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Gender bias

Veronica Cabanas-Sanchez, Sara Higueras-Fresnillo, Miguel Ángel De La Camara, Oscar L Veiga, David Martinez-Gomez
The aims of the present study were: (i) to develop automated algorithms to identify the sleep period time in 24-h data from the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) in older adults, and (ii) to analyze the agreement of these algorithms to identify the sleep period time as compared to self-reported data and expert visual analysis of accelerometer raw data.
 Approach. This study comprised 50 participants, aged 65 to 85 years. Fourteen automated algorithms were developed. Participants reported their bedtime and wake time in the days wearing the device...
April 18, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Christiane Gasse, Andreas Aalkjaer Danielsen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Ole Mors, Jakob Christensen
PURPOSE: It is not possible to fully assess intention of self-harm and suicidal events using information from administrative databases. We conducted a validation study of intention of suicide attempts/self-harm contacts identified by a commonly applied Danish register-based algorithm (DK-algorithm) based on hospital discharge diagnosis and emergency room contacts. METHODS: Of all 101 530 people identified with an incident suicide attempt/self-harm contact at Danish hospitals between 1995 and 2012 using the DK-algorithm, we selected a random sample of 475 people...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Johannes Fuss, Peer Briken, Verena Klein
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chia-Jui Tsai, Wei-Che Chiu, Chia-Ju Chen, Pau-Chung Chen, Roger S McIntyre, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
INTRODUCTION: In recent decades, concern about safety of antidepressants has been raised but the risk between antidepressants and lung cancer has not yet been established. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted by using a nationwide database in Taiwan. The case groups were new onset lung cancer diagnosis during 1999-2008 and age- and gender-matched controls were selected among those without any cancer. The cumulative exposure dose before the lung cancer diagnosis was added and risks were calculated according to the levels of defined daily dose and classes of antidepressants...
April 16, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
D Catherine Walker, Emily K White, Vamshek J Srinivasan
OBJECTIVE: Body checking (BC) and body image avoidance (BIA) have been proposed as etiological and maintaining mechanisms for eating disorder (ED) pathology. To date, no comprehensive review summarizes the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, or mood/affect. METHOD: Meta-analyses examined the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect. Gender, publication status, and presence or absence of ED diagnoses were examined as potential moderators...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Ben Wang, Ruqiao Duan, Liping Duan
Background/Aims: We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorder in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and study the association between IBS and sleep disorder. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases using the following search terms: "functional gastrointestinal disorders," "Sleep disturbance," "Sleep disorder," "insomnia," "Dysomnias," "irritable bowel syndrome," and "IBS...
April 13, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Virginia Rider, Nabih I Abdou, Bruce F Kimler, Nanyan Lu, Susan Brown, Brooke L Fridley
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease resulting from abnormal interactions between T and B cells. The acquisition of SLE is linked to genetic susceptibility, and diverse environmental agents can trigger disease onset in genetically susceptible individuals. However, the strongest risk factor for developing SLE is being female (9:1 female to male ratio). The female sex steroid, estradiol, working through its receptors, contributes to the gender bias in SLE although the mechanisms remain enigmatic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sarah E Valentine, Jillian C Shipherd
Transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) populations, including those who do not identify with gender binary constructs (man or woman) are increasingly recognized in health care settings. Research on the health of TGNC people is growing, and disparities are often noted. In this review, we examine 77 studies published between January 1, 1997 and March 22, 2017 which reported mental health outcomes in TGNC populations to (a) characterize what is known about mental health outcomes and (b) describe what gaps persist in this literature...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Olga Masot, Ana Lavedán, Carmen Nuin, Miguel A Escobar-Bravo, Jèssica Miranda, Teresa Botigué
BACKGROUND: Dehydration in the older people is a prevalent problem that is often associated with physiological changes, physical limitations and environmental conditions. OBJECTIVES: The scoping review was carried out to identify risk factors associated with dehydration in older people living in nursing homes. DESIGN: The revised scoping methodology framework of Arksey and O'Malley (2005) was applied. Study selection was carried out in accordance with Davis et al...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Kalluri Thishya, Kiran Kumar Vattam, Shaik Mohammad Naushad, Shree Bhushan Raju, Vijay Kumar Kutala
The objective of the current study was to explore the role of ABCB1 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms in predicting the bioavailability of tacrolimus and the risk for post-transplant diabetes. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression (LR) models were used to predict the bioavailability of tacrolimus and risk for post-transplant diabetes, respectively. The five-fold cross-validation of ANN model showed good correlation with the experimental data of bioavailability (r2 = 0.93-0.96). Younger age, male gender, optimal body mass index were shown to exhibit lower bioavailability of tacrolimus...
2018: PloS One
Lars Folkestad
Ostegenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disease of the connective tissue caused by mutations to, mainly, the genes that are involved in the biosynthesis of collagen type 1. Patients are grouped according to clinical severity and mode of inheritance according to Sillence's classification (originally 1979, updated 2014). According to our data, the population prevalence of OI in Denmark was 10.3 per 100,000, with 575 patients registered with an OI diagnosis in the National Patient Register and alive at the end of 2012 out of a total population of 5,602,628 persons...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Javier Olivera, Francesco Andreoli, Anja K Leist, Louis Chauvel
Although cohort and country differences in average cognitive levels are well established, identifying the degree and determinants of inequalities in old age cognitive functioning could guide public health and policymaking efforts. We use all publicly available and representative old age surveys with comparable information to assess inequalities of cognitive functioning for six distinctive age groups in 29 countries. We document that cognitive inequalities in old age are largely determined by earlier educational inequalities as well as gender differential survival rates...
