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Encephalomalacia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870647/meg-may-reveal-hidden-population-of-spikes-in-epilepsy-with-porencephalic-cyst-encephalomalacia
#1
Yosuke Kakisaka, Zhong I Wang, Sumiya Shibata, Yoko Takahashi, John C Mosher, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Richard C Burgess
Porencephalic cyst/encephalomalacia (PC/E) is often associated with intractable epilepsy. A Limited number of studies reported Magnetoencephalography (MEG)'s potential to help construct treatment strategy for epilepsies associated with PC/E. We present here simultaneous EEG and MEG findings in three adult patients with pediatric-onset epilepsy due to PC/E. There were two types of spikes: one type was detected by MEG only (EEG-/MEG+), and the other detected by both EEG and MEG (EEG+/MEG+). Both types were seen in all three cases...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818370/can-diffusion-weighted-imaging-be-used-as-a-tool-to-predict-seizures-in-patients-with-pleds
#2
Jaishree Narayanan
It is unclear which patients with PLEDs will have associated seizures and therefore will need to be treated aggressively with antiepileptic medications. We present a prospective observational study of ten consecutive non-anoxic patients with PLEDs based on continuous 24-hour EEG monitoring. According to the EEG, five of the patients had seizures associated with PLEDs and five had PLEDs but no seizures. The aetiology included: neoplasm (n=1), cortical dysplasia (n=1), acute head trauma (n=1), encephalomalacia related to healed abscess (n=1), intra-parenchymal haemorrhage (n=1), and no structural lesion (n=5)...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766797/clinical-diversity-of-cns-cryptococcosis
#3
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750160/ictal-bradyarrhythmias-and-asystole-requiring-pacemaker-implantation-combined-eeg-ecg-analysis-of-5-cases
#4
Roisin Bartlam, Rajiv Mohanraj
BACKGROUND: Seizures can lead to cardiac arrhythmias by a number of mechanisms including activation/inhibition of cortical autonomic centers, increase in vagal tone through activation of brainstem reflex centers, and respiratory failure. Ictal asystole (IA) is a potential mechanism underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We analyzed the clinical features of 5 patients who developed IA requiring pacemaker implantation. METHODS: Patients with ictal arrhythmias were identified from the video-telemetry and ambulatory EEG database at Greater Manchester Neurosciences Centre, as well as an independent epilepsy residential care facility...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695644/neonatal-enterovirus-infection-case-series-of-clinical-sepsis-and-positive-cerebrospinal-fluid-polymerase-chain-reaction-test-with-myocarditis-and-cerebral-white-matter-injury-complications
#5
Frank H Morriss, Julie B Lindower, Heather L Bartlett, Dianne L Atkins, Jean O Kim, Jonathan M Klein, Bradley A Ford
Objective We describe five neonates with enteroviral (EV) infection to demonstrate central nervous system (CNS) and cardiac complications and report successful treatment of myocarditis with immunoglobulin intravenous (IVIG) in two. Study Design Case series identified during three enteroviral seasons in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for EV in neonates suspected to have sepsis, but with sterile bacterial cultures...
July 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658362/-aicardi-goutieres-syndrome-due-to-mutation-of-the-ifih1-gene-with-pontine-involvement-a-case-report
#6
A Florido-Rodriguez, J Eiris-Punal, F Barros-Angueira, L Toledo-Bravo de Laguna, A Santana-Artiles, I Sebastian-Garcia, A Santana-Rodriguez, J C Cabrera-Lopez
INTRODUCTION: Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome is a rare progressive subacute encephalopathy of early onset - generally in the first year of life - characterised by psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, alterations in the white matter of the brain, intracranial calcifications, pleocytosis and elevated levels of interferon alpha in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is associated to an increase in the expression of genes stimulated by interferon in peripheral blood, a fact known as the interferon signature...
October 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570398/unusual-case-of-recurrent-smart-stroke-like-migraine-attacks-after-radiation-therapy-syndrome
#7
Ramnath Santosh Ramanathan, Gayathri Sreedher, Konark Malhotra, Zain Guduru, Deeksha Agarwal, Mary Flaherty, Timothy Leichliter, Sandeep Rana
Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) revealed cortical enhancement in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region. She improved spontaneously in 2 weeks and follow-up scan at 4 weeks revealed no residual enhancement or encephalomalacia...
