keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

cell signalling review

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458123/osteocyte-regulation-of-bone-and-blood
#1
REVIEW
Paola Divieti Pajevic, Daniela S Krause
This past decade has witnessed a renewed interest in the function and biology of matrix-embedded osteocytes and these cells have emerged as master regulators of bone homeostasis. They secrete two very powerful proteins, sclerostin, a Wnt-inhibitor, that suppresses bone formation, and receptor-activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), a cytokine required for osteoclastogenesis. Neutralizing antibodies against these proteins are currently used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recent studies however, ascribed yet another function to osteocytes: the control of hematopoiesis and the HSPC niche, directly and through secreted factors...
February 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458108/the-relaxin-receptor-as-a-therapeutic-target-perspectives-from-evolution-and-drug-targeting
#2
REVIEW
Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Daniel J Scott, M Akhter Hossain, Sara V Good, Sergey Yegorov, Jan Bogerd, Paul Gooley
The peptide relaxin was first identified as an important circulating hormone during pregnancy over 90 years ago. Research over many years defined the numerous biological roles that relaxin plays throughout pregnancy in many mammalian species. These important biological actions have led to the testing of relaxin as a therapeutic agent for a number of indications. The discovery of the relaxin receptor, RXFP1, in 2002 facilitated the better understanding of the cellular targets of relaxin, its mechanism of action and enabled the development of relaxin mimetics and screening for small molecule agonists...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458107/wnt-receptor-signalling-in-lung-physiology-and-pathology
#3
REVIEW
Wioletta Skronska-Wasek, Reinoud Gosens, Melanie Königshoff, Hoeke Abele Baarsma
The WNT signalling cascades have emerged as critical regulators of a wide variety of biological aspects involved in lung development as well as in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the adult lung. WNTs (secreted glycoproteins) interact with various transmembrane receptors and co-receptors to activate signalling pathways that regulate transcriptional as well as non-transcriptional responses within cells. In physiological conditions, the majority of WNT receptors and co-receptors can be detected in the adult lung...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457860/controlling-the-outgrowth-and-functions-of-neural-stem-cells-the-effect-of-surface-topography
#4
REVIEW
Chara Simitzi, Kanelina Karali, Anthi Ranella, Emmanuel Stratakis
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing cells that generate the major cell types of the central nervous system, namely neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, during embryonic development and in the adult brain. NSCs reside in a complex niche where they are exposed to a plethora of signals, including both soluble and physical signals such as compressive and shear stresses, but also discontinuities and differences in morphology of the extracellular environment, termed as topographical features. Different approaches that incorporate artificial micro- and nano-scale surface topographical features have been developed aiming to recapitulate the in vivo NSC niche discontinuities and features, particularly for in vitro studies...
February 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457552/reciprocal-regulation-of-yap-taz-by-the-hippo-pathway-and-the-small-gtpase-pathway
#5
Ju-Won Jang, Min-Kyu Kim, Suk-Chul Bae
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) (YAP/TAZ) are transcriptional coactivators that regulate genes involved in proliferation and transformation by interacting with DNA-binding transcription factors. Remarkably, YAP/TAZ are essential for cancer initiation or growth of most solid tumors. Their activation induces cancer stem cell attributes, proliferation, and metastasis. The oncogenic activity of YAP/TAZ is inhibited by the Hippo cascade, an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is governed by two kinases, mammalian Ste20-like kinases 1/2 (MST1/2) and Large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (LATS1/2), corresponding to Drosophila's Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), respectively...
