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Gender bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547745/medical-students-and-professional-anatomists-do-not-perceive-gender-bias-within-imagery-featuring-anatomy
#1
Susan Morgan, Odile Plaisant, Baptiste Lignier, Bernard J Moxham
Previous studies suggest that, while both medical students and professional anatomists recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy (Morgan et al., 2014, 2016). To further investigate these issue, we provided second year medical students at Cardiff University (n=293) and at the University of Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (n= 142) and professional anatomists in Europe (n= 208) with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that gender factors within anatomical imagery (both historical and contemporary) hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545751/what-is-the-male-to-female-ratio-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Rachel Loomes, Laura Hull, William Polmear Locke Mandy
OBJECTIVE: To derive the first systematically calculated estimate of the relative proportion of boys and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through a meta-analysis of prevalence studies conducted since the introduction of the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. METHOD: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched, and study quality was rated using a risk-of-bias tool...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545310/when-is-neglect-neglect-it-depends-on-who-you-ask
#3
Kelli L Dickerson, Sonia Lindner, Nicholas Scurich, Jodi A Quas
In order to identify victims of child neglect, social service workers rely heavily on referrals from concerned friends, neighbors, and others in the community. Little is known, however, about how lay individuals perceive child neglect and what factors influence their decision to make a referral. This study explored the effects of child, parent, and participant gender on laypersons' evaluations of child neglect. Participants read a case of neglect of a child by a custodial and absent parent and then rated the parents' culpability and intentionality and decided whether the parents' behavior met the legal definition of neglect...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539425/perceptual-competition-promotes-suppression-of-reward-salience-in-behavioral-selection-and-neural-representation
#4
Mengyuan Gong, Ke Jia, Sheng Li
Visual attentional selection is influenced by the value of objects. Previous studies have demonstrated that reward-associated items lead to rapid distraction and associated behavioral costs, which are difficult to override with top-down control. However, it has not been determined whether a perceptually competitive environment could render the reward-driven distraction more susceptible to top-down suppression. Here, we trained both genders of human subjects to associate two orientations with high and low magnitudes of reward...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537109/facial-and-prosodic-emotion-recognition-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#5
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Yu-Lien Huang, Jian-Ting Chen, Kuei-Yu Liang, Chao-Cheng Lin, Sue-Huei Chen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have a cognitive preference to negatively evaluate emotional information. In particular, the preferential biases in prosodic emotion recognition in SAD have been much less explored. The present study aims to investigate whether SAD patients retain negative evaluation biases across visual and auditory modalities when given sufficient response time to recognise emotions. METHODS: Thirty-one SAD patients and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy participants completed a culturally suitable non-verbal emotion recognition task and received clinical assessments for social anxiety and depressive symptoms...
May 24, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529058/customized-and-non-customized-live-born-birth-weight-curves-of-single-and-uncomplicated-pregnancies-from-the-burgundy-perinatal-network-part-i-methodology
#6
Thierry Rousseau, Olivia Durand-Maison, Catherine Labruere-Chazal, Florine Tabard, Ahmed Jebrane, Olivia Martz, Eric Benzenine, Jonathan Cottenet, Paul Sagot
OBJECTIVES: To establish non-customized and customized birth-weight curves of single and uncomplicated pregnancies according to gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data for 64.173 mother-infants pairs from the Burgundy perinatal network database (France) over the period 2005 - 2013. A validated procedure was used to link mothers with their newborns, and maternal and fetal pathologies likely to affect birth weight were excluded. Multiple regression analysis with covariate selection was used to build a customized growth curve with maternal and fetal parameters...
May 18, 2017: J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526023/high-incidence-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-with-propionibacterium-acnes-after-the-use-of-a-stemless-shoulder-prosthesis-with-metaphyseal-screw-fixation-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-241-patients-propionibacter-infections-after-eclipse-tsa
#7
Lisa Johansson, Nils P Hailer, Hans Rahme
BACKGROUND: A stemless shoulder prosthesis with humeral metaphyseal screw fixation was introduced in order to save bone-stock and to facilitate reconstruction of biomechanics (Eclipse®). The aim of this study was to analyze whether the risk of infection is different with this implant compared to conventional shoulder prosthesis. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-one patients (54.8% females) were operated with a shoulder arthroplasty and followed for median 2.0 (0...
