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sleep and immunity

Nuria Farré, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has emerged as a highly prevalent public health problem that imposes important mid-term and long-term consequences, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive and cancer-related alterations. OSA is characterized by increased upper airway resistance, alveolar hypoventilation, and recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recurrent collapse of the upper airway develops with sleep onset, and is associated with both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation. The microbiome is a vast and complex polymicrobial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism, and has been identified as playing significant roles in the development of host immunological phenotypes...
March 13, 2018: Chest
W C Wang, F F Yan, J Y Hu, O A Amen, H W Cheng
Probiotics reduce stress-related inflammation and abnormal behaviors in humans and rodents via regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, has similar functions in broiler chickens under heat stress (HS). Two hundred forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to 48 pens with 4 treatments: Thermoneutral (TN)-RD (regular diet), TN-PD (the regular diet mixed with 1×106 CFU/g feed probiotic), HS-RD and HS-PD. Probiotic (Sporulin®) was fed from day 1; and HS at 32 ºC for 10 h daily was initiated at day 15...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
I Matetovici, J Van Den Abbeele
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are conserved proteins with a role in innate immune immunity. In the current study, we characterized the TEP family in the genome of six tsetse fly species (Glossina spp.). Tsetse flies are the biological vectors of several African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness in humans or nagana in livestock. The analysis of the tsetse TEP sequences revealed information about their structure, evolutionary relationships and expression profiles under both normal and trypanosome infection conditions...
March 12, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Elena Antelmi, Giuseppe Plazzi
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a rare chronic neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hallucinations and disrupted nocturnal sleep, usually with onset during childhood/adolescence. Pediatric NT1 is associated with limitations on children's activities and achievements, especially poor performance at school, difficulty with peers due to disease symptoms and comorbidities including depression, obesity, and precocious puberty. NT1 disease is caused by the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, most probably related to an autoimmune pathophysiology...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
T G Ilkevitch, N I Medvedkova
The article presents analysis of application of time budget by contingent of female students-artists of different courses. The purpose of study is to investigate life-style and health indices of female students-artists. The study tasks included to determine time spending for various kinds of activity of female students, to analyze certain health indices of female artists and to substantiate activities related to health promotion of this contingent. The applied methods included analysis of publications, analysis of temporarily disability certificates, questionnaire survey, health indices testing...
July 2017: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
George Michalopoulos, Spyridon Vrakas, Konstantinos Makris, Charalampos Tzathas
Background: The interaction between sleep and the immune system has been increasingly studied over the last decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep quality and mucosal healing in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) currently in clinical remission. Methods: Ninety patients with IBD in clinical remission were studied: 54 (60%) with Crohn's disease and 36 (40%) with ulcerative colitis. All completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and mucosal healing was estimated with ileocolonoscopy...
March 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Glaucylara Reis Geovanini, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Russell Tracy, Nancy S Jenny, Ary L Goldberger, Madalena D Costa, Yongmei Liu, Peter Libby, Susan Redline
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associates with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Immune abnormalities and surges in sympathetic activity accompany OSA and CVD. We hypothesized that OSA associates with leukocytosis partially by abnormalities in autonomic nervous system (ANS) function that would suggest a pathway linking OSA and CVD. METHODS: Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a prospective cohort of individuals initially without overt CVD, underwent polysomnography and assays for white blood cells (WBC) and subsets...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Alexey Moskalev, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Nadezhda Zemskaya, Alexey Belyi, Eugenia Dobrovolskaya, Anna Patova, Zulfiya Guvatova, Elena Lukyanova, Anastasiya Snezhkina, Anna Kudryavtseva
BACKGROUND: We have previously showed that the carotenoid fucoxanthin can increase the lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the geroprotective effect of fucoxanthin have not been studied so far. RESULTS: Here, we studied the effects of fucoxanthin on the Drosophila aging process at the molecular and the whole organism levels. At the organismal level, fucoxanthin increased the median lifespan and had a positive effect on fecundity, fertility, intestinal barrier function, and nighttime sleep...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Noel-Marie Plonski, Bianca Bissoni, Madara Hetti Arachchilage, Karl Romstedt, Edgar E Kooijman, Helen Piontkivska
Unicellular flagellates that make up the class Kinetoplastida include multiple parasites responsible for public health concerns, including Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (agents of African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease, respectively), and various Leishmania species, which cause leishmaniasis. These diseases are generally difficult to eradicate, with treatments often having lethal side effects and/or being effective only during the acute phase of the diseases, when most patients are still asymptomatic...
February 28, 2018: Gene
Hui-Li Yang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Chun-Jie Gu, Yu-Han Meng, Jun Shao, Da-Jin Li, Ming-Qing Li
Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized from the aromatic amino acid tryptophan mainly by the pineal gland of mammals. Melatonin acts as a broad-spectrum antioxidant, powerful free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory agent, anticarcinogenic factor, sleep inducer and regulator of the circadian rhythm, and potential immunoregulator. Melatonin and reproductive system are interrelated under both physiological and pathological conditions. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune dysregulation are associated with the pathogenesis of the female reproductive system which causes endometriosis (EMS), recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Damien Léger, Eden Debellemaniere, Arnaud Rabat, Virginie Bayon, Karim Benchenane, Mounir Chennaoui
In recent decades, increasing evidence has positioned slow-wave sleep (SWS) as a major actor in neurophysiological phenomena such as glucose metabolism, hormone release, immunity and memory. This proposed role for SWS, coupled with observations of impaired SWS in several pathologies as well as in aging, has led some researchers to implement methods that could specifically enhance SWS. This review aims to gather the current knowledge extending from the cell to the clinic, in order to construct an overview of what is currently known about so-called SWS...