February 18, 2018: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457143/reciprocity-in-ros-and-autophagic-signaling
#6
Daric J Wible, Shawn B Bratton
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules that mediate oxidative stress and cellular damage when improperly regulated. ROS and oxidative stress can activate autophagy, which generally serves as a cytoprotective negative feedback mechanism to selectively eliminate sources of ROS, including mitochondria and peroxisomes. In this review we describe the mechanisms by which ROS directly and indirectly activate autophagy, and conversely, how selective autophagy suppresses the formation of ROS...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456630/roles-of-eph-ephrin-bidirectional-signaling-in-central-nervous-system-injury-and-recovery
#7
Jin-Shan Yang, Hui-Xing Wei, Ping-Ping Chen, Gang Wu
Multiple cellular components are involved in the complex pathological process following central nervous system (CNS) injury, including neurons, glial cells and endothelial cells. Previous studies and neurotherapeutic clinical trials have assessed the molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal cell death following CNS injury. However, this approach has largely failed to reduce CNS damage or improve the functional recovery of patients. Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular (Eph) receptors and ephrin ligands have attracted considerable attention since their discovery, due to their extensive distribution and unique bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456523/g-protein-coupled-receptors-as-regulators-of-localized-translation-the-forgotten-pathway
#8
REVIEW
Aurélie Tréfier, Lucie P Pellissier, Astrid Musnier, Eric Reiter, Florian Guillou, Pascale Crépieux
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exert their physiological function by transducing a complex signaling network that coordinates gene expression and dictates the phenotype of highly differentiated cells. Much is known about the gene networks they transcriptionally regulate upon ligand exposure in a process that takes hours before a new protein is synthesized. However, far less is known about GPCR impact on the translational machinery and subsequent mRNA translation, although this gene regulation level alters the cell phenotype in a strikingly different timescale...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455848/caveolin-1-the-unnoticed-player-in-tcr-and-bcr-signaling
#9
Gina J Fiala, Susana Minguet
T and B lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system. They recognize pathogenic cues via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) to get activated and execute their protective function. TCR and BCR signaling are initiated at the plasma membrane and subsequently propagated into the cell, ultimately leading to cell activation and a protective immune response. However, inappropriate activation of T and B cells can be detrimental to the host resulting in autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and cancer...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455672/non-abl-directed-inhibitors-as-alternative-treatment-strategies-for-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
Michele Massimino, Stefania Stella, Elena Tirrò, Chiara Romano, Maria Stella Pennisi, Adriana Puma, Livia Manzella, Antonino Zanghì, Fabio Stagno, Francesco Di Raimondo, Paolo Vigneri
The introduction of ABL Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) has significantly improved the outcome of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients that, in large part, achieve satisfactory hematological, cytogenetic and molecular remissions. However, approximately 15-20% fail to obtain optimal responses according to the current European Leukemia Network recommendation because of drug intolerance or resistance.Moreover, a plethora of evidence suggests that Leukemic Stem Cells (LSCs) show BCR-ABL1-independent survival...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455671/oncogenic-fusion-proteins-adopt-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-pathway
#11
REVIEW
Haim Werner, Shilhav Meisel-Sharon, Ilan Bruchim
The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) has been identified as a potent anti-apoptotic, pro-survival tyrosine kinase-containing receptor. Overexpression of the IGF1R gene constitutes a typical feature of most human cancers. Consistent with these biological roles, cells expressing high levels of IGF1R are expected not to die, a quintessential feature of cancer cells. Tumor specific chromosomal translocations that disrupt the architecture of transcription factors are a common theme in carcinogenesis...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455668/function-of-the-c-met-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-in-carcinogenesis-and-associated-therapeutic-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Yazhuo Zhang, Mengfang Xia, Ke Jin, Shufei Wang, Hang Wei, Chunmei Fan, Yingfen Wu, Xiaoling Li, Xiayu Li, Guiyuan Li, Zhaoyang Zeng, Wei Xiong
c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the MET (MNNG HOS transforming gene) family, and is expressed on the surfaces of various cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is the ligand for this receptor. The binding of HGF to c-Met initiates a series of intracellular signals that mediate embryogenesis and wound healing in normal cells. However, in cancer cells, aberrant HGF/c-Met axis activation, which is closely related to c-Met gene mutations, overexpression, and amplification, promotes tumor development and progression by stimulating the PI3K/AKT, Ras/MAPK, JAK/STAT, SRC, Wnt/β-catenin, and other signaling pathways...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455667/role-of-non-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-in-hematological-malignances-and-its-targeting-by-natural-products
#13
REVIEW
Kodappully S Siveen, Kirti S Prabhu, Iman W Achkar, Shilpa Kuttikrishnan, Sunitha Shyam, Abdul Q Khan, Maysaloun Merhi, Said Dermime, Shahab Uddin