May 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516386/intergenerational-transmission-of-depressive-symptoms-the-role-of-parental-negative-perceptions-and-behaviors
#8
Yiji Wang
This study examined parental proximal processes involving in the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms from parents to their children. Extant literature has predominantly focused on maternal depressive symptoms. Yet, the mechanisms that may underlie the transmission of paternal depressive symptoms is less often studied. Participants were Chinese parents of first-graders (N = 2282). Results of structural equation modeling suggested that maternal and paternal depressive symptoms may be transmitted to their children through differential processes...
May 17, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516157/survival-after-metastasectomy-for-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Vaibhav Patel, Ana Collazo Lorduy, Aaron Stern, Omar Fahmy, Rachel Pinotti, Matthew D Galsky, Georgios Gakis
Background: Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is standard treatment for metastatic urothelial carcinoma; however, the vast majority of patients experience disease progression. As systemic therapy alone is rarely curative for the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer, not only are new therapies needed but also refinement of general treatment principles. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the role of metastasectomy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature regarding local treatment for metastatic urothelial carcinoma...
April 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515890/sex-dependent-infection-causes-nonadditive-effects-on-kissing-bug-fecundity
#10
Carezza Botto-Mahan, Verónica Campos, Rodrigo Medel
The influence of parasites on host reproduction has been widely studied in natural and experimental conditions. Most studies, however, have evaluated the parasite impact on female hosts only, neglecting the contribution of males for host reproduction. This omission is unfortunate as sex-dependent infection may have important implications for host-parasite associations. Here, we evaluate for the first time the independent and nonindependent effects of gender infection on host reproductive success using the kissing bug Mepraia spinolai and the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi as model system...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513348/measurement-invariance-between-genders-on-two-measures-of-borderline-personality-disorder
#11
Amy Paggeot, Steven Huprich
Gender bias in the diagnosis and assessment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been the subject of much controversy in the psychological research literature. Evidence regarding differential prevalence rates and diagnostic rates in clinical settings between genders has been mixed, and measurement bias is one potential explanation for these mixed findings. A total of 340 participants were recruited from a Midwestern university and four outpatient community mental health clinics. They were administered two structured clinical interviews for BPD that were then evaluated for measurement invariance...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512303/volunteer-participation-in-the-health-eheart-study-a-comparison-with-the-us-population
#12
Xiaofan Guo, Eric Vittinghoff, Jeffrey E Olgin, Gregory M Marcus, Mark J Pletcher
Direct volunteer "eCohort" recruitment can be an efficient way of recruiting large numbers of participants, but there is potential for volunteer bias. We compared self-selected participants in the Health eHeart Study to participants in the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-14, a cross-sectional survey of the US population. Compared with the US population (represented by 5,769 NHANES participants), the 12,280 Health eHeart participants with complete survey data were more likely to be female (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = 3...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512230/differential-proteomic-analysis-of-gender-dependent-hepatic-tumorigenesis-in-hras12v-transgenic-mice
#13
Zhuona Rong, Tingting Fan, Huiling Li, Juan Li, Kangwei Wang, Xinxin Wang, Jianyi Dong, Jun Chen, Fujin Wang, Jingyu Wang, Aiguo Wang
Male prevalence is an outstanding characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the underlying mechanisms for this have remained largely unknown. In the present study, Hras12V transgenic mice, in which hepatocyte-specific expression of the ras oncogene induces male-biased hepatic tumorigenesis, were studied, and altered proteins were detected by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Protein samples from hepatic tumor tissues (T) and peri-tumor tissues (P) of transgenic males and females and the corresponding normal liver tissues (Wt) of non-transgenic males and females were subjected to pairwise comparisons based on proteomic analysis...