February 5, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Olivia C Eller-Smith, Andrea L Nicol, Julie A Christianson
Centralized pain syndromes are associated with changes within the central nervous system that amplify peripheral input and/or generate the perception of pain in the absence of a noxious stimulus. Examples of idiopathic functional disorders that are often categorized as centralized pain syndromes include fibromyalgia, chronic pelvic pain syndromes, migraine, and temporomandibular disorder. Patients often suffer from widespread pain, associated with more than one specific syndrome, and report fatigue, mood and sleep disturbances, and poor quality of life...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jun Song, Sai-Jun Ma, Jian-Hua Luo, Hui Zhang, Ri-Xiong Wang, Hui Liu, Li Li, Zhi-Guang Zhang, Rui-Xiang Zhou
Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common types of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer‑related death. In China, gastric and liver cancers have the highest mortality rates. Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl‑5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness. Melatonin has been shown to inhibit various carcinomas, including GC. There are many different hypotheses to explain the anticancer effects of melatonin, including stimulation of apoptosis, inhibition of cell growth, regulation of anticancer immunity, induction of free-radical scavenging, and the competitive inhibition of estrogen...
February 26, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jennifer E Dumaine, Noah T Ashley
Obesity and sleep fragmentation (SF) are often co-occurring pro-inflammatory conditions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Leptin is a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes that has anorexigenic effects upon appetite while regulating immunity. The role of leptin in mediating inflammatory responses to SF is incompletely understood. Male C57BL/6j (lean) and ob/ob mice (leptin-deficient mice exhibiting obese phenotype) were subjected to SF or control conditions for 24 h using an automated SF chamber. Trunk blood and tissue samples from the periphery (liver, spleen, fat, and heart) and brain (hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus) were collected...
2018: PeerJ
Debora Lee Oh, Petra Jerman, Sara Silvério Marques, Kadiatou Koita, Sukhdip Kaur Purewal Boparai, Nadine Burke Harris, Monica Bucci
BACKGROUND: Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. METHODS: PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected...
February 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Sang Wan Chung, Jaehyung Hur, You-Jung Ha, Eun Ha Kang, Joon Young Hyon, Hyo-Jung Lee, Yeong Wook Song, Yun Jong Lee
Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the inf luence of poor sleep quality on clinical features of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Methods: Sleep quality was cross-sectionally assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from 115 Korean patients with pSS. The patients completed questionnaires on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) SS Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI), quality of life (EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire [EQ-5D]), fatigue (fatigue severity score [FSS]), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] II])...
February 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Kate R Kuhlman, Theodore F Robles, Larissa N Dooley, Chloe C Boyle, Marcie D Haydon, Julienne E Bower
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a role in mood and behavior that may be relevant to identifying risk factors and treatment for depression and other stress-related illnesses. The purpose of this study was to examine whether fluctuations in inflammation following a mild immune stimulus were associated with changes in daily reported features of depression for up to a week in a healthy sample of young adults. METHODS: Forty one undergraduate students completed daily diaries of mood, feelings of social disconnection, sleep, and physical symptoms for one week before and after receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
K N Redman, A S Karstaedt, K Scheuermaier
Poor sleep quality leads to increased immune activation and immune activation leads to worse sleep quality. South African HIV positive patients typically have delayed start of treatment, which has been associated with CD4+ effector T cells being more spontaneously activated in chronically treated patients. This cross-sectional study investigated whether subjective sleep quality was associated with CD4+ T lymphocyte reconstitution in treated South African HIV+ patients. One hundred and thirty-nine treated HIV+ patients (109 F, age average (SD)= 43 (9)) were recruited from Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa...
February 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Helle Sadam, Arno Pihlak, Anri Kivil, Susan Pihelgas, Mariliis Jaago, Priit Adler, Jaak Vilo, Olli Vapalahti, Toomas Neuman, Dan Lindholm, Markku Partinen, Antti Vaheri, Kaia Palm
BACKGROUND: Neuropathological findings support an autoimmune etiology as an underlying factor for loss of orexin-producing neurons in spontaneous narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy; sNT1) as well as in Pandemrix influenza vaccine-induced narcolepsy type 1 (Pdmx-NT1). The precise molecular target or antigens for the immune response have, however, remained elusive. METHODS: Here we have performed a comprehensive antigenic repertoire analysis of sera using the next-generation phage display method - mimotope variation analysis (MVA)...
February 2, 2018: EBioMedicine
Xiao Wang, Yufeng Wang, Zechuan Cai, Xiaoxia Lu, Zhenxing Li, Yun Chen, Guoliang Zu, Taoping Li
AIM: To evaluate various biomarkers of metabolism, immunity and inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). MATERIALS & METHODS: After overnight polysomnography, blood was collected from 292 OSAHS patients or healthy volunteers. Serum content of inflammatory, immune, metabolic biomarkers were investigated. In addition, the effects of 1-month continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) were studied in moderate/severe OSAHS. RESULTS: C3, serum total complement activity, superoxide dismutase, uric acid were significantly higher in moderate/severe OSAHS than that in no/mild OSAHS...
February 14, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
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