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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449056/plant-hexokinases-are-multifaceted-proteins
#1
Giovanna P Aguilera-Alvarado, Sobeida Sánchez-Nieto
Sugars are the main carbon and energy source in cells, but they can also act as signaling molecules that affect the whole plant life cycle. Certain tissues can produce sugars and supply them to others, and this plant tissue heterogeneity makes sugar signaling a highly complex process that requires elements capable of perceiving changes in sugar concentrations among different tissues, cell compartments and developmental stages. In plants, the regulatory effects of Glucose (Glc) have been the most studied to date...
April 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448943/mitochondria-in-endothelial-cells-sensors-and-integrators-of-environmental-cues
#2
REVIEW
Sergio Caja, Jose Antonio Enríquez
The involvement of angiogenesis in disease and its potential as a therapeutic target have been firmly established over recent decades. Endothelial cells (ECs) are central elements in vessel homeostasis and regulate the passage of material and cells into and out of the bloodstream. EC proliferation and migration are modified by alterations to mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics resulting from several signals and environmental cues, such as oxygen, hemodynamics, and nutrients. As intermediary signals, mitochondrial ROS are released as important downstream modulators of the expression of angiogenesis-related genes...
April 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448737/involvement-of-arhgef10-gef-for-rhoa-in-rab6-rab8-mediating-membrane-traffic
#3
Satoshi Shibata, Yui Teshima, Kenta Niimi, Shinobu Inagaki
Small GTPases play crucial roles in the maintenance of a homeostatic environment and appropriate movements of the cell. In these processes, the direct or indirect interaction between distinct small GTPases could be required for regulating mutual signaling pathways. In our recent study, ARHGEF10, known as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RhoA, was indicated to interact with Rab6A and Rab8A, which are known to function in the exocytotic pathway, and colocalized with these Rabs at exocytotic vesicles...
April 27, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448232/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mr-imaging-parameters-in-bone-metastases-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-comparison-between-lesions-with-and-lesions-without-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-in-primary-lung-cancer
#4
Hyun Su Kim, Young Cheol Yoon, Soyi Kwon, Ji Hyun Lee, Soohyun Ahn, Hyeon Seon Ahn
Purpose To compare dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters between metastatic bone lesions with and without the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in consecutive patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board. Forty-seven patients with NSCLC and a confirmed EGFR mutation status (27 patients were positive and 26 were negative for EGFR mutation), who underwent DCE MR imaging for bone metastases between November 2012 and March 2016, were included in this study...
April 27, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447504/placental-growth-factor-plgf-as-an-angiogenic-inflammatory-switcher-lesson-from-early-pregnancy-losses
#5
Hamid Reza Nejabati, Zeinab Latifi, Tohid Ghasemnejad, Amir Fattahi, Mohammad Nouri
Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an angiogenic factor which belongs to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. In addition to the angiogenic function of PlGF, in some conditions such as preeclampsia and early pregnancy losses, it can induce inflammatory reactions which could be accompanied with reduced angiogenesis. Hence, it is crucial to investigate inflammatory and angiogenic switching states and understand underlying mechanisms. PlGF is expressed in endometrium, placenta and trophoblast cells and is involved in maturation of uterine NK cells...
April 27, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447112/-imaging-diagnostics-of-breast-metastases-from-extramammary-tumors
#6
REVIEW
S Wienbeck, S Nemat, J Lotz, A Surov
Breast metastases of solid extramammary tumors are very rare in comparison to primary malignancies of the breast and account for only 0.33-6.3% of all malignant neoplasms of the breast. The most common primary tumors are malignant melanoma, distant sarcomas, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, renal cell cancer and thyroid cancer in decreasing order of frequency. This review article summarizes the clinical features and the different imaging findings of breast metastases from different extramammary solid tumors. Breast metastases are often incidental findings in computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) imaging...
