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Encephalomalacia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700421/atypical-proliferative-borderline-serous-tumor-in-the-brain-a-case-report
#1
Deyin Xing, Erik G Jenson, Christopher A Zwick, Fausto J Rodriguez, Robert J Kurman
A 59-year-old woman with a remote history of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was found on a follow-up computed tomography scan of her brain to have a 1-cm lesion in the right frontal lobe in 2008. In the ensuing years, before her current admission, multiple imaging studies of the brain revealed that the lesion was stable and it was, therefore, interpreted as a small area of encephalomalacia related to a thrombosed cortical vein, a cavernoma, or treated metastatic breast cancer. In 2013, the patient underwent a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for ovarian tumors that were diagnosed as bilateral serous cystadenofibromas...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629418/prenatal-brain-disruption-in-isolated-sulfite-oxidase-deficiency
#2
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Ching-Shiang Chi, Chi-Ren Tsai, Hung-Chieh Chen, I-Chun Lee
BACKGROUND: Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (ISOD) is a very rare autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disease. The most striking postnatal neuroimaging finding is multicystic encephalomalacia, which occurs rapidly within days to weeks after birth and mimics severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to describe the prenatal neuroimaging features in a neonate and a fetus diagnosed with ISOD. RESULTS: We report an 11-day-old female neonate who presented with feeding difficulties, decreased activity, neonatal seizures, and movement disorders within a few days after birth...
June 19, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626412/congenital-bilateral-c2-transverse-foramina-stenosis-causing-adult-onset-vertebrobasilar-insufficiency-and-posterior-circulation-stroke
#3
Ajeet Gordhan, Catherine Lockhart
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency leading to posterior circulation infarcts caused by congenital hypoplasia of the bilateral transverse foramina at the C2 level, affecting the caliber and flow of the bilateral distal cervical vertebral arteries in an adult, has not been previously reported. A 41-year-old male presented with episodic dizziness for a period of 1 year prior to consultation. Computed tomography angiography of the head and neck demonstrated congenital hypoplasia of the bilateral C2 transverse foramina, with absence of the vertebral arteries in each of the foramina and collateral reconstitution of diminutive intracranial vertebral artery segments...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528533/first-report-of-angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-a-wild-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-from-apulia-italy
#4
Giuseppe Passantino, Fabio Marino, Gabriella Gaglio, Rosa Patruno, Giovanni Lanteri, Nicola Zizzo
Severe lung strongylosis was detected in a wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) (1/12) from Apulia (Italy). We performed routine diagnostics on 12 foxes found dead in Apulia. Eleven of them showed lesions consistent with a vehicle collision. However, the remaining fox appeared to have died from other causes. At necropsy we observed, catarrhal enteritis, fatty liver, lung congestion with some areas rm in consistence and brain haemorrhages and malacia. Histopathology revealed lung brosis with mononucleate cells in ltration, thrombosis a several larval nematodes spread in the parenchyma, interstitial nephritis, interstitial myocarditis, encephalitis, encephalomalacia, and a brain granuloma...
April 5, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515563/secondary-eating-disorder-a-reality-case-report-of-post-brain-injury-sequelae
#5
Aparna Das, Deeksha Elwadhi, Manushree Gupta
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to changes in eating behavior patterns. This report describes the case of a patient with alcohol dependence presenting with behavioral changes and eating disorder following frontal lobe trauma. A 42-year-old male, premorbidly well-adjusted presented with alcohol use in dependent pattern for years. He sustained a subdural hematoma in the frontal lobe following a road traffic accident 10 years back. Post-TBI, the patient, started having low frustration tolerance, aggressive outbursts, disinhibition, difficulty in persisting with tasks, apathy, amotivation, and craving for food with inability to control intake on the sight of food...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414666/just-a-puff-of-smoke
#6
A Leonard
CASE: A 44 year old woman with a history of stroke s/p aneurysm clipping, seizure, and substance abuse was brought to the hospital after a family member received a call from her friend saying she was acting unusual and may have had a seizure while hanging out on the street. At her baseline, she needed modest assistance in daily activities after her CVA and conversed without issue. Her mother died of a stroke. On exam the patient was afebrile, normotensive with mild tachycardia to 110...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410084/clinical-and-electroencephalographic-characteristics-of-infantile-onset-epilepsies-caused-by-genetic-mutations
#7
Yun Jung Hur, Sookyong Koh, John Millichap, Srishti Nangia, Lawrence J Jennings, Douglas R Nordli
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether certain characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features are indicative of a genetic cause in early-life epilepsy. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled a total of 100 patients with infantile-onset (<3 years) epilepsy due to known genetic cause (n = 50) and nongenetic cause (acquired, structural, or unknown, n = 50). The genetic group was classified into synaptopathies, channelopathies, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-opathies, and chromosomal abnormalities...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374239/radiological-imaging-findings-of-dyke-davidoff-masson-syndrome
#8
Erkan Gökçe, Murat Beyhan, Recep Sade
Radiological findings of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) in patients with different etiologies are presented in our study. The study included 12 patients (seven females, five males) for whom radiological examinations were requested due to reasons such as epilepsy, mental retardation, and/or hemiplegia. CT was performed in 12, MRI in 6, MRA in 1, and DSA in 1 patient. Following imaging findings were evaluated: cerebral and cerebellar involvement (laterality, encephalomalacia), affected territories, ventricular enlargement, sulcal enlargement, calvarial thickening, and paranasal sinus enlargement hyperaeration...