July 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546337/surgical-resection-for-epilepsy-following-cerebral-gun-shot-wounds
#8
Yoshua Esquenazi, Giridhar P Kalamangalam, Omotola A Hope, Sonia N Krish, Jeremy Slater, Nitin Tandon
OBJECTIVE: The surgical management of epilepsy following penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head has not been described in the modern; era. Given the extensive damage to the cranium and cortex from such; injuries, the safety and efficacy of surgical intervention is unclear. We; report the surgical strategy and outcomes following resections for; medically refractory epilepsy following GSWs in four patients. METHODS: A prospectively compiled database of 325 epilepsy patients was used to identify patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for medically; refractory epilepsy following a GSW to the brain...
August 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399506/308%C3%A2-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-following-trigeminal-rhizotomy
#9
C Rory Goodwin, Benjamin Northcutt, Daniel Seeburg, Jaehoon Shin, Debebe Theodros, Nancy A Abu-Bonsrah, Daniel Herzka, Nafi Aygun, Ari M Blitz, Michael Lim
INTRODUCTION: Patients with trigeminal neuralgia often undergo glycerol or radiofrequency-thermocoagulation glycerol rhizotomy of the trigeminal nerve for treatment of symptoms. To date, radiological changes in patients with trigeminal neuralgia postrhizotomy have not been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients after trigeminal rhizotomy to characterize postrhizotomy changes on 3D high-resolution MRI. METHODS: A retrospective review of trigeminal neuralgia protocol studies was performed on 26 postrhizotomy patients compared with 54 treatment-naive trigeminal neuralgia subjects...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365326/high-resolution-mri-findings-following-trigeminal-rhizotomy
#10
B G Northcutt, D P Seeburg, J Shin, N Aygun, D A Herzka, D Theodros, C R Goodwin, C Bettegowda, M Lim, A M Blitz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with trigeminal neuralgia often undergo trigeminal rhizotomy via radiofrequency thermocoagulation or glycerol injection for treatment of symptoms. To date, radiologic changes in patients with trigeminal neuralgia post-rhizotomy have not been described, to our knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients after trigeminal rhizotomy to characterize post-rhizotomy changes on 3D high-resolution MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of trigeminal neuralgia protocol studies was performed in 26 patients after rhizotomy compared with 54 treatment-na|fkve subjects with trigeminal neuralgia...
June 30, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342577/the-relation-of-focal-lesions-to-cortical-thickness-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Erin D Bigler, Brandon A Zielinski, Naomi Goodrich-Hunsaker, Garrett M Black, B S Trevor Huff, Zachary Christiansen, Dawn-Marie Wood, Tracy J Abildskov, Maureen Dennis, H Gerry Taylor, Kenneth Rubin, Kathryn Vannatta, Cynthia A Gerhardt, Terry Stancin, Keith Owen Yeates
In a sample of children with traumatic brain injury, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based investigation examined whether presence of a focal lesion uniquely influenced cortical thickness in any brain region. Specifically, the study explored the relation of cortical thickness to injury severity as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale score and length of stay, along with presence of encephalomalacia, focal white matter lesions or presence of hemosiderin deposition as a marker of shear injury. For comparison, a group of children without head injury but with orthopedic injury of similar age and sex were also examined...
October 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295602/hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-with-clinical-and-imaging-abnormalities-limited-to-occipital-lobe
#12
Hemant A Parmar, Jonathan D Trobe
BACKGROUND: The vulnerable brain areas in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) following systemic hypotension are typically the neocortex, deep cerebral gray nuclei, hippocampus, cerebellum, and the parieto-occipital arterial border zone region. The visual cortex is not commonly recognized as a target in this setting. METHODS: Single-institution review from 2007 to 2015 of patients who suffered cortical visual loss as an isolated clinical manifestation following systemic hypotension and whose brain imaging showed abnormalities limited to the occipital lobe...
September 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289259/molybdenum-cofactor-and-isolated-sulphite-oxidase-deficiencies-clinical-and-molecular-spectrum-among-egyptian-patients
#13
Maha S Zaki, Laila Selim, Hala T El-Bassyouni, Mahmoud Y Issa, Iman Mahmoud, Samira Ismail, Mariane Girgis, Abdelrahim A Sadek, Joseph G Gleeson, Mohamed S Abdel Hamid
AIM: Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) and Sulfite oxidase deficiency (SOD) are rare autosomal recessive conditions of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism with overlapping clinical features and emerging therapies. The clinical phenotype is indistinguishable and they can only be differentiated biochemically. MOCS1, MOCS2, MOCS3, and GPRN genes contribute to the synthesis of molybdenum cofactor, and SUOX gene encodes sulfite oxidase. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical, radiological, biochemical and molecular findings in patients with SOD and MoCD...
