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serotonin and acetylcholine and adrenaline

Ling-Zong Hong, Keh-Feng Huang, Siu-Wan Hung, Li-Te Kuo
Data regarding the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are a common type of antidepressants, on cardiovascular autonomic function are inconsistent. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chronic fluoxetine, an SSRI, on blood pressure, cardiac autonomic nervous activities and baroreflex control of heart rate. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg day, p.o.) or saline for 14 weeks. Baroreflex function was determined by the sigmoid logistic method based on the heart rate responses to changes in blood pressure elicited by phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside infusions...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Aneta Wojnicz, José Avendaño-Ortiz, Ricardo de Pascual, Lucía Ruiz-Pascual, Antonio G García, Ana Ruiz-Nuño
The primary functions of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells are the synthesis and storage in their chromaffin vesicles of the catecholamines noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (AD), and their subsequent release into the bloodstream by Ca2+ -dependent exocytosis under conditions of fear or stress (fight or flight response). Several monoamines, nucleotides and opiates, such as leucine-enkephalin (LENK) and methionine-enkephalin (MENK), are also co-stored and co-released with the catecholamines. However, other neurotransmitters have not been studied in depth...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Ersin Hatice Karslıoǧlu, Elvan Özalp, Ali Çayköylü
Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing, and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. Pharmacological management of incontinence should be considered if there is a risk of cessation of the antipsychotic therapy or any decline in patients' compliance...
February 29, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
J N Cremer, K Amunts, A Schleicher, N Palomero-Gallagher, M Piel, F Rösch, K Zilles
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-characterized neurological disorder with regard to its neuropathological and symptomatic appearance. At the genetic level, mutations of particular genes, e.g. Parkin and DJ-1, were found in human hereditary PD with early onset. Neurotransmitter receptors constitute decisive elements in neural signal transduction. Furthermore, since they are often altered in neurological and psychiatric diseases, receptors have been successful targets for pharmacological agents. However, the consequences of PD-associated gene mutations on the expression of transmitter receptors are largely unknown...
December 17, 2015: Neuroscience
Leonid L Moroz
Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers - features that enable them to transmit information, primarily chemical in nature, beyond their immediate neighbors without affecting all intervening cells en route. Multiple origins of neurons and synapses from different classes of ancestral secretory cells might have occurred more than once during ~600 million years of animal evolution with independent events of nervous system centralization from a common bilaterian/cnidarian ancestor without the bona fide central nervous system...
February 15, 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
J N Cremer, K Amunts, J Graw, M Piel, F Rösch, K Zilles
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by alterations of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Compared to the wealth of data on the impairment of the dopamine system, relatively limited evidence is available concerning the role of major non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems in PD. Therefore, we comprehensively investigated the density and distribution of neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and adenosine in brains of homozygous aphakia mice being characterized by mutations affecting the Pitx3 gene...
January 29, 2015: Neuroscience
Ralf Clauss
Oxygen based neurotransmitters in the synapses of the brain are proposed to play an important role in the generation of consciousness. They include the amino acids glutamate and GABA which use Krebs cycle precursors for their synthesis, and the monoamines dopamine, noradrenalin, adrenalin and serotonin, which are derived from tyrosine and tryptophan. During ischemia after an acute brain injury, a GABA surge often initiates brain suppression. It has been proposed that with chronic ischemia, a secondary, possibly epigenetic response occurs when neurotransmitters deplete, a glucose and oxygen saving mechanism termed neurodormancy that may invoke alternative long term low energy metabolic pathways in the brain, encountered in Disorders of Consciousness...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Yunqi Xu, Junqiang Yan, Peng Zhou, Jiejie Li, Huimin Gao, Ying Xia, Qing Wang
Cognitive dysfunction is one of the most typical characteristics in various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (advanced stage). Although several mechanisms like neuronal apoptosis and inflammatory responses have been recognized to be involved in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in these diseases, recent studies on neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction have demonstrated a significant impact of receptor modulation on cognitive changes. The pathological alterations in various receptors appear to contribute to cognitive impairment and/or deterioration with correlation to diversified mechanisms...
April 2012: Progress in Neurobiology
Hildegard M Schuller
Exposure to tobacco products is responsible for the majority of all human cancers. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were identified as early as 1989 as important regulators of cancer cells. In analogy to its function in the brain, the homomeric α7nAChR has "accelerator function" on the most common human cancers by stimulating the synthesis and release of excitatory neurotransmitters (serotonin in small cell lung cancer, noradrenaline/adrenaline in most other cancers) that drive cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and metastasis while inhibiting apoptosis...
May 2012: Current Drug Targets
H I H El-Sayyad, M A El-Sherbiny, M A Sobh, A M Abou-El-Naga, M A N Ibrahim, S A Mousa
Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)...
2011: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Jacek Wójcikowski, Wadysawa Anna Daniel
The central and peripheral nervous systems are important factors influencing the functioning of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP). It has been shown that changes in the brain monoaminergic systems affect liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression (CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2C11 and CYP3A). The brain dopaminergic system has been established as an important center regulating the liver CYP. This regulation proceeds via the tuberoinfundibular pathway and the dopaminergic D2 receptors of the pituitary, as well as the mesolimbic pathway engaging the D2 receptors of the nucleus accumbens (conveying a message to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus)...
