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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439739/medical-mistrust-and-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-african-americans
#1
REVIEW
Leslie B Adams, Jennifer Richmond, Giselle Corbie-Smith, Wizdom Powell
Despite well-documented benefits of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, African Americans are less likely to be screened and have higher CRC incidence and mortality than Whites. Emerging evidence suggests medical mistrust may influence CRC screening disparities among African Americans. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize evidence investigating associations between medical mistrust and CRC screening among African Americans, and variations in these associations by gender, CRC screening type, and level of mistrust...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438196/examiner-effect-on-the-objective-structured-clinical-exam-a-study-at-five-medical-schools
#2
Iris Schleicher, Karsten Leitner, Jana Juenger, Andreas Moeltner, Miriam Ruesseler, Bernd Bender, Jasmina Sterz, Karl-Friedrich Schuettler, Sarah Koenig, Joachim Gerhard Kreuder
BACKGROUND: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is increasingly used at medical schools to assess practical competencies. To compare the outcomes of students at different medical schools, we introduced standardized OSCE stations with identical checklists. METHODS: We investigated examiner bias at standardized OSCE stations for knee- and shoulder-joint examinations, which were implemented into the surgical OSCE at five different medical schools. The checklists for the assessment consisted of part A for knowledge and performance of the skill and part B for communication and interaction with the patient...
April 24, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437214/speaker-introductions-at-internal-medicine-grand-rounds-forms-of-address-reveal-gender-bias
#3
Julia A Files, Anita P Mayer, Marcia G Ko, Patricia Friedrich, Marjorie Jenkins, Michael J Bryan, Suneela Vegunta, Christopher M Wittich, Melissa A Lyle, Ryan Melikian, Trevor Duston, Yu-Hui H Chang, Sharonne N Hayes
BACKGROUND: Gender bias has been identified as one of the drivers of gender disparity in academic medicine. Bias may be reinforced by gender subordinating language or differential use of formality in forms of address. Professional titles may influence the perceived expertise and authority of the referenced individual. The objective of this study is to examine how professional titles were used in the same and mixed-gender speaker introductions at Internal Medicine Grand Rounds (IMGR). METHODS: A retrospective observational study of video-archived speaker introductions at consecutive IMGR was conducted at two different locations (Arizona, Minnesota) of an academic medical center...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436360/prostate-cancer-screening-practices-amongst-physicians-in-the-north-simcoe-muskoka-local-health-integration-network
#4
Thomas Burrows, A Andrew Ray, Cory Hartsburg
INTRODUCTION: The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening test is controversial and can result in both over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Recently, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) has recommended against routine screening for prostate cancer. We sought to determine how the CTFPHC has impacted the practice patterns among family physicians in the North Simcoe Muskoka (NSM) Local Health Integration Network (LHIN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We surveyed all 439 family physicians within the NSM LHIN as well as 21 residents of the Family Medical Teaching Unit...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432747/whole-body-adipose-tissue-and-lean-muscle-volumes-and-their-distribution-across-gender-and-age-mr-derived-normative-values-in-a-normal-weight-swiss-population
#5
Erika J Ulbrich, Daniel Nanz, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Magda Marcon, Michael A Fischer
PURPOSE: To determine age- and gender-dependent whole-body adipose tissue and muscle volumes in healthy Swiss volunteers in Dixon MRI in comparison with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) measurements. METHODS: Fat-water-separated whole-body 3 Tesla MRI of 80 healthy volunteers (ages 20 to 62 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 17.5 to 26.2 kg/m(2) (10 men, 10 women per decade). Age and gender-dependent volumes of total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), and the total lean muscle tissue (TLMT) normalized for body height were determined by semi-automatic segmentation, and correlated with anthropometric and BIA measurements as well as lifestyle parameters...