December 0: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273503/brain-herniation-into-arachnoid-granulations-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features
#14
Greta B Liebo, John Jack I Lane, Jamie J Van Gompel, Laurence J Eckel, Kara M Schwartz, Vance T Lehman
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Brain herniation into presumed arachnoid granulations (BHAG) is an increasingly recognized entity. Though it has previously been described as isointense to brain matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we have encountered 21 cases in our clinical practice, many of which have signal abnormality in the herniated or adjacent parenchyma. We performed a systematic analysis on these cases to further understand the clinical significance. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of cases collected from our clinical MRI practice...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226130/discharge-against-medical-advice-in-traumatic-brain-injury-follow-up-and-readmission-rate
#15
Judith Marcoux, Mohammad Alkutbi, Julie Lamoureux, Mitra Feyz, Rajeet S Saluja, Elaine de Guise
BACKGROUND: Patients who leave hospital against medical advice (AMA) may be at risk of adverse health outcomes, medical complications, and readmission. In this study, we examined the characteristics of patients who left AMA after traumatic brain injury (TBI), their rates of follow-up visits, and readmission. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 106 consecutive patients who left the tertiary trauma center AMA (1.8% of all admitted patients with a TBI). Preinjury health and social issues, mechanism of injury, computed tomography findings, and injury markers were collected...
May 26, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156563/brain-ultrasonographic-findings-of-late-onset-circulatory-dysfunction-due-to-adrenal-insufficiency-in-preterm-infants
#16
Su-Mi Shin, Jee Won Chai
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. METHODS: Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2), early AI (n=5), sepsis (n=1), and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13)...
July 2016: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100302/congenital-amegakaryocytic-thrombocytopenia-with-severe-neurological-findings
#17
Özcan Bör, Ayse B Turhan, Coskun Yarar
Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia from failure of megakaryopoiesis. The genetic background of CAMT is mutations in the myeloproliferative ligand gene encoding the thrombopoietin receptor. In our patient with CAMT, we identified homozygous missense mutations [c.407C>T (p.P136L)]. The association of CAMT and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities is uncommon. Here we present a case in which CAMT appears linked to CNS abnormalities (encephalomalacia, global atrophy) and developmental delay related with intrauterine intracranial hemorrhage...
April 20, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971294/methods-of-intra-operative-treatment-of-cranioplasty-in-patients-with-abnormal-bone-window-flap-pressure-after-decompressive-craniectomy
#18
Yi Wan, Xifeng Fei, Lei Shi, Dongyi Jiang, Hanchun Chen, Zhimin Wang, Yanjun Zeng
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the method of cranioplasty in patients with abnormal bone window pressure after decompressive craniectomy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis for 25 cases after decompressive craniectomy in patients with abnormal flap pressure of clinical data. RESULTS: Flap pressure increased in 15 cases, including 6 cases of hydrocephalus, 5 cases of contralateral subdural effusion, 2 cases of subdural effusion bone window, 2 cases of bone window cystic encephalomalacia communicating with the ventricle; Flap pressure decreased in 10 cases, including 6 cases of hydrocephalus after ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and 4 cases of low intracranial pressure...
May 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931257/clinical-profile-of-early-childhood-epilepsy-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#19
S Ahmed, S T Alam, M M Rahman, S Akhter
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorder in children. Incidence is highest in children less than 3 years of age. This cross sectional study was conducted at outpatient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka from January 2010 to December 2010 to explore clinical profile of early childhood epilepsy. Total 50 Children with two or more unprovoked seizure after 28 days up to 36 months of age were included in this study. Majority cases were in the age group of 1 to 12 months (56%) with male predominance (78%)...
January 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917424/mri-signal-intensity-differentiation-of-brainstem-encephalitis-induced-by-enterovirus-71-a-classification-approach-for-acute-and-convalescence-stages
#20
Hongwu Zeng, Wenxian Huang, Feiqiu Wen, Yonker Wang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K L Wong
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to assess standardized histograms of signal intensities of T1 signal and T2 signal on sagittal view without enhancement during (1) acute stage, and (2) convalescence stage of pediatric patients with Enterovirus 71 related brainstem encephalitis (BE), and with respect to (3) healthy normal. METHODS: Our subjects were hospitalized between March 2010 and October 2012, and underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI studies. The research question to be answered is whether the comparison of the MRI image intensity histograms and relevant statistical quantification can add new knowledge to the diagnosis of BE patients...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
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