February 2011: Current Drug Metabolism
Saima Salim, Sharique A Ali
Drug discovery in skin pharmacotherapy is an enormous, continually expanding field. Researchers are developing novel and sensitive pharmaceutical products and drugs that target specific receptors to elicit concerted and appropriate responses. The pigment-bearing cells called melanophores have a significant contribution to make in this field. Melanophores, which contain the dark brown or black pigment melanin, constitute an important class of chromatophores. They are highly specialized in the bidirectional and coordinated translocation of pigment granules when given an appropriate stimulus...
March 2011: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Charlotta Dornonville de la Cour, Per Norlén, Rolf Håkanson
Ghrelin is produced by A-like cells (ghrelin cells) in the mucosa of the acid-producing part of the stomach. The mobilization of ghrelin is stimulated by nutritional deficiency and suppressed by nutritional abundance. In an attempt to identify neurotransmitters and regulatory peptides that may contribute to the physiological, nutrient-related regulation of ghrelin secretion, we challenged the ghrelin cells in situ with a wide variety of candidate messengers, including known neurotransmitters (e.g. acetylcholine, catecholamines), candidate neurotransmitters (e...
October 4, 2007: Regulatory Peptides
Kornelia Ellwanger, Michael Nickel
BACKGROUND: Sponges (Porifera) are nerve- and muscleless metazoa, but display coordinated motor reactions. Therefore, they represent a valuable phylum to investigate coordination systems, which evolved in a hypothetical Urmetazoon prior to the central nervous system (CNS) of later metazoa. We have chosen the contractile and locomotive species Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae, Hadromerida) as a model system for our research, using quantitative analysis based on digital time lapse imaging...
April 27, 2006: Frontiers in Zoology
C Agnisola
In mammals, the in vivo coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen consumption are closely related via changes in coronary resistance in response to the metabolic demands of the myocardium. A fine neurohumoral regulation of coronary resistance holds true also in fish, and particularly in teleosts, where several vasoconstrictive and vasodilative mechanisms have been described, with numerous putative effectors, including prostanoids, acetylcholine, adrenaline, serotonin, adenosine, steroid hormones. Here, a resume is reported of the available evidence on the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the control of coronary resistance in teleosts and particularly in salmonids...
October 2005: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Kazuhiro Shiba, Kazuma Ogawa, Hirofumi Mori
We investigated the binding characteristics of a (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[125I]pIV], radioiodinated at the para-position of the 4-phenylpiperidine moiety, to sigma receptors (sigma-1, sigma-2) and to vesicular acetylcholine transporters (VAChT) in membranes of the rat brain and liver. In competitive inhibition studies, (+)-pIV (Ki=1.30 nM) had more than 10 times higher affinity to the sigma-1 (sigma-1) receptor than (+)-pentazocine (Ki=19.9 nM) or haloperidol (Ki=13...
February 15, 2005: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Naoki Uyama, Albert Geerts, Hendrik Reynaert
After receiving information from afferent nerves, the hypothalamus sends signals to peripheral organs, including the liver, to keep homeostasis. There are two ways for the hypothalamus to signal to the peripheral organs: by stimulating the autonomic nerves and by releasing hormones from the pituitary gland. In order to reveal the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in liver function, we focus in this study on autonomic nerves and neuroendocrine connections between the hypothalamus and the liver. The hypothalamus consists of three major areas: lateral, medial, and periventricular...
September 2004: Anatomical Record. Part A, Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology
Barbara Lorkowska, Stefan Chlopicki, Ewa Marcinkiewicz, Ryszard J Gryglewski
Recently, we have shown that some HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) induce immediate pleiotropic effects in vascular endothelium both in vivo and in vitro, to mention only PGI2-mediated thrombolysis in rats and NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in guinea pig coronary circulation. Here we look whether immediate endothelial effect of statins is associated with mobilization of intracellular calcium ions [Ca2+]i in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). We analyzed the effects of various statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin and pravastatin at concentration of 10-30 microM) on [Ca2+]i in BAEC in comparison to responses induced by bradykinin (Bk) (10 nM), adenosine diphosphate (1 microM), acetylcholine (100 nM), adrenaline (10 microM), serotonin (10 microM) or calcium ionophore A 23187 (0...
May 2004: Polish Journal of Pharmacology
I P Lapin
The following NEKY have been studied: 1-kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxyKYN (3HKYN), kynurenic (KYNA), anthranilic (ANT), 3-hydroxyANT (3HANT), quinolinic (QUIN), picolinic (PICA), xanthurenic (XAN), nicotinic (NIC) acids, 3-indole-pyruvate (IPA), nicotinamide (NAM). NEKY antagonize the central effects of precursors of serotonin (tryptophan and 5-HTP), and tryptamine as well. Seizures induced by central administration of KYN and QUIN are prevented by centrally injected dopamine and diminished by noradrenaline and adrenaline...
2003: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
J G Eguiagaray, J Egea, J J Bravo-Cordero, A G García
In this article we show some recent findings that constitute a great progress in the molecular knowledge of synaptic dynamics. To communicate, neurons use a code that includes electrical (action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters, neuromodulators). At the moment a great variety of molecules are known, whose neurotransmitter function in brain and the peripheral nervous system are out of question. Monoamines like acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, histamine, serotonin, glutamate, aspartate, glycine, ATP and GABA are good examples...
April 2004: Neurocirugía
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