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Gender bias

L R Rivkin, Spencer C H Barrett, Marc T J Johnson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The strength of plant-herbivore interactions varies in space and time, but the factors that explain this variation are poorly understood. Several lines of research suggest that variation in plant reproductive systems and latitude may explain resistance against herbivores, but how these factors jointly affect plant-herbivore interactions has not been investigated in detail. We examined the effects of latitude, sexual system, and plant gender on herbivory in Sagittaria latifolia, an aquatic plant in which populations are typically monoecious (separate female and male flowers) or dioecious (separate female and male plants)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Jacobien H F Oosterhoff, Vincent Gouttebarge, Maarten Moen, J Bart Staal, Gino M M J Kerkhoffs, Johannes L Tol, Babette M Pluim
The objective was to systematically review the literature on risk factors and prevention programs for musculoskeletal injuries among tennis players. PubmedMedline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, SportDiscus were searched up to February 2017. Experts in clinical and epidemiological medicine were contacted to obtain additional studies. For risk factors, prospective cohort studies (n > 20) with a statistical analysis for injured and non-injured players were included and studies with a RCT design for prevention programs...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Birgit Braun, Christian Weinland, Johannes Kornhuber, Bernd Lenz
Aims: To compare religious denomination, religiosity, guilt, altruism and forgiveness between alcohol-dependent patients and healthy control subjects and to prospectively investigate their relationship to the disorder's 24-month course following in-patient withdrawal treatment. Method: This study in Franconia (a mainly Christian protestant region of southern Germany) applied six questionnaires to evaluate religiosity, guilt, altruism and forgiveness in 166 alcohol-dependent in-patients during withdrawal and compared findings with that of 240 healthy controls...
April 18, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Ted R Angradi, Jonathon J Launspach, Rick Debbout
Relative valuation of potentially affected ecosystem benefits can increase the legitimacy and social acceptance of ecosystem restoration projects. As an alternative or supplement to traditional methods of deriving beneficiary preference, we downloaded from social media and classified ≈21,000 photographs taken in two Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC), the St. Louis River and the Milwaukee Estuary. Our motivating presumption was that the act of taking a photograph constitutes some measure of the photographer's individual preference for, or choice of, the depicted subject matter among myriad possible subject matter...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Great Lakes Research
Ana Corcimaru, Mia C Morrell, Dean S Morrell
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research on the impact of the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) photograph on the residency selection process. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the role of the ERAS photograph in the dermatology residency selection outcome and to determine if photographs submitted by matched applicants differ from those of unmatched applicants. METHODS: We analyzed ERAS photographs submitted by dermatology residency applicants based on photograph characteristics related to composition, attire, facial expression, hairstyle, and accessories...
April 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
David A Diamond, Jonathan Swartz, Amy Tishelman, Judith Johnson, Yee-Ming Chan
INTRODUCTION: A central ethical dilemma in management of the patient with a disorder of sex development (DSD) is the potential conflict between respect for the fundamental right of the child for physical and emotional integrity and self-determination, and the right of parents to serve as surrogate decision-makers and act in their child's best interest. METHODS: Over the past 2 years we have encountered three complex DSD cases on the spectrum of mixed gonadal dysgenesis to ovotesticular DSD in which gender assignment and therefore optimal surgical management was uncertain...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Fabiana Terra Cunha Belache, Cíntia Pereira de Souza, Jessica Fernandez, Julia Castro, Paula Dos Santos Ferreira, Elizana Rodrigues de Sousa Rosa, Nathalia Cristina Gimenez de Araújo, Felipe José Jandre Reis, Renato Santos de Almeida, Leandro Alberto Calazans Nogueira, Luís Cláudio Lemos Correia, Ney Meziat-Filho
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain is a public health problem, and there is strong evidence that it is associated with a complex interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Cognitive functional therapy is an intervention that deals with potentially modifiable multidimensional aspects of pain (eg, provocative cognitive, movement and lifestyle behaviours). There is evidence (from a single randomised, controlled trial) that cognitive functional therapy is better than combined manual therapy and motor control exercise...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
Fulan Zhang, Tiancheng Zhang, Jingmei Xiong, Jing Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the gender differences in cluster pattern of health risk behaviors among rural middle school students in Tujia-Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Xiangxi. METHODS: By the method of layered, random and total sampling, questionnaire survey about dietary bias, smoking, alcohol drinking, suicidal ideation, internet addiction and non-secure swimming was taken to 1974 students of eight middle schools from rural areas in four counties of Tujia-Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Xiangxi, Hunan Province in 2014...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Inge Spronk, Catherine M Legemate, Jan Dokter, Nancy E E van Loey, Margriet E van Baar, Suzanne Polinder
BACKGROUND: Identifying predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQL) following burns is essential for optimization of rehabilitation for burn survivors. This study aimed to systematically review predictors of HRQL in burn patients. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were reviewed from inception to October 2016 for studies that investigated at least one predictor of HRQL after burns. The Quality in Prognostic Studies tool was used to assess risk of bias of included studies...
June 14, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Austin J Gallyer, Sean P Dougherty, Anna R Gai, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Megan L Rogers, Mary E Duffy, Jennifer M Buchman-Schmitt, Sally Spencer-Thomas, Thomas E Joiner
BACKGROUND: Firefighters are at increased risk for both problematic alcohol use and suicidality. Research has found that problematic alcohol use is related to suicidality among this population; however, limited data exist regarding what might account for this association. The present two-study investigation (1) examined the association between suicidality and problematic alcohol use among two large samples of firefighters and (2) tested whether interpersonal theory of suicide constructs-perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB)-serve as indirect indicators of this relationship...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Loren G Rabinowitz
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 378, Issue 24, Page 2253-2255, June 2018.
June 14, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Sowmya Rajan, S Philip Morgan
We use data from India's National Family Health Survey (conducted in 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06) to study gender discrimination across India among children aged 0-35 months. We focus on four measures of parental investment: (1) immunization, (2) received medical treatment for acute respiratory infection (ARI), (3) breastfed beyond 17 months, and (4) severe stunting. We contrast generalized discrimination that affects all daughters (vs. sons) with selective discrimination that posits enhanced discrimination among daughters who have sisters...
June 2018: Population and Development Review
Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Ashish K Sahib, Paul M Macey, Mona F Philby, David Gozal, Rajesh Kumar
Children with long-standing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show evidence of neural injury and functional deficits in behavioral and cognitive regulatory brain regions that are reflected in symptoms of altered cognitive performance and behaviors. While we earlier showed reduced gray matter volume and increased and reduced regional cortical thicknesses, such structural changes give little indication of the underlying pathology. Brain tissue integrity in pediatric OSA subjects can reflect the nature and extent of injury or structural adaptation, and can be assessed by entropy tissue texture, a measure of local changes in signal intensity patterns from high-resolution magnetic resonance images...
June 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Dayton Opel, Benjamin Rapone, Bala Krishnamoorthy, Jung Yoo, James Meeker
This study examined the relationship of surgical management of humerus shaft fractures (HSFs) with race, gender, insurance status, and presence of lower extremity fracture in 19,818 patients from the National Trauma Data Bank years 2007-2012. Using a multivariate logistic regression model, black males (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.66-0.81, p < 0.001) and white females (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.91, p < 0.001) had reduced odds of surgery compared to white males. Insurance status was not significant. These disparities may reflect bias within the surgical treatment team...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Ramona Cardillo, Cristina Menazza, Irene C Mammarella
OBJECTIVE: Visuospatial processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability remains only partly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate global versus local visuospatial processing in individuals with ASD, comparing them with typically developing (TD) controls in visuoconstructive and visuospatial memory tasks. METHOD: There were 21 participants with ASD without intellectual disability, and 21 TD controls matched for chronological age (M = 161...
June 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
Alexandra Bucknor, Joani Christensen, Parisa Kamali, Sabine Egeler, Charlotte van Veldhuisen, Hinne Rakhorst, Irene Mathijssen, Samuel J Lin, Heather Furnas
Background: Implicit gender bias may result in lower wages for women, fewer leadership positions, and lower perceived competence. Understanding public and patient gender preferences for plastic surgeons may enable opportunities to address public perceptions. This investigation evaluates public preferences for a plastic surgeon's gender or demeanor. Methods: Members of the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform read 1 of the 8 randomly assigned scenarios describing a hypothetical situation requiring a plastic surgeon to operate on their mother...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Celine Vidaillac, Valerie F L Yong, Tavleen K Jaggi, Min-Min Soh, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Gender differences in chronic respiratory disease, including cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis are clinically apparent and of increasing importance. Differences in disease prevalence, severity and outcome are all described, however, the precise cause of the gender dichotomy and their associated underlying mechanisms have been poorly characterised. A lack of dedicated clinical and epidemiological research focused in this area has led to a paucity of data and therefore a lack of understanding of its key drivers...
June 2018: Breathe
Alaina L Pearce, Christine A Leonhardt, Chandan J Vaidya
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of pediatric obesity on executive function and reward-related decision-making, cognitive processes that are relevant to obesogenic behaviors, and evaluated their association with sample (e.g., age, gender, intelligence, and socioeconomic status, SES) and study/task (e.g., categorical/continuous variable, food stimuli) characteristics. METHODS: A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted using Hedge's g effect sizes of published studies from 1960 to 2016, limited to children younger than the age of 21 years without medical comorbidities...
June 6, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Jaclyn M White Hughto, Kirsty A Clark, Frederick L Altice, Sari L Reisner, Trace S Kershaw, John E Pachankis
Purpose Incarcerated transgender women often require healthcare to meet their physical-, mental-, and gender transition-related health needs; however, their healthcare experiences in prisons and jails and interactions with correctional healthcare providers are understudied. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In 2015, 20 transgender women who had been incarcerated in the USA within the past five years participated in semi-structured interviews about their healthcare experiences while incarcerated...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Alison M Perez, Jeffrey Scott Spence, L D Kiel, Erin E Venza, Sandra B Chapman
Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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