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Encephalomalacia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156559/tocotrienols-a-family-of-molecules-with-specific-biological-activities
#1
REVIEW
Raffaella Comitato, Roberto Ambra, Fabio Virgili
Vitamin E is a generic term frequently used to group together eight different molecules, namely: α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and the corresponding tocotrienols. The term tocopherol and eventually Vitamin E and its related activity was originally based on the capacity of countering foetal re-absorption in deficient rodents or the development of encephalomalacia in chickens. In humans, Vitamin E activity is generally considered to be solely related to the antioxidant properties of the tocolic chemical structure...
November 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053073/chronic-subthreshold-cortical-stimulation-for-adult-drug-resistant-focal-epilepsy-safety-feasibility-and-technique
#2
Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Sanjeet S Grewal, Matthew Stead, Brian Nils Lundstrom, Jeffrey W Britton, Cheolsu Shin, Gregory D Cascino, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Gregory A Worrell, Jamie J Van Gompel
OBJECTIVE Epilepsy surgery is effective for lesional epilepsy, but it can be associated with significant morbidity when seizures originate from eloquent cortex that is resected. Here, the objective was to describe chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation and evaluate its early surgical safety profile in adult patients with epilepsy originating from seizure foci in cortex that is not amenable to resection. METHODS Adult patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy underwent intracranial electroencephalography monitoring for evaluation of resection...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916167/structural-neuroimaging-in-sport-related-concussion
#3
Erin D Bigler
Structural neuroimaging of athletes who have sustained a sports-related concussion (SRC) can be viewed as either standard clinical imaging or with advanced neuroimaging methods that quantitatively assess brain structure. Negative findings from conventional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the norm in SRC. Nonetheless, these conventional measures remain the first line of neuroimaging of the athlete as they do detect clinically significant pathologies, when present, such as hemorrhagic abnormalities in the form of hematomas, contusions and mircobleeds along with regions of focal encephalomalacia or other signal abnormalities, with CT best capable of detecting skull fractures...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833053/a-distinct-clinicopathological-variant-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-iiid-characterized-by-loss-of-layer-4-in-the-occipital-lobe-in-12-children-with-remote-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#4
Dan-Dan Wang, Yue-Shan Piao, Ingmar Blumcke, Roland Coras, Wen-Jing Zhou, Qiu-Ping Gui, Cui-Cui Liu, Jing-Xia Hu, Li-Zhen Cao, Guo-Jun Zhang, De-Hong Lu
OBJECTIVE: In 2011, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a consensus classification system of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) to distinguish clinicopathological subtypes, for example, "isolated" FCD type Ia-c and IIa-b, versus "associated" FCD type IIIa-d. The histopathological differentiation of FCD type I and III variants remains, however, a challenging issue in everyday practice. We present a unique histopathological pattern in patients with difficult-to-diagnose FCD, which highlights this dilemma, but also helps to refine the current ILAE classification scheme of FCD...
October 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767530/the-use-of-ultrabrief-left-unilateral-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-aneurysms-and-right-sided-encephalomalacia-and-stroke-a-case-report
#5
Ahmed Z Elmaadawi, Shady S Mashaly, Suhayl Nasr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700421/atypical-proliferative-borderline-serous-tumor-in-the-brain-a-case-report
#6
Deyin Xing, Erik G Jenson, Christopher A Zwick, Fausto J Rodriguez, Robert J Kurman
A 59-year-old woman with a remote history of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was found on a follow-up computed tomography scan of her brain to have a 1-cm lesion in the right frontal lobe in 2008. In the ensuing years, before her current admission, multiple imaging studies of the brain revealed that the lesion was stable and it was, therefore, interpreted as a small area of encephalomalacia related to a thrombosed cortical vein, a cavernoma, or treated metastatic breast cancer. In 2013, the patient underwent a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for ovarian tumors that were diagnosed as bilateral serous cystadenofibromas...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629418/prenatal-brain-disruption-in-isolated-sulfite-oxidase-deficiency
#7
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Ching-Shiang Chi, Chi-Ren Tsai, Hung-Chieh Chen, I-Chun Lee
BACKGROUND: Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (ISOD) is a very rare autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disease. The most striking postnatal neuroimaging finding is multicystic encephalomalacia, which occurs rapidly within days to weeks after birth and mimics severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to describe the prenatal neuroimaging features in a neonate and a fetus diagnosed with ISOD. RESULTS: We report an 11-day-old female neonate who presented with feeding difficulties, decreased activity, neonatal seizures, and movement disorders within a few days after birth...
