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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469104/race-and-gender-based-bias-persists-in-us-science
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462775/gait-analysis-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Matteo Zago, Chiarella Sforza, Daniela Rita Bonardi, Enrico Eugenio Guffanti, Manuela Galli
BACKGROUND: Gait instability is a major fall-risk factor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical gait analysis is a reliable tool to predict fall onsets. However, controversy still exists on gait impairments associated with COPD. RESEARCH QUESTION: Thus, the aims of this review were to evaluate the current understanding of spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic gait features in patients with COPD. METHODS: In line with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search was performed throughout Web of Science, PubMed Medline, Scopus, PEDro and Scielo databases...
February 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462765/incidence-of-haematological-malignancies-eastern-cape-province-south-africa-2004-2013
#3
Diana Oelofse, Ilse Truter
BACKGROUND: The incidence of haematological malignancies in Africa's rapidly urbanising populations is insufficiently explored. Reliable population-based cancer statistics, however, continues to be a scarce resource in Africa and tends to be urban biased with limited rural coverage. In addition, many haematological malignancies are regarded as rare cancers, a sub-group that often affects the young disproportionately and require advanced diagnostic services and facilities able to deliver costly sophisticated treatments...
February 17, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462196/interior-renovation-of-a-general-practitioner-office-leads-to-a-perceptual-bias-on-patient-experience-for-over-one-year
#4
Jérôme Gauthey, Raphaël Tièche, Sven Streit
INTRODUCTION: Measuring patient experience is key when assessing quality of care but can be biased: A perceptual bias occurs when renovations of the interior design of a general practitioner (GP) office improves how patients assessed quality of care. The aim was to assess the length of perceptual bias and if it could be reproduced after a second renovation. METHODS: A GP office with 2 GPs in Switzerland was renovated twice within 3 years. We assessed patient experience at baseline, 2 months and 14 months after the first and 3 months after the second renovation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460440/effect-of-continuing-care-for-people-with-cocaine-dependence-on-criminal-justice-sentences
#5
Alexandra S Wimberly, Jordan M Hyatt, James R McKay
While continuing care for substance use treatment has been associated with reduced involvement in the criminal justice system, much of this research lacks random assignment to continuing care and so is limited by self-selection bias. This study sought to determine the impact of adding telephone-based continuing care to intensive outpatient programs on criminal justice outcomes for people with cocaine dependence. In three continuing care studies, spanning 1998-2008, participants were randomly assigned to an intensive outpatient program or an intensive outpatient program plus a telephone-based continuing care intervention...
January 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457752/accuracy-and-bias-in-perception-of-distress-level-and-distress-change-among-same-sex-college-student-roommate-dyads
#6
Qi Xu, Patrick E Shrout
University students often experience high levels of stress and, in some cases, the stress leads to tragic outcomes. An important question is whether roommates can perceive the level and change in distress in their peers. We examined self- and other-reports of 187 same-sex undergraduate dyads at two times in a spring semester. Using the truth and bias model, we found that roommates tended to underestimate their partner's distress at both time points, and that ratings were equally influenced by truth and self-focus bias forces...
February 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456895/calibration-adjustments-to-address-bias-in-mortality-analyses-due-to-informative-sampling-a-census-linked-survey-analysis-in-switzerland
#7
André Moser, Matthias Bopp, Marcel Zwahlen
Background: Sampling bias, like survey participants' nonresponse, needs to be adequately addressed in the analysis of sampling designs. Often survey weights will be calibrated on specific covariates related to the probability of selection and nonresponse to get representative population estimates. However, such calibrated survey (CS) weights are usually constructed for cross-sectional results, but not for longitudinal analyses. For example, when the outcome of interest is time to death, and sampling selection is related to time to death and censoring, sampling is informative...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456440/maltreated-children-use-more-grammatical-negations
#8
Franziska Knolle, Claire D Vallotton, Catherine C Ayoub
Many studies reveal a strong impact of childhood maltreatment on language development, mainly resulting in shorter utterances, less rich vocabulary, or a delay in grammatical complexity. However, different theories suggest the possibility for resilience-a positive adaptation to an otherwise adverse environment-in children who experienced childhood maltreatment. Here, we investigated different measures for language development in spontaneous speech, examining whether childhood maltreatment leads to a language deficit only or whether it can also result in differences in language use due to a possible adaptation to a toxic environment...
