal-dominant (AD) hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), AD signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function, autosomal-recessive (AR) deficiencies in interleukin (IL)-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1), IL-12p40, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) or retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γT (RORγT) or AR autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) develop CMC as a major infectious phenotype that is categorized as Syndromic CMC...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090287/transcription-factors-transcriptional-coregulators-and-epigenetic-modulation-in-the-control-of-pulmonary-vascular-cell-phenotype-therapeutic-implications-for-pulmonary-hypertension-2015-grover-conference-series
#4
REVIEW
Soni S Pullamsetti, Frédéric Perros, Prakash Chelladurai, Jason Yuan, Kurt Stenmark
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex and multifactorial disease involving genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Numerous stimuli and pathological conditions facilitate severe vascular remodeling in PH by activation of a complex cascade of signaling pathways involving vascular cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Multiple signaling cascades modulate the activity of certain sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) and coregulators that are critical for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression that facilitates PH-associated vascular cell phenotypes, as demonstrated by several studies summarized in this review...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090285/pulmonary-vascular-and-ventricular-dysfunction-in-the-susceptible-patient-2015-grover-conference-series
#5
REVIEW
Bradley A Maron, Roberto F Machado, Larissa Shimoda
Pulmonary blood vessel structure and tone are maintained by a complex interplay between endogenous vasoactive factors and oxygen-sensing intermediaries. Under physiological conditions, these signaling networks function as an adaptive interface between the pulmonary circulation and environmental or acquired perturbations to preserve oxygenation and maintain systemic delivery of oxygen-rich hemoglobin. Chronic exposure to hypoxia, however, triggers a range of pathogenetic mechanisms that include hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-dependent upregulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin 1 in pulmonary endothelial cells...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089907/adenosine-and-preeclampsia
#6
REVIEW
Rocío Salsoso, Marcelo Farías, Jaime Gutiérrez, Fabián Pardo, Delia I Chiarello, Fernando Toledo, Andrea Leiva, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside with pleiotropic effects in different physiological processes including circulation, renal blood flow, immune function, or glucose homeostasis. Changes in adenosine membrane transporters, adenosine receptors, and corresponding intracellular signalling network associate with development of pathologies of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. Since the proposed mechanisms of preeclampsia development include adenosine-dependent biological effects, adenosine membrane transporters and receptors, and the associated signalling mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089726/hne-and-cholesterol-oxidation-products-in-colorectal-inflammation-and-carcinogenesis
#7
Daniela Rossin, Simone Calfapietra, Barbara Sottero, Giuseppe Poli, Fiorella Biasi
Consistent experimental data suggest the importance of inflammation-associated oxidative stress in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease with chronic intestinal inflammation is now considered a precancerous condition. Oxidative stress is an essential feature of inflammation. Activation of redox-sensitive pro-inflammatory cell signals and inflammatory mediators concur to establish a pro-tumoral environment. In this frame, lipid oxidation products, namely 4-hydroxynonenal and oxysterols, can be produced in big quantity so as to be able to exert their function as inducers of cell signaling pathways of proliferation and survival...
January 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089422/low-magnitude-mechanical-signals-and-the-spine-a-review-of-current-and-future-applications
#8
REVIEW
Martin H Pham, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang, Frank L Acosta
Animal and human studies demonstrate the anabolic properties of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) in its ability to improve bone formation by enhancing the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their subsequent commitment down an osteoblastic lineage. Response to mechanical strains as low as 10μɛ have been seen, illustrating the sensitivity of mechanosensory cells to mechanotransduction pathways. Applications to the spine include treatment of osteoporosis in preparation for instrumented fusion, fracture reduction in spinal cord injury patients to slow bone mineral density loss, and bone tissue engineering and enhancement of bone-implant osseointegration for pseudarthrosis and hardware failure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089416/strategies-to-overcome-therapeutic-resistance-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Peter J Siska, Kathryn E Beckermann, W Kimryn Rathmell, Scott M Haake
BACKGROUND: Renal cell cancer (RCC) is a prevalent and lethal disease. At time of diagnosis, most patients present with localized disease. For these patients, the standard of care includes nephrectomy with close monitoring thereafter. While many patients will be cured, 5-year recurrence rates range from 30% to 60%. Furthermore, nearly one-third of patients present with metastatic disease at time of diagnosis. Metastatic disease is rarely curable and typically lethal. Cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation alone are incapable of controlling the disease...
January 11, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089267/probes-for-monitoring-regulated-exocytosis
#10
REVIEW
Wen-Hong Li
Regulated secretion is a fundamental cellular process that serves diverse functions in neurobiology, endocrinology, immunology, and numerous other aspects of animal physiology. In response to environmental or biological cues, cells release contents of secretory granules into an extracellular medium to communicate with or impact neighboring or distant cells through paracrine or endocrine signaling. To investigate mechanisms governing stimulus-secretion coupling, to better understand how cells maintain or regulate their secretory activity, and to characterize secretion defects in human diseases, probes for tracking various exocytotic events at the cellular or sub-cellular level have been developed over the years...
January 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089266/trpc1-orai1-and-stim1-in-soce-friends-in-tight-spaces
#11
REVIEW
Indu S Ambudkar, Lorena Brito de Souza, Hwei Ling Ong
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a ubiquitous Ca(2+) entry pathway that is activated in response to depletion of ER-Ca(2+) stores and critically controls the regulation of physiological functions in miscellaneous cell types. The transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) is the first member of the TRPC channel subfamily to be identified as a molecular component of SOCE. While TRPC1 has been shown to contribute to SOCE and regulate various functions in many cells, none of the reported TRPC1-mediated currents resembled ICRAC, the highly Ca(2+)-selective store-dependent current first identified in lymphocytes and mast cells...