April 26, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447025/metabolic-cooperation-and-competition-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-implications-for-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Seema Gupta, Amrita Roy, Bilikere S Dwarakanath
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an ensemble of non-tumor cells comprising fibroblasts, cells of the immune system, and endothelial cells, besides various soluble secretory factors from all cellular components (including tumor cells). The TME forms a pro-tumorigenic cocoon around the tumor cells where reprogramming of the metabolism occurs in tumor and non-tumor cells that underlies the nature of interactions as well as competitions ensuring steady supply of nutrients and anapleoretic molecules for the tumor cells that fuels its growth even under hypoxic conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446968/the-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-in-the-infarcted-myocardium
#8
REVIEW
Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
The adult mammalian heart has negligible regenerative capacity. Following myocardial infarction, sudden necrosis of cardiomyocytes triggers an intense inflammatory reaction that clears the wound from dead cells and matrix debris, while activating a reparative program. A growing body of evidence suggests that members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family critically regulate the inflammatory and reparative response following infarction. Although all three TGF-β isoforms (TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3) are markedly upregulated in the infarcted myocardium, information on isoform-specific actions is limited...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446917/shoot-the-message-not-the-messenger-combating-pathogenic-virulence-in-plants-by-inhibiting-quorum-sensing-mediated-signaling-molecules
#9
REVIEW
Ganesh Alagarasan, Kumar S Aswathy
Immunity, virulence, biofilm formation, and survival in the host environment are regulated by the versatile nature of density dependent microbial cell signaling, also called quorum sensing (QS). The QS molecules can associate with host plant tissues and, at times, cause a change in its gene expression at the downstream level through inter-kingdom cross talking. Progress in controlling QS through fungicide/bactericide in pathogenic microscopic organisms has lead to a rise of antibiotic resistance pathogens. Here, we review the application of selective quorum quenching (QQ) endophytes to control phytopathogens that are shared by most, if not all, terrestrial plant species as well as aquatic plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446863/peptides-as-quorum-sensing-molecules-measurement-techniques-and-obtained-levels-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
REVIEW
Frederick Verbeke, Severine De Craemer, Nathan Debunne, Yorick Janssens, Evelien Wynendaele, Christophe Van de Wiele, Bart De Spiegeleer
The expression of certain bacterial genes is regulated in a cell-density dependent way, a phenomenon called quorum sensing. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria use this type of communication, though the signal molecules (auto-inducers) used by them differ between both groups: Gram-negative bacteria use predominantly N-acyl homoserine lacton (AHL) molecules (autoinducer-1, AI-1) while Gram-positive bacteria use mainly peptides (autoinducer peptides, AIP or quorum sensing peptides). These quorum sensing molecules are not only involved in the inter-microbial communication, but can also possibly cross-talk directly or indirectly with their host...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446710/linear-ubiquitin-chains-enzymes-mechanisms-and-biology
#11
REVIEW
Katrin Rittinger, Fumiyo Ikeda
Ubiquitination is a versatile post-translational modification that regulates a multitude of cellular processes. Its versatility is based on the ability of ubiquitin to form multiple types of polyubiquitin chains, which are recognized by specific ubiquitin receptors to induce the required cellular response. Linear ubiquitin chains are linked through Met 1 and have been established as important players of inflammatory signalling and apoptotic cell death. These chains are generated by a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) that is thus far the only E3 ligase capable of forming linear ubiquitin chains...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446055/investigational-drugs-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#12
Brigette B Y Ma, Edwin P Hui, Anthony T C Chan
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Southern China and Asia and is etiologically associated with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). Whole exome and genome sequencing (WES, WGS) studies of NPC have reported several actionable therapeutic targets, and that the mutational load of NPC maybe comparable to that of squamous head and neck cancer. These unique biological characteristics have been exploited as potential targets and a wide range of investigational drugs are being investigated in clinical trials. Area covered: This review focused on the latest clinical development of the most promising classes of investigational agents in the treatment of advanced NPC...
April 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446054/pharmacotherapy-of-relapsed-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#13
Abdallah Abou Zahr, Prithviraj Bose, Michael J Keating
The treatment of relapsed/refractory (RR) CLL has been revolutionized by the advent of the new oral inhibitors of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and the pro-survival protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2). Additionally, new and more potent monoclonal antibodies against CD20 have replaced/may replace rituximab in many settings. Areas covered: Herein, we review the entire therapeutic landscape of RR CLL, with particular attention to the new small-molecule kinase inhibitors and BH3-mimetics. We discuss preclinical data with these agents in CLL, cover available efficacy and safety information, and examine potential resistance mechanisms and possible rational combinations to circumvent them...