April 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373797/refractory-lesional-parietal-lobe-epilepsy-clinical-electroencephalographic-and-neurodiagnostic-findings
#9
Oğuzhan Kurşun, Hülya Karataş, Neşe Dericioğlu, Serap Saygi
INTRODUCTION: Specialized centers, in the management and surgical treatment of medically refractory epilepsy, emphasize the importance of differentiating the varieties of localization related epilepsies. There has been considerable recent interest in temporal and frontal lobe epileptic syndromes and less attention has been paid to parietal and occipital lobe epilepsies. METHODS: Here we report the clinical, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging characteristics of 46 patients with medically refractory lesional parietal lobe epilepsy who have been followed up for 1-10 years...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348758/recurrent-sepsis-and-neuroinvasive-disease-in-a-neonate-culture-positive-for-a-group-b-streptococcus-cps-iii-serotype-hvga-strain
#10
Sneha Suresh, Gregory Tyrrell, Areej Alhhazmi, Sandra Escoredo, Michael Hawkes
INTRODUCTION: Late-onset disease with Group B Streptococcus (GBS LOD) remains a significant problem in neonates. Unlike early-onset disease, rates of GBS LOD have not changed with prenatal testing. Effects of GBS LOD can be severe and thus identifying risk factors for severe GBS LOD, such as hypervirulence genes, may help in managing these infants. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a neonate with capsular serotype III GBS sepsis without meningitis that recurred 6 days after a 10-day-treatment period with IV ampicillin...
June 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272261/abnormal-parietal-encephalomalacia-associated-with-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#11
Fen Pan, Jun-Yuan Wang, Yi Xu, Man-Li Huang
RATIONALE: It is widely believed that structural abnormalities of the brain contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The parietal lobe is a central hub of multisensory integration, and abnormities in this region might account for the clinical features of schizophrenia. However, few cases of parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia have been described. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: In this paper, we present a case of a 25-year-old schizophrenia patient with abnormal parietal encephalomalacia...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237716/clostridium-perfringens-epsilon-toxin-induces-permanent-neuronal-degeneration-and-behavioral-changes
#12
Winston E Morris, Jorge Goldstein, Leandro M Redondo, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia Geoghegan, Marcela Brocco, Fabián C Loidl, Mariano E Fernandez-Miyakawa
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), the most potent toxin produced by this bacteria, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia in ruminants, causing brain edema and encephalomalacia. Studies of animals suffering from ETX intoxication describe severe neurological disorders that are thought to be the result of vasogenic brain edemas and indirect neuronal toxicity, killing oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes, microglia, or neurons in vitro. In this study, by means of intravenous and intracerebroventricular delivery of sub-lethal concentrations of ETX, the histological and ultrastructural changes of the brain were studied in rats and mice...
February 22, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214641/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-causing-vision-loss-after-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-pituitary-adenoma
#13
Nicolas W Villelli, Daniel M Prevedello, Daniel S Ikeda, Alaa S Montaser, Bradley A Otto, Ricardo L Carrau
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by headache, altered mental status, visual changes, and seizure combined with brain imaging consistent with cerebral edema without infarction. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of PRES after an endoscopic endonasal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 59-year-old woman was diagnosed with a pituitary macroadenoma, for which she underwent endoscopic endonasal extracapsular resection...