March 22, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Wenqing Zhu, Xiaoguang Luo, Atif Adnan, Peifu Yu, Siyi Zhang, Zhixin Huo, Qin Xu, Hao Pang
Genome-wide association studies have reported numerous candidate loci associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). NUCKS1 and INPP5K are two such candidate loci, although they have rarely been reported in Asian populations. To explore these potential genes for PD susceptibility, we investigated the association between PD and two SNPs, rs823114 and rs1109303, located on the NUCKS1 and INPP5K genes, respectively, in the Han population of northern China. We genotyped the two SNPs using the multiplex PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique...
March 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Kristina Krell, Kai Thorsten Laser, Robert Dalla-Pozza, Christian Winkler, Ursula Hildebrandt, Deniz Kececioglu, Johannes Breuer, Ulrike Herberg
BACKGROUND: Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is a promising method for accurate assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and function, however, pediatric reference values are scarce. The aim of the study was to establish pediatric percentiles in a large population and to compare the inherent influence of different evaluation software on the resulting measurements. METHODS: In a multicenter prospective-design study, 497 healthy children (ages 1 day to 219 months) underwent RT3DE imaging of the LV (ie33, Philips, Andover, MA)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Gregory S Calip, Pritesh R Patel, Sruthi Adimadhyam, Shan Xing, Zhaoju Wu, Karen Sweiss, Glen T Schumock, Todd A Lee, Brian C-H Chiu
Based on limited evidence, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a black box warning for the use of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFIs) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Our objective was to determine the risk of NHL associated with TNFI use by duration and type of anti-TNF agent. We performed a nested case-control study within a retrospective cohort of adults with rheumatologic conditions from a U.S. commercial health insurance database between 2009 and 2015. Use of TNFIs (infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab and certolizumab pegol) and conventional-synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) was identified, and conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of NHL...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Richard J Pietras
Dr. Clara M. Szego passed away recently at the age of 101. She was a pioneer in the study of steroid hormone action, particularly the role of estrogens in target tissues. She was first to report on steroid hormone binding with proteins in the circulation in 1946. This observation led to a Ciba Foundation Award of the Endocrine Society in 1953. Claire then followed the steroid hormone and reported on interactions with membrane-associated and nuclear proteins in target cells of the reproductive tract and breast...
March 27, 2018: Steroids
Lotte Poulsen, Andrea Pusic, Sam Robson, Jens Ahm Sorensen, Michael Rose, Claus Bogh Juhl, Rene Klinkby Stoving, Alin Andries, Anne F Klassen
Background: Stretch marks are common permanent dermal lesions that can cause psychosocial distress. A number of treatment modalities are available, with the majority targeted towards collagen production. Objective: To develop and field-test a new BODY-Q scale to measure appearance of stretch marks in order to provide a means to incorporate the patient perspective into future treatment studies. Methods: We previously described the development of the BODY-Q conceptual framework, which involved a literature review, 63 patient interviews, 22 cognitive interviews and input from 9 experts, and the international field-test study that involved 403 weight loss and 331 body contouring patients...
March 27, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Abiodun O Adewuya, Olurotimi A Coker, Olayinka Atilola, Bolanle A Ola, Mathew P Zachariah, Tomilola Adewumi, Olufemi Olugbile, Adedolapo Fasawe, Olajide Idris
It is still unclear whether the gender difference in the rate of depression cuts across cultures or is specific to some depressive symptoms. This study evaluated the gender difference in current prevalence, symptoms, comorbidity, and correlates of depression in Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 11,246 adult participants (6525 females and 4712 males) in a face-to-face household survey were assessed for symptoms of depression. They were also assessed for symptoms of anxiety, somatic symptoms, alcohol and substance use disorders, and disability...
March 28, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Takahiro Tsukahara, Takuma Sugahara, Takuro Furusawa, Francis Wanak Hombhanje
Background: In Papua New Guinea (PNG), a malaria treatment policy using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) plus artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was widely introduced to rural communities in 2012. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of this RDT/ACT introduction to a rural PNG population on health service utilization and to compare factors associated with health service utilization before and after the RDT/ACT introduction. Methods: Household surveys with structured questionnaires were conducted before and after the introduction of RDT/ACT in a catchment area of a health center in East Sepik Province, PNG...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Mathias Haeger, Otmar Bock, Daniel Memmert, Stefanie Hüttermann
Virtual reality offers a good possibility for the implementation of real-life tasks in a laboratory-based training or testing scenario. Thus, a computerized training in a driving simulator offers an ecological valid training approach. Visual attention had an influence on driving performance, so we used the reverse approach to test the influence of a driving training on visual attention and executive functions. Thirty-seven healthy older participants (mean age: 71.46 ± 4.09; gender: 17 men and 20 women) took part in our controlled experimental study...
2018: Journal of Aging Research
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