June 19, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626412/congenital-bilateral-c2-transverse-foramina-stenosis-causing-adult-onset-vertebrobasilar-insufficiency-and-posterior-circulation-stroke
#8
Ajeet Gordhan, Catherine Lockhart
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency leading to posterior circulation infarcts caused by congenital hypoplasia of the bilateral transverse foramina at the C2 level, affecting the caliber and flow of the bilateral distal cervical vertebral arteries in an adult, has not been previously reported. A 41-year-old male presented with episodic dizziness for a period of 1 year prior to consultation. Computed tomography angiography of the head and neck demonstrated congenital hypoplasia of the bilateral C2 transverse foramina, with absence of the vertebral arteries in each of the foramina and collateral reconstitution of diminutive intracranial vertebral artery segments...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528533/first-report-of-angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-a-wild-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-from-apulia-italy
#9
Giuseppe Passantino, Fabio Marino, Gabriella Gaglio, Rosa Patruno, Giovanni Lanteri, Nicola Zizzo
Severe lung strongylosis was detected in a wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) (1/12) from Apulia (Italy). We performed routine diagnostics on 12 foxes found dead in Apulia. Eleven of them showed lesions consistent with a vehicle collision. However, the remaining fox appeared to have died from other causes. At necropsy we observed, catarrhal enteritis, fatty liver, lung congestion with some areas rm in consistence and brain haemorrhages and malacia. Histopathology revealed lung brosis with mononucleate cells in ltration, thrombosis a several larval nematodes spread in the parenchyma, interstitial nephritis, interstitial myocarditis, encephalitis, encephalomalacia, and a brain granuloma...
April 5, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515563/secondary-eating-disorder-a-reality-case-report-of-post-brain-injury-sequelae
#10
Aparna Das, Deeksha Elwadhi, Manushree Gupta
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to changes in eating behavior patterns. This report describes the case of a patient with alcohol dependence presenting with behavioral changes and eating disorder following frontal lobe trauma. A 42-year-old male, premorbidly well-adjusted presented with alcohol use in dependent pattern for years. He sustained a subdural hematoma in the frontal lobe following a road traffic accident 10 years back. Post-TBI, the patient, started having low frustration tolerance, aggressive outbursts, disinhibition, difficulty in persisting with tasks, apathy, amotivation, and craving for food with inability to control intake on the sight of food...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414666/just-a-puff-of-smoke
#11
A Leonard
CASE: A 44 year old woman with a history of stroke s/p aneurysm clipping, seizure, and substance abuse was brought to the hospital after a family member received a call from her friend saying she was acting unusual and may have had a seizure while hanging out on the street. At her baseline, she needed modest assistance in daily activities after her CVA and conversed without issue. Her mother died of a stroke. On exam the patient was afebrile, normotensive with mild tachycardia to 110...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410084/clinical-and-electroencephalographic-characteristics-of-infantile-onset-epilepsies-caused-by-genetic-mutations
#12
Yun Jung Hur, Sookyong Koh, John Millichap, Srishti Nangia, Lawrence J Jennings, Douglas R Nordli
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether certain characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features are indicative of a genetic cause in early-life epilepsy. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled a total of 100 patients with infantile-onset (<3 years) epilepsy due to known genetic cause (n = 50) and nongenetic cause (acquired, structural, or unknown, n = 50). The genetic group was classified into synaptopathies, channelopathies, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-opathies, and chromosomal abnormalities...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374239/radiological-imaging-findings-of-dyke-davidoff-masson-syndrome
#13
Erkan Gökçe, Murat Beyhan, Recep Sade
Radiological findings of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) in patients with different etiologies are presented in our study. The study included 12 patients (seven females, five males) for whom radiological examinations were requested due to reasons such as epilepsy, mental retardation, and/or hemiplegia. CT was performed in 12, MRI in 6, MRA in 1, and DSA in 1 patient. Following imaging findings were evaluated: cerebral and cerebellar involvement (laterality, encephalomalacia), affected territories, ventricular enlargement, sulcal enlargement, calvarial thickening, and paranasal sinus enlargement hyperaeration...