December 30, 2016: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088914/diverse-functions-and-mechanisms-of-pericytes-in-ischemic-stroke
#12
Shuai Yang, Huijuan Jin, Yiyi Zhu, Yan Wan, Lingqiang Zhu, Bo Hu
Pericytes are mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of microvessels. Because of such a unique position in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurovascular unit (NVU), they receive, orchestrate and process signals from their neighboring cells to generate diverse neurovascular functions, including regulation of capillary hemodynamics, BBB permeability, clearance of toxic metabolites, angiogenesis, neuroinflammation and stem cell activity. During the different stages of ischemic stroke, pericytes play different roles: 1) On the hyperacute phase of stroke, pericytes constriction and death may be a cause of the no-reflow phenomenon in brain capillaries; 2) During the acute phase, pericytes detach from microvessels and participate in inflammatory-immunological response, resulting in the BBB damage and brain edema...
January 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088622/reactive-oxygen-species-and-cancer-paradox-to-promote-or-to-suppress
#13
REVIEW
Sehamuddin Galadari, Anees Rahman, Siraj Pallichankandy, Faisal Thayyullathil
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a group of highly reactive ions and molecules, are increasingly being appreciated as powerful signaling molecules involved in the regulation of a variety of biological processes. Indeed, their role is continuously being delineated in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. For instance, cancer cells are shown to have increased ROS levels in comparison to their normal counterparts. This is partly due to an enhanced metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells. The escalated ROS generation in cancer cells contributes to the biochemical and molecular changes necessary for the tumor initiation, promotion and progression, as well as, tumor resistance to chemotherapy...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088486/pharmacological-targeting-of-adenosine-receptor-signaling
#14
REVIEW
Maria Peleli, Bertil Fredholm, Luis Sobrevia, Mattias Carlström
Adenosine receptor signaling plays important roles in normal physiology, but is also known to modulate the development or progression of several different diseases. The design of new, efficient, and safe pharmacological approaches to target the adenosine system may have considerable therapeutic potential, but is also associated with many challenges. This review summarizes the main challenges of adenosine receptor targeted treatment including tolerance, disease stage, cell type-specific effects, caffeine intake, adenosine level assessment and receptor distribution in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088465/neuronal-effects-of-thyroid-hormone-metabolites
#15
Eva K Wirth, Franziska Meyer
Thyroid hormones and their metabolites are active regulators of gene expression, mitochondrial function and various other physiological actions in different organs and tissues. These actions are mediated by a spatio-temporal regulation of thyroid hormones and metabolites within a target cell. This spatio-temporal resolution as well as classical and non-classical actions of thyroid hormones and metabolites is accomplished and regulated on multiple levels as uptake, local activation and signaling of thyroid hormones...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088463/stress-induced-egf-receptor-signaling-through-stat3-and-tumor-progression-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#16
Nikolas Balanis, Cathleen R Carlin
Elevated STAT3 activity is a hallmark of many epithelial carcinomas particularly in breast cancers where it is known to contribute to tumor progression through a variety of context-dependent biological responses. However, its role downstream of stress-exposed EGF receptors (EGFR) that are transactivated in endosomes independent of exogenous ligand has not been studied. This review discusses how STAT3 signaling induced by therapeutic stress in EGFR-driven triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) might override normal epithelial homeostatic mechanisms and provide a survival advantage for tumor cells before they leave the primary tumor and spread to distant sites...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088449/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-ageing-and-senescent-decline
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Princz, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Posttranslational protein modifications are playing crucial roles in essential cellular mechanisms. SUMOylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of specific target proteins by the attachment of a small ubiquitin-like protein. Although the mechanism of conjugation of SUMO to proteins is analogous to ubiquitination, it requires its own, specific set of enzymes. The consequences of SUMOylation are widely variable, depending on the physiological state of the cell and the attached SUMO isoform. Accumulating recent findings have revealed a prominent role of SUMOylation in molecular pathways that govern senescence and ageing...
January 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088365/stem-cells-for-als-an-overview-of-possible-therapeutic-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Joanna Czarzasta, Aleksandra Habich, Tomasz Siwek, Adam Czapliński, Wojciech Maksymowicz, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an unusual, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder leading to the loss of motor neurons. After diagnosis, the average lifespan ranges from 3 to 5 years, and death usually results from respiratory failure. Although the pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear, multiple factors are thought to contribute to the progression of ALS, such as network interactions between genes, environmental exposure, impaired molecular pathways and many others. The neuroprotective properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the paracrine signaling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been examined in multiple pre-clinical trials of ALS with promising results...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088093/miniaturized-and-integrated-whole-cell-living-bacterial-sensors-in-field-applicable-autonomous-devices
#19
REVIEW
Clémence Roggo, Jan Roelof van der Meer
Live-cell based bioreporters are increasingly being deployed in microstructures, which facilitates their handling and permits the development of instruments that could perform autonomous environmental monitoring. Here we review recent developments of on-chip integration of live-cell bioreporters, the coupling of their reporter signal to the devices, their longer term preservation and multi-analyte capacity. We show examples of instruments that have attempted to fully integrate bioreporters as their sensing elements...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087881/role-of-stim2-in-cell-function-and-physiopathology
#20
Alejandro Berna-Erro, Isaac Jardin, Gines M Salido, Juan A Rosado
An endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein that regulates cytosolic and ER free-Ca(2+) concentration by induction of store-operated calcium entry. That is the original definition of STIM2 and its function. While its activity strongly depends on the amount of calcium stored in the ER, its function goes further to intracellular signalling and gene expression. Initially undercovered by the prominent function of STIM1, STIM2 became to be vital in mice, gradually emerging as an important player in the nervous system, and cooperating with STIM1 in the immune system...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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