2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447201/estimation-model-for-habitual-24-hour-urinary-sodium-excretion-using-simple-questionnaires-from-normotensive-koreans
#9
Ji-Sook Kong, Yeon-Kyung Lee, Mi Kyung Kim, Mi-Kyeong Choi, Young-Ran Heo, Taisun Hyun, Sun Mee Kim, Eun-Soon Lyu, Se-Young Oh, Hae-Ryun Park, Moo-Yong Rhee, Hee-Kyong Ro, Mi Kyung Song
This study was conducted to develop an equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion that can serve as an alternative to 24-h dietary recall and 24-h urine collection for normotensive Korean adults. In total, data on 640 healthy Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years from 4 regions of the country were collected as a training set. In order to externally validate the equation developed from that training set, 200 subjects were recruited independently as a validation set. Due to heterogeneity by gender, we constructed a gender-specific equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion by using a multivariable linear regression model and assessed the performance of the developed equation in validation set...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439616/physical-abuse-emotional-abuse-and-neglect-and-childhood-behavior-problems-a-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-mainland-china
#10
Naixue Cui, Jianghong Liu
The relationship between three types of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect, and childhood behavior problems in Mainland China, has not been systematically examined. This meta-analysis reviewed findings from 42 studies conducted in 98,749 children in Mainland China and analyzed the pooled effect sizes of the associations between child maltreatment and childhood behavior problems, heterogeneity in study findings, and publication bias. In addition, this study explored cross-study similarities/differences by comparing the pooled estimates with findings from five existing meta-analyses...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437739/a-foreign-older-diabetic-woman-with-an-acute-myocardial-infarction-when-cognitive-biases-in-clinical-decision-making-become-especially-important
#11
Mathias Schlögl, Daniel Hofmänner, Robert Manka, Dagmar I Keller
We present a case of an 80-year-old Turkish female patient with diabetes who suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and underwent percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA)/stenting. Due to new ischaemic episodes, a second PTCA/stenting had to be preformed 6 days later, which revealed a partial restent thrombosis. This case report raises several important issues. First, language problems are an important barrier for safety and quality in healthcare. Second, gender, ethnicity and age differences in patients with AMI need to be considered in order to eliminate inequities in clinical practice...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429946/physician-gender-is-associated-with-press-ganey-patient-satisfaction-scores-in-outpatient-gynecology
#12
Lisa J Rogo-Gupta, Carolyn Haunschild, Jonathan Altamirano, Yvonne A Maldonado, Magali Fassiotto
BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is gaining increasing attention as a quality measure in health care, but the methods used to assess it may negatively impact women physicians. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the relationship between physician gender and patient satisfaction with outpatient gynecology care as measured by the Press Ganey patient satisfaction survey. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study analyzed 909 Press Ganey patient satisfaction surveys linked to outpatient gynecology visits at a single academic institution (March 2013-August 2014), including self-reported demographics and satisfaction...
February 8, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429452/sex-as-an-important-biological-variable-in-biomedical-research
#13
Suk Kyeong Lee
Experimental results obtained from research using only one sex are sometimes extrapolated to both sexes without thorough justification. However, this might cause enormous economic loss and unintended fatalities. Between years 1997 and 2000, the US Food and Drug Administration suspended ten prescription drugs producing severe adverse effects on the market. Eight of the ten drugs caused greater health risks in women. Serious male biases in basic, preclinical, and clinical research were the main reason for the problem...