April 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373797/refractory-lesional-parietal-lobe-epilepsy-clinical-electroencephalographic-and-neurodiagnostic-findings
#14
Oğuzhan Kurşun, Hülya Karataş, Neşe Dericioğlu, Serap Saygi
INTRODUCTION: Specialized centers, in the management and surgical treatment of medically refractory epilepsy, emphasize the importance of differentiating the varieties of localization related epilepsies. There has been considerable recent interest in temporal and frontal lobe epileptic syndromes and less attention has been paid to parietal and occipital lobe epilepsies. METHODS: Here we report the clinical, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging characteristics of 46 patients with medically refractory lesional parietal lobe epilepsy who have been followed up for 1-10 years...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348758/recurrent-sepsis-and-neuroinvasive-disease-in-a-neonate-culture-positive-for-a-group-b-streptococcus-cps-iii-serotype-hvga-strain
#15
Sneha Suresh, Gregory Tyrrell, Areej Alhhazmi, Sandra Escoredo, Michael Hawkes
INTRODUCTION: Late-onset disease with Group B Streptococcus (GBS LOD) remains a significant problem in neonates. Unlike early-onset disease, rates of GBS LOD have not changed with prenatal testing. Effects of GBS LOD can be severe and thus identifying risk factors for severe GBS LOD, such as hypervirulence genes, may help in managing these infants. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a neonate with capsular serotype III GBS sepsis without meningitis that recurred 6 days after a 10-day-treatment period with IV ampicillin...
June 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272261/abnormal-parietal-encephalomalacia-associated-with-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#16
Fen Pan, Jun-Yuan Wang, Yi Xu, Man-Li Huang
RATIONALE: It is widely believed that structural abnormalities of the brain contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The parietal lobe is a central hub of multisensory integration, and abnormities in this region might account for the clinical features of schizophrenia. However, few cases of parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia have been described. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: In this paper, we present a case of a 25-year-old schizophrenia patient with abnormal parietal encephalomalacia...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237716/clostridium-perfringens-epsilon-toxin-induces-permanent-neuronal-degeneration-and-behavioral-changes
#17
Winston E Morris, Jorge Goldstein, Leandro M Redondo, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia Geoghegan, Marcela Brocco, Fabián C Loidl, Mariano E Fernandez-Miyakawa
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), the most potent toxin produced by this bacteria, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia in ruminants, causing brain edema and encephalomalacia. Studies of animals suffering from ETX intoxication describe severe neurological disorders that are thought to be the result of vasogenic brain edemas and indirect neuronal toxicity, killing oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes, microglia, or neurons in vitro. In this study, by means of intravenous and intracerebroventricular delivery of sub-lethal concentrations of ETX, the histological and ultrastructural changes of the brain were studied in rats and mice...
May 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214641/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-causing-vision-loss-after-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-pituitary-adenoma
#18
Nicolas W Villelli, Daniel M Prevedello, Daniel S Ikeda, Alaa S Montaser, Bradley A Otto, Ricardo L Carrau
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by headache, altered mental status, visual changes, and seizure combined with brain imaging consistent with cerebral edema without infarction. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of PRES after an endoscopic endonasal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 59-year-old woman was diagnosed with a pituitary macroadenoma, for which she underwent endoscopic endonasal extracapsular resection...
April 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178754/neuroprotective-effect-of-nebivolol-against-cisplatin-associated-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats
#19
Noha F Abdelkader, Muhammed A Saad, Rania M Abdelsalam
One-third of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment often display symptoms of depression leading to poor adherence and decreased quality of life. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of nebivolol against cisplatin-associated depressive symptoms in adult male rats. Nebivolol is a highly cardioselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker that possesses endothelium-dependent vasodilator properties and antioxidant capacities. Animals were allocated into four groups. Group one was given aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control, group two was given nebivolol (10 mg/kg p...
May 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149115/multicystic-encephalomalacia-secondary-to-head-trauma
#20
R V Phadke, Vivek Agarwal, Suprava Naik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
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