April 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178754/neuroprotective-effect-of-nebivolol-against-cisplatin-associated-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats
#14
Noha F Abdelkader, Muhammed A Saad, Rania M Abdelsalam
One-third of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment often display symptoms of depression leading to poor adherence and decreased quality of life. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of nebivolol against cisplatin-associated depressive symptoms in adult male rats. Nebivolol is a highly cardioselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker that possesses endothelium-dependent vasodilator properties and antioxidant capacities. Animals were allocated into four groups. Group one was given aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control, group two was given nebivolol (10 mg/kg p...
May 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149115/multicystic-encephalomalacia-secondary-to-head-trauma
#15
R V Phadke, Vivek Agarwal, Suprava Naik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076893/pseudofeeders-on-fetal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predict-outcome-in-vein-of-galen-malformations
#16
Guillaume Saliou, Irène Vraka, Jean-Paul Teglas, Marie-Victoire Senat, Philippe Durand, Claire Colmant, Augustin Ozanne, Jelena Martinovic, Pierre Tissiere, Catherine Adamsbaum
OBJECTIVE: Although vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) can be diagnosed in the fetus, the challenge is predicting the occurrence of its 2 major complications: cardiopulmonary failure and encephalomalacia. This study attempts to determine which fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features might be used to predict the development of these complications at birth. METHODS: The cohort was extracted from a prospectively assembled database of VGAM cases managed at a single referral center from 2000 to 2014...
February 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043398/col4a1-mutation-in-a-neonate-with-intrauterine-stroke-and-anterior-segment-dysgenesis
#17
Shaheen Durrani-Kolarik, Kandamurugu Manickam, Bernadette Chen
BACKGROUND: COL4A1 on chromosome 13q34 encodes the alpha 1 chain of type IV collagen, a component of basal membranes. It is expressed mainly in the brain, muscles, kidneys, and eyes. COL4A1 mutations can remain asymptomatic or cause devastating disease. Neonates and children may present with porencephaly, intracerebral hemorrhage, or hemiparesis, whereas adults tend to develop intracranial aneurysms or retinal arteriolar tortuosities. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a term infant with encephalomalacia, extensive intrauterine stroke and anterior segment dysgenesis with a de novo mutation in COL4A1...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011042/glial-changes-and-evidence-for-apoptosis-in-the-brain-of-cats-infected-by-cytauxzoon-felis
#18
L L Clarke, P M Krimer, D R Rissi
Ischaemic neuropathological changes associated with Cytauxzoon felis infection in cats have been reported recently. This paper describes the associated glial changes and the evidence for apoptosis in the brain of cats infected naturally by C. felis. Sections of brain from eight affected cats and eight age- and sex-matched control cats were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD18 and cleaved caspase-3. Vascular changes in the leptomeninges and parenchyma, the number of positive astrocytes and phagocytic cells (microglia or macrophages) and the average astrocytic cytoplasmic area and number and length of astrocytic processes were quantified, and a mean value for the grey and white matter in both groups was generated...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965911/occipital-hypometabolism-on-fdg-pet-ct-scan-in-a-child-with-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#19
Inci Uslu Biner, Ebru Tatci, Ozlem Ozmen, Atila Gokcek, Haci Ahmet Demir, Nadide Basak Gulleroglu
It is known that Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) images may be helpful for evaluation of brain function in newborns. Here we described the fluorine-18 [18-F] FDG PET/CT imaging findings of encephalomalacia due to perinatal asphyxia in a child with refractory Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) who underwent PET/CT scan to stage the primary disease. Prominent hypometabolism was incidentally detected in the occipital regions bilaterally apart from the FDG uptakes in the malign lymphatic infiltrations...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870647/meg-may-reveal-hidden-population-of-spikes-in-epilepsy-with-porencephalic-cyst-encephalomalacia
#20
Yosuke Kakisaka, Zhong I Wang, Sumiya Shibata, Yoko Takahashi, John C Mosher, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Richard C Burgess
Porencephalic cyst/encephalomalacia (PC/E) is often associated with intractable epilepsy. A Limited number of studies reported Magnetoencephalography (MEG)'s potential to help construct treatment strategy for epilepsies associated with PC/E. We present here simultaneous EEG and MEG findings in three adult patients with pediatric-onset epilepsy due to PC/E. There were two types of spikes: one type was detected by MEG only (EEG-/MEG+), and the other detected by both EEG and MEG (EEG+/MEG+). Both types were seen in all three cases...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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