February 12, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427948/an-attitude-of-gratitude-the-effects-of-body-focused-gratitude-on-weight-bias-internalization-and-body-image
#14
Jamie Dunaev, Charlotte H Markey, Paula M Brochu
Internalized weight bias and body dissatisfaction are associated with a number of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. The current study examined the effectiveness of body-focused gratitude, through a short writing exercise, as a strategy to reduce internalized weight bias and improve body image. Young adults (Mage = 22.71, SD = 2.08, 51.2% female) were randomly assigned to either a body gratitude condition (n = 185) or a control condition (n = 184). Results indicated that participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly lower weight bias internalization and significantly more favorable appearance evaluation and greater body satisfaction when compared to the control condition...
February 7, 2018: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426317/barriers-and-enablers-to-skin-to-skin-contact-at-birth-in-healthy-neonates-a-qualitative-study
#15
Amala James Alenchery, Joanne Thoppil, Carl Denis Britto, Jimena Villar de Onis, Lavina Fernandez, P N Suman Rao
BACKGROUND: Skin to skin contact (SSC) at birth is the standard of care for newborns without risk factors. However, implementation of SSC at birth has been far from optimal. A qualitative study was undertaken to determine the barriers, enablers and potential solutions to implementation of SSC at birth in healthy newborn infants in a level III neonatal-care facility in Bangalore, India. METHODS: Consultants and residents/postgraduates (PG) from the departments of Obstetrics (n = 19) and Pediatrics (n = 14) and nurses (n = 8) in the labor room (LR) participated in the study...
February 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425352/women-and-men-together-in-recruit-training
#16
Geoffrey J Orme, E James Kehoe
Introduction: Although men and women recruits to the Australian Army have trained in mixed-gender platoons since 1995, restrictions on women joining the combat arms were only removed in 2016. As part of a longitudinal study starting with recruit training, this article examined recruit records collected before 2016 with the aims of delineating (1) the relative performance of women versus men in mixed-gender platoons and (2) the relative performance of men in mixed-gender platoons versus all-male platoons...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420835/validity-of-self-reported-tooth-counts-and-masticatory-status-study-of-a-japanese-adult-population
#17
Masayuki Ueno, Taichi Shimazu, Norie Sawada, Shoichiro Tsugane, Yoko Kawaguchi
Self-reported measures of oral health are often used to assess oral health in populations or groups, but their validity or reliability needs repeated confirmation. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported tooth counts and masticatory status, using data obtained from a sample of Japanese adults. A total of 2,356 adults aged 40 to 75 years participated in a questionnaire survey and a clinical oral examination from 2013 through 2016. Self-reported measures were compared with clinically measured values...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420649/income-occupation-and-education-are-they-related-to-smoking-behaviors-in-china
#18
Qing Wang, Jay J Shen, Michelle Sotero, Casey A Li, Zhiyuan Hou
BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking behaviors may differ across countries. This study aimed to estimate the association between socioeconomic status (income, occupation and education) and multiple measures of smoking behaviors among the Chinese elderly population. METHODS: Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking behaviors through multivariate regression analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420647/authors-and-editors-assort-on-gender-and-geography-in-high-rank-ecological-publications
#19
Kezia R Manlove, Rebecca M Belou
Peer-reviewed publication volume and caliber are widely-recognized proxies for academic merit, and a strong publication record is essential for academic success and advancement. However, recent work suggests that publication productivity for particular author groups may also be determined in part by implicit biases lurking in the publication pipeline. Here, we explore patterns of gender, geography, and institutional rank among authors, editorial board members, and handling editors in high-impact ecological publications during 2015 and 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419627/complex-regional-pain-syndrome-after-distal-radius-fracture-is-uncommon-and-is-often-associated-with-fibromyalgia
#20
Tom J Crijns, Bonheur A T D van der Gronde, David Ring, Nina Leung
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is frequently diagnosed in patients recovering from surgery or injury. The symptoms and signs included in consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS are expected after injury. Categorizing symptoms and signs that occur on a continuum as disproportionate or not is subjective and prone to bias. Psychiatrists and psychologists do not diagnose CRPS and instead measure and treat anxiety and catastrophic thinking on its continuum. Given the expected variation in subjective diagnoses such as CRPS, this study addresses factors associated with use of this diagnosis and how it influences care...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
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