April 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445781/mitochondrial-ros-control-of-cancer
#14
REVIEW
María Del Pilar Sosa Idelchik, Ulrike Begley, Thomas J Begley, J Andrés Melendez
Mitochondria serve a primary role in energy maintenance but also function to govern levels of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS). ROS have long been established to play a critical role in tumorigenesis and are now considered to be integral to the regulation of diverse signaling networks that drive proliferation, tumor cell survival and malignant progression. mROS can damage DNA, activate oncogenes, block the function of tumor suppressors and drive migratory signaling. The mitochondrion's oxidant scavenging systems including SOD2, Grx2, GPrx, Trx and TrxR are key of the cellular redox tone...
April 23, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445712/consider-the-context-ras-erk-and-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-outcomes-are-pituitary-cell-type-specific
#15
REVIEW
Allyson K Roof, Arthur Gutierrez-Hartmann
Conserved signaling pathways are critical regulators of pituitary homeostasis and, when dysregulated, contribute to adenoma formation. Pituitary adenomas are typically benign and rarely progress to malignant cancer. Pituitary and other neuroendocrine cell types often display non-proliferative responses to ERK and PI3K, in contrast to non-endocrine cell types which typically proliferate in response to ERK and PI3K activation. These differences likely contribute to the infrequent progression to malignancy in many endocrine tumors...
April 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445439/her2-in-breast-cancer-stemness-a-negative-feedback-loop-towards-trastuzumab-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Babak Nami, Zhixiang Wang
HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in approximately 20% of all breast cancers (BCs) is a poor prognosis factor and a precious target for BC therapy. Trastuzumab is approved by FDA to specifically target HER2 for treating HER2+ BC. However, about 60% of patients with HER2+ breast tumor develop de novo resistance to trastuzumab, partially due to the loss of expression of HER2 extracellular domain on their tumor cells. This is due to shedding/cleavage of HER2 by metalloproteinases (ADAMs and MMPs)...
April 26, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445397/radiation-and-thyroid-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Elisabetta Albi, Samuela Cataldi, Andrea Lazzarini, Michela Codini, Tommaso Beccari, Francesco Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Curcio
Radiation-induced damage is a complex network of interlinked signaling pathways, which may result in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and cancer. The development of thyroid cancer in response to radiation, from nuclear catastrophes to chemotherapy, has long been an object of study. A basic overview of the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation effects of the sensitivity of the thyroid gland on radiation and cancer development has been provided. In this review, we focus our attention on experiments in cell cultures exposed to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and proton beams...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444624/targeting-ntrk-fusion-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-rationale-and-clinical-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Biagio Ricciuti, Marta Brambilla, Giulio Metro, Sara Baglivo, Roberta Matocci, Matteo Pirro, Rita Chiari
In the era of personalized medicine, the identification of targetable genetic alterations represented a major step forward in anticancer therapy. NTRK rearrangements represent the molecular driver of a subset of solid tumors, including 3% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Preliminary data indicate that molecularly selected NSCLC patients harboring NTRK fusions derive an unprecedented clinical benefit from Trk-directed targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to describe the molecular biology of NTRK signaling pathway and to summarize the preclinical data on novel Trk inhibitors, touching upon the clinical development of these inhibitors for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, which have already shown encouraging anticancer activity and acceptable safety profile in early phase I clinical trials...
June 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444222/feronia-receptor-kinase-at-the-crossroad-of-hormone-signaling-and-stress-responses
#19
Hongdong Liao, Renjie Tang, Xin Zhang, Sheng Luan, Feng Yu
Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are involved in nearly all aspects of plant life including growth, development and stress response. Recent studies show that FERONIA (FER), a CrRLK1L subfamily member, is a versatile regulator of cell expansion and serves as a signaling node mediating crosstalks among multiple phytohormones. As a receptor for the RALF (Rapid Alkalinization Factor) peptide ligand, FER triggers a downstream signaling cascade that leads to a rapid cytoplasmic calcium increase and inhibition of cell elongation in plants...
April 19, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444142/regulatory-states-in-the-developmental-control-of-gene-expression
#20
Isabelle S Peter
A growing body of evidence shows that gene expression in multicellular organisms is controlled by the combinatorial function of multiple transcription factors. This indicates that not the individual transcription factors or signaling molecules, but the combination of expressed regulatory molecules, the regulatory state, should be viewed as the functional unit in gene regulation. Here, I discuss the concept of the regulatory state and its proposed role in the genome-wide control of gene expression. Recent analyses of regulatory gene expression in sea urchin embryos have been instrumental for solving the genomic control of cell fate specification in this system...
April 24, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
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