Tyrosine kinases belong to a family of enzymes that mediate the movement of the phosphate group to tyrosine residues of target protein, thus transmitting signals from the cell surface to cytoplasmic proteins and the nucleus to regulate physiological processes. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTK) are a sub-group of tyrosine kinases, which can relay intracellular signals originating from extracellular receptor. NRTKs can regulate a huge array of cellular functions such as cell survival, division/propagation and adhesion, gene expression, immune response, etc...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455665/pten-ptenp1-regulating-the-regulator-of-rtk-dependent-pi3k-akt-signalling-new-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Nahal Haddadi, Yiguang Lin, Glena Travis, Ann M Simpson, Eileen M McGowan, Najah T Nassif
Regulation of the PI-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway is essential for maintaining the integrity of fundamental cellular processes, cell growth, survival, death and metabolism, and dysregulation of this pathway is implicated in the development and progression of cancers. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are major upstream regulators of PI3K/Akt signalling. The phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), a well characterised tumour suppressor, is a prime antagonist of PI3K and therefore a negative regulator of this pathway...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455660/the-relevance-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-global-metabolic-pathways-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Michaela Poliaková, Daniel M Aebersold, Yitzhak Zimmer, Michaela Medová
Tumor metabolism is a thrilling discipline that focuses on mechanisms used by cancer cells to earn crucial building blocks and energy to preserve growth and overcome resistance to various treatment modalities. At the same time, therapies directed specifically against aberrant signalling pathways driven by protein tyrosine kinases (TKs) involved in proliferation, metastasis and growth count for several years to promising anti-cancer approaches. In this respect, small molecule inhibitors are the most widely used clinically relevant means for targeted therapy, with a rising number of approvals for TKs inhibitors...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455645/pyruvate-kinase-m2-fuels-multiple-aspects-of-cancer-cells-from-cellular-metabolism-transcriptional-regulation-to-extracellular-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Ming-Chuan Hsu, Wen-Chun Hung
Originally identified as a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP in the glycolytic pathway, pyruvate kinase M2-type (PKM2) has been shown to exhibit novel biological activities in the nucleus and outside the cells. Although cell-based studies reveal new non-canonical functions of PKM2 in gene transcription, epigenetic modulation and cell cycle progression, the importance of these non-canonical functions in PKM2-mediated tumorigenesis is still under debate because studies in genetically modified mice do not consistently echo the findings observed in cultured cancer cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455639/role-of-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-in-b-cells-and-malignancies
#17
REVIEW
Simar Pal Singh, Floris Dammeijer, Rudi W Hendriks
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays a crucial role in oncogenic signaling that is critical for proliferation and survival of leukemic cells in many B cell malignancies. BTK was initially shown to be defective in the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and is essential both for B cell development and function of mature B cells. Shortly after its discovery, BTK was placed in the signal transduction pathway downstream of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). More recently, small-molecule inhibitors of this kinase have shown excellent anti-tumor activity, first in animal models and subsequently in clinical studies...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455515/-research-on-promotory-effect-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-on-fracture-healing-in-cell-and-molecular-level
#18
REVIEW
Kun Zhang, Liang-Chen Niu, Fu-Jie Yuan, Shen-Peng Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine is widely used in the treatment of fractures, osteoporosis, other bone related diseases for thousands of years. There are many animal experiments and clinical trials demonstrating that the traditional Chinese medicine such as epimedium, Drynaria and other traditional Chinese medicine can stimulate bone regeneration and inhibit bone resorption, accelerating the fracture healing. In recent years many cell experiments have shown that these herbal ingredients up-regulated the expression of intracellular osteogenic transcription factors and osteogenic related genes, and then induced osteoblastic differentiation and stimulated the proliferation of osteoblasts, bone nodule formation and matrix mineralization...
August 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454854/erk1-2-inhibitors-new-weapons-to-inhibit-the-ras-regulated-raf-mek1-2-erk1-2-pathway
#19
REVIEW
Andrew M Kidger, James Sipthorp, Simon J Cook
The RAS-regulated RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway is de-regulated in a variety of cancers due to mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), negative regulators of RAS (such as NF1) and core pathway components themselves (RAS, BRAF, CRAF, MEK1 or MEK2). This has driven the development of a variety of pharmaceutical agents to inhibit RAF-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling in cancer and both RAF and MEK inhibitors are now approved and used in the clinic. There is now much interest in targeting at the level of ERK1/2 for a variety of reasons...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454849/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-intracellular-signaling-pathways-tyrosine-kinase-and-mtor-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Mark Reinwald, Jose T Silva, Nicolas J Mueller, Jesús Fortún, Christian Garzoni, Johan W de Fijter, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Paolo Grossi, Jose María Aguado
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of therapies targeting different intracellular signaling pathways and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
keyword
keyword
74356
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"