May 16, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511896/-changes-in-the-prevalence-of-statin-use-in-germany-findings-from-national-health-interview-and-examination-surveys-1997-1999-and-2008-2011
#14
Hildtraud C Knopf, Markus A Busch, Yong Du, Julia Truthmann, Anja Schienkiewitz, Christa Scheidt-Nave
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guideline recommendations on lipid lowering drug treatment, in particular statin treatment, play an essential role in the management of dyslipidemias and in the prevention of cardiovascular disease events. In Germany, statutory health insurance data provide information on time trends in the prescription of lipid lowering drugs. However, population-based data regarding changes in user prevalence according to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics are lacking...
May 13, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509997/social-desirability-bias-and-prevalence-of-sexual-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-baltimore-maryland-implications-for-identifying-individuals-prone-to-underreporting-sexual-risk-behaviors
#15
Amrita Rao, Karin Tobin, Melissa Davey-Rothwell, Carl A Latkin
The role of social desirability bias (SDB) in self-reported HIV risk behaviors continues to be problematic. This study examined whether SDB was associated with self-reported, via audio computer assisted self-interviewing, sexual risk behaviors among people who use drugs. The present study was conducted among 559 participants who reported having a recent sexual partner at their 6-month visit of a longitudinal study. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the association between SDB and five risk behaviors...
May 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508326/the-association-of-low-penetrance-genetic-risk-modifiers-with-colorectal-cancer-in-lynch-syndrome-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Neil Donald, Salim Malik, Joshua L McGuire, Kevin J Monahan
Lynch syndrome (LS) is a highly penetrant inherited cancer predisposition syndrome accounting for approximately 1000 cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the UK annually. LS is characterised by autosomal dominant inheritance and germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. The penetrance is highly variable and the reasons for this have not been fully elucidated. This study investigates whether low penetrance genetic risk factors may result in phenotype modification in LS patients. To conduct a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the association between low penetrance genetic risk modifiers and CRC in LS patients...
May 15, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499791/the-role-of-radiotherapy-in-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-positive-patients-with-oligoprogression-a-matched-cohort-analysis
#17
O S H Chan, V H F Lee, T S K Mok, F Mo, A T Y Chang, R M W Yeung
AIMS: Almost all patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations will develop resistance to first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The management of oligoprogression on EGFR TKI is controversial. Irradiating progressing tumours may potentially eradicate the resistant clone and allow continuation of EGFR TKI, but the clinical data remain sparse. We aimed to assess the effect of radiotherapy on survival outcomes in patients with oligoprogression in a matched-cohort study...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499102/alcohol-consumption-and-mortality-from-coronary-heart-disease-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#18
Jinhui Zhao, Tim Stockwell, Audra Roemer, Timothy Naimi, Tanya Chikritzhs
OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses estimate that low-volume alcohol consumption protects against coronary heart disease (CHD). Potential errors in studies include systematic misclassification of drinkers as abstainers, inadequate measurement, and selection bias across the life course. METHOD: Prospective studies of alcohol consumption and CHD mortality were identified in scholarly databases and reference lists. Studies were coded for potential abstainer biases and other study characteristics...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497985/examining-medical-student-specialty-choice-through-a-gender-lens-an-orientational-qualitative-study
#19
Victoria Smith, Cheri Bethune, Katrina F Hurley
Phenomenon: A growing number of women are entering the medical workforce, yet their distribution across medical specialties remains nonuniform. We sought to describe how culture, bias, and socialization shape gendered thinking regarding specialty choice at a Canadian undergraduate medical institution. APPROACH: We analyzed transcripts from the Career Choices Project: 16 semistructured focus group discussions with 70 students graduating from Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2003, 2006, 2007, and 2008...
May 12, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497511/effects-of-medical-trainees-weight-loss-history-on-perceptions-of-patients-with-obesity
#20
Rebecca L Pearl, Dallas Argueso, Thomas A Wadden
CONTEXT: Medical professionals often express weight-biased attitudes. Prior research suggests that people who overcome a challenge are critical of individuals who struggle to overcome the same challenge. Thus, medical trainees who have successfully achieved and maintained weight loss may express greater weight bias and more critical attitudes toward patients with obesity who fail to overcome these challenges. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine the effects of medical trainees' weight-loss history on weight-biased attitudes and responses to patients with varying weight-loss outcomes...
May 11, 2017: Medical Education
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