April 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431029/the-chinese-version-of-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-in-schizophrenia-data-of-a-large-scale-mandarin-speaking-population
#6
Liang-Jen Wang, Yu-Chi Huang, Chi-Fa Hung, Chih-Ken Chen, Yi-Chih Chen, Pei-Yi Lee, Si-Ming Wang, Ming-Hsiung Liu, Chia-Ju Lin, Su-Ting Hsu
Objective: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a cognitive assessment tool used to measure the broad aspects of cognition that are most frequently impaired in patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to develop the normative data of the Chinese version of the BACS among the Mandarin-speaking population. Method: This cross-sectional study included 382 healthy participants (age range: 19-79 years; mean age: 48.0 ± 16.7 years, 47.6% men) in Taiwan, who were evaluated with the BACS...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430880/cerebral-abscess-associated-with-odontogenic-bacteremias-hypoxemia-and-iron-loading-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-right-to-left-shunting-through-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations
#7
E J Boother, S Brownlow, H C Tighe, K B Bamford, J E Jackson, C L Shovlin
Background: Cerebral abscess is a recognised complication of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) that allow systemic venous blood to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed through anatomic right-to-left shunts. Broader implications and mechanisms remain poorly explored. Methods: Between June 2005 and December 2016, at a single institution, 445 consecutive adult patients with CT-scan confirmed PAVMs (including 403 (90.5%) with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia) were recruited to a prospective series...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428716/transition-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-perceptions-of-adults-adolescents-and-parents
#8
Norman Junge, Katarina Migal, Imeke Goldschmidt, Ulrich Baumann
AIM: To develop a locally adapted, patient-focused transition-program, we evaluated the perceptions of adult and adolescent patients and parents regarding transition-programs and transfer. METHODS: We evaluated these perceptions by analyzing the responses of pre-transfer adolescents (n = 57), their parents (n = 57) and post-transfer adults (n = 138) from a cohort of pediatric-liver-transplant-patients using a self-designed questionnaire. Furthermore, we compared a responder group with a non-responder group as well as the provided answers with baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes to exclude selection bias, characterize high-risk patients for non-adherence and test for gender differences...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420585/adjuvant-chemotherapy-is-associated-with-improved-overall-survival-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-after-achievement-of-a-pathologic-complete-response-to-chemoradiation
#9
Danish Shahab, Emmanuel Gabriel, Kristopher Attwood, Wen Wee Ma, Valerie Francescutti, Steven Nurkin, Patrick M Boland
BACKGROUND: In locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma, 15% to 20% of patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) achieve a pathologic complete response (pCR). The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial in rectal cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of clinical risk factors and adjuvant chemotherapy usage on the outcomes of the pCR patient population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using the National Cancer Data Base from 2006 to 2013...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419696/risk-factors-associated-with-pain-on-chronic-intermittent-hemodialysis-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Tonci Brkovic, Eliana Burilovic, Livia Puljak
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to define risk factors related to pain in adult end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis (HD) by developing a systematic review of published data. METHODS: The search was conducted from MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Manuscripts in all languages were considered. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author...
April 18, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417621/inverse-relation-between-mxa-gene-expression-and-age-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-reveals-a-gender-difference-in-response-to-interferon-therapy
#11
Mohammad Taheri, Mohammadreza Mirinezhad, Mir Davood Omrani, Elham Sajjadi, Hidetoshi Inoko, Arezou Sayad
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, multifocal, immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system that women are at a higher risk to acquire than men. Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is used as a predictive marker of bioactivity of interferon-beta (IFN-β) therapy in MS patients. This study was undertaken in west of Iran to investigate gender differences in the expression level of MxA in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients receiving IFN-β therapy, compared with untreated normal individuals...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413659/patient-gender-as-a-factor-associated-with-lymph-node-metastasis-in-t1-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Katsuro Ichimasa, Shin-Ei Kudo, Hideyuki Miyachi, Yuta Kouyama, Fumio Ishida, Toshiyuki Baba, Atsushi Katagiri, Kunihiko Wakamura, Takemasa Hayashi, Tomokazu Hisayuki, Toyoki Kudo, Masashi Misawa, Yuichi Mori, Shingo Matsudaira, Yui Kimura, Yuki Kataoka
Approximately 10% of patients with T1 colorectal cancer have lymph node metastases (LNM), requiring node dissection along with surgical resection. Patient gender was recently reported to affect the occurrence of LNM. The aim of the present study was to assess whether patient gender was predictive of LNM in T1 colorectal cancer. Public databases, including PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, using key terms related to 'T1 colorectal cancer' and 'lymph node'. All relevant studies reporting the adjusted odds ratio or risk ratio of LNM in relation to patient gender were included...
April 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412614/pain-and-multiple-facets-of-anger-and-hostility-in-a-sample-seeking-treatment-for-problematic-anger
#13
Katherine A McDermott, Hillary L Smith, Natalie L Matheny, Jesse R Cougle
A number of studies have reported associations between pain and anger in samples with chronic pain, but research has mostly overlooked associations between pain and anger in those with problematic anger. The present study explored associations between pain severity and a variety of anger and hostility constructs in a sample seeking anger treatment (n =131). Zero-order correlations and partial correlations were used to examine associations between pain, anger, and hostility, controlling for depressive symptoms...
April 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412282/physiological-reactivity-to-spontaneously-occurring-seizure-activity-in-dogs-with-epilepsy-and-their-carers
#14
R M A Packer, H A Volk, R C Fowkes
There is a complex bidirectional relationship between stress and epilepsy. Stressful stimuli and subsequent cortisol release act as a trigger for seizure activity in some individuals with epilepsy, and seizure activity itself may act as a stressor to the affected individual. Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological condition in domestic dogs and requires chronic management by their human carers, impacting upon the quality of life of both dog and carer. Seizures occur unpredictably and may be stressful for carers to witness and manage...
April 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408601/semantics-derived-automatically-from-language-corpora-contain-human-like-biases
#15
Aylin Caliskan, Joanna J Bryson, Arvind Narayanan
Machine learning is a means to derive artificial intelligence by discovering patterns in existing data. Here, we show that applying machine learning to ordinary human language results in human-like semantic biases. We replicated a spectrum of known biases, as measured by the Implicit Association Test, using a widely used, purely statistical machine-learning model trained on a standard corpus of text from the World Wide Web. Our results indicate that text corpora contain recoverable and accurate imprints of our historic biases, whether morally neutral as toward insects or flowers, problematic as toward race or gender, or even simply veridical, reflecting the status quo distribution of gender with respect to careers or first names...
April 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407083/distrusting-community-health-workers-with-confidential-health-information-a-convergent-mixed-methods-study-in-swaziland
#16
Pascal Geldsetzer, Maria Vaikath, Jan-Walter De Neve, Thomas J Bossert, Sibusiso Sibandze, Mandla Mkhwanazi, Till Bärnighausen
Background: Patients are unlikely to share the personal information that is critical for effective healthcare, if they do not trust that this information will remain confidential. Trust in confidentiality may be particularly low in interactions with community health workers (CHW) because CHW deliver healthcare outside the clinic setting. This study aims to determine the proportion of Swaziland's population that does not trust the national CHW cadre with confidential medical information, and to identify reasons for distrust...
April 12, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404321/county-level-racial-prejudice-and-the-black-white-gap-in-infant-health-outcomes
#17
Jacob Orchard, Joseph Price
OBJECTIVE: Black mothers are 60 percent more likely than white mothers to have preterm births and twice as likely to have a baby with low birth weight. We examine whether these black-white gaps in birth outcomes are larger in counties with higher levels of racial prejudice. METHOD: We use data from the restricted-use natality files in the United States, which provide information on birth weight, gestation, and maternal characteristics for over 31 million births from 2002 to 2012, combined with county-level data measures of both explicit and implicit racial prejudice from Project Implicit from over a million individuals who took the Implicit Association Test during this same period...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401630/causation-or-selection-examining-the-relation-between-education-and-overweight-obesity-in-prospective-observational-studies-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
T J Kim, N M Roesler, O von dem Knesebeck
Numerous studies have investigated the association between education and overweight/obesity. Yet less is known about the relative importance of causation (i.e. the influence of education on risks of overweight/obesity) and selection (i.e. the influence of overweight/obesity on the likelihood to attain education) hypotheses. A systematic review was performed to assess the linkage between education and overweight/obesity in prospective studies in general populations. Studies were searched within five databases, and study quality was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale...
April 12, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401131/perceptions-and-experiences-of-a-gender-gap-at-a-canadian-research-institute-and-potential-strategies-to-mitigate-this-gap-a-sequential-mixed-methods-study
#19
Alekhya Mascarenhas, Julia E Moore, Andrea C Tricco, Jemila Hamid, Caitlin Daly, Julie Bain, Sabrina Jassemi, Tara Kiran, Nancy Baxter, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. METHODS: We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400027/socioeconomic-status-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-patients-admitted-with-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Faraj Kargoli, Eric Shulman, Philip Aagaard, David F Briceno, Ethan Hoch, Luigi Di Biase, John D Fisher, Jay Gross, Soo G Kim, Andrew Krumerman, Kevin J Ferrick
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association between SES and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is not clear. We examined whether SES predicts all-cause mortality in patients hospitalized with AF. This is a retrospective study of patients aged >18 years, admitted with a primary diagnosis of AF to Montefiore Medical Center between 2000 and 2010. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of survival adjusted for age, gender, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, previous myocardial infraction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and SES...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
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