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Gender bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078529/rethinking-preconception-care-a-critical-women-s-health-perspective
#1
Erika L Thompson, Coralia Vázquez-Otero, Cheryl A Vamos, Stephanie L Marhefka, Nolan S Kline, Ellen M Daley
Objectives Preconception care aims to provide care to reproductive aged individuals in order to improve pregnancy and birth outcomes. Given that preconception care is a public health priority, it is important to evaluate the evolution of this health paradigm and the promotion of preconception messages that are obtained by the public. We identified online preconception health messages, which were critically assessed through a women's health perspective. Methods We searched for "preconception care" on three major search engines...
January 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077152/gender-bias-and-sex-based-differences-in-health-care-efficiency-in-polish-regions
#2
Błażej Łyszczarz
BACKGROUND: Health differences between sexes are relatively well recognized, though less is known about the specificity of women's and men's health responsiveness to medical care. Applying data from Polish regions, this study identifies sex-based differences in medical care efficiency and investigates the reasons for these disparities in the gender bias context. METHODS: The study estimates sex-specific health production functions for regional data from Poland (1999-2013)...
January 11, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075643/transgender-population-size-in-the-united-states-a-meta-regression-of-population-based-probability-samples
#3
Esther L Meerwijk, Jae M Sevelius
BACKGROUND: Transgender individuals have a gender identity that differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The population size of transgender individuals in the United States is not well-known, in part because official records, including the US Census, do not include data on gender identity. Population surveys today more often collect transgender-inclusive gender-identity data, and secular trends in culture and the media have created a somewhat more favorable environment for transgender people...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075632/transgender-population-size-in-the-united-states-a-meta-regression-of-population-based-probability-samples
#4
Esther L Meerwijk, Jae M Sevelius
BACKGROUND: Transgender individuals have a gender identity that differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The population size of transgender individuals in the United States is not well-known, in part because official records, including the US Census, do not include data on gender identity. Population surveys today more often collect transgender-inclusive gender-identity data, and secular trends in culture and the media have created a somewhat more favorable environment for transgender people...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068380/the-complete-maternally-and-paternally-inherited-mitochondrial-genomes-of-a-freshwater-mussel-potamilus-alatus-bivalvia-unionidae
#5
Hai B Wen, Zhe M Cao, Dan Hua, Pao Xu, Xue Y Ma, Wu Jin, Xin H Yuan, Ruo B Gu
Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type) or females (F-type), is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063241/health-risk-factors-associated-with-lifetime-abstinence-from-alcohol-in-the-1979-national-longitudinal-survey-of-youth-cohort
#6
William C Kerr, Camillia K Lui, Edwina Williams, Yu Ye, Thomas K Greenfield, E Anne Lown
BACKGROUND: The choice and definition of a comparison group in alcohol-related health studies remains a prominent issue in alcohol epidemiology due to potential biases in the risk estimates. The most commonly used comparison group has been current abstainers; however, this includes former drinkers who may have quit drinking due to health problems. Lifetime abstention could be the best option, but measurement issues, selection biases due to health and other risk factors, and small numbers in populations are important concerns...
January 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062695/the-clonal-invariant-nkt-cell-repertoire-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-is-characterized-by-a-loss-of-clones-expressing-high-affinity-tcrs
#7
Anna S Tocheva, Salah Mansour, Tristan G H Holt, Samuel Jones, Andrew Chancellor, Joseph P Sanderson, Efrem Eren, Tim J Elliott, Richard I G Holt, Stephan D Gadola
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in healthy people express iNKT-TCRs with widely varying affinities for CD1d, suggesting different roles for high- and low-affinity iNKT clones in immune regulation. However, the functional implications of this heterogeneity have not yet been determined. Functionally aberrant iNKT responses have been previously demonstrated in different autoimmune diseases, including human type 1 diabetes, but their relationship to changes in the iNKT clonal repertoire have not been addressed. In this study, we directly compared the clonal iNKT repertoire of people with recent onset type 1 diabetes and age- and gender-matched healthy controls with regard to iNKT-TCR affinity and cytokine production...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061509/strategies-to-prevent-or-reduce-gender-bias-in-peer-review-of-research-grants-a-rapid-scoping-review
#8
Andrea C Tricco, Sonia M Thomas, Jesmin Antony, Patricia Rios, Reid Robson, Reena Pattani, Marco Ghassemi, Shannon Sullivan, Inthuja Selvaratnam, Cara Tannenbaum, Sharon E Straus
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on strategies implemented or identified to prevent or reduce gender bias in peer review of research grants. METHODS: Studies of any type of qualitative or quantitative design examining interventions to reduce or prevent gender bias during the peer review of health-related research grants were included. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PsycINFO, Joanna Briggs, the Cochrane Library, Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews, and the Campbell Library were searched from 2005 to April 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059934/differences-in-the-expression-of-symptoms-in-men-versus-women-with-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Anna Cavanagh, Coralie J Wilson, David J Kavanagh, Peter Caputi
OBJECTIVE: While some studies suggest that men and women report different symptoms associated with depression, no published systematic review or meta-analysis has analyzed the relevant research literature. This article aims to review the evidence of gender differences in symptoms associated with depression. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases, along with further identified references lists, were searched. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria...
January 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049048/vitamin-d-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases-a-view-inside-gender-differences
#10
REVIEW
Massimiliano Vasile, Clarissa Corinaldesi, Cristina Antinozzi, Clara Crescioli
A large body of evidence highlights the role for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in rheumatic diseases, a group of different pathologies mostly of autoimmune origin. Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor agonists exquisitely modulate the immune system against over-reactivity towards tolerance; on this basis, vitamin D could be a good therapeutic candidate to control autoimmune processes in rheumatic diseases. Similarly, to other autoimmune pathologies, rheumatic diseases show a significant female bias. This sexual dimorphism seems, in part, to rely on the different sex hormone-induced regulation on male and female immune systems...
December 31, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045620/effectiveness-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-after-radical-nephroureterectomy-for-locally-advanced-and-or-positive-regional-lymph-node-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#11
Thomas Seisen, Ross E Krasnow, Joaquim Bellmunt, Morgan Rouprêt, Jeffrey J Leow, Stuart R Lipsitz, Malte W Vetterlein, Mark A Preston, Nawar Hanna, Adam S Kibel, Maxine Sun, Toni K Choueiri, Quoc-Dien Trinh, Steven L Chang
Purpose There is limited evidence to support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Against this backdrop, we hypothesized that such treatment is associated with overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with locally advanced and/or positive regional lymph node disease. Patients and Methods Within the National Cancer Database (2004 to 2012), we identified 3,253 individuals who received AC or observation after RNU for pT3/T4 and/or pN+ UTUC...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043653/fluctuating-asymmetry-in-dental-and-mandibular-nonmetric-traits-as-evidence-for-childcare-sex-bias-in-19th-20th-century-portugal
#12
L M Marado, A M Silva, J D Irish
Fluctuating asymmetry, often considered a measure of developmental instability, was studied in the dental morphological traits of 600 individuals from among the poorest sectors of society in 19th-20th century Portugal. The aims are to identify and interpret any differences between: (1) males and females, and (2) patterns of distribution among teeth with different odontogenic timings, to assess if any sex bias existed in childcare. Dental and mandibular morphological traits were recorded using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System...
December 15, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038806/bioresorbable-coronary-stent-for-the-treatment-of-complex-coronary-lesions-data-from-an-all-comer-registry
#13
Andrea Cuculo, Antonio Ruggiero, Antonio Centola, Giulio Campanale, Tommaso Passero, Antonio Gaglione, Matteo Di Biase, Natale Daniele Brunetti
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to report the results from an all-comers registry of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty and treated with bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS). METHODS: Fifty-five consecutive patients with type B/C coronary lesions according to the AHA classification and treated with BVS were enrolled in the study. The clinical and procedural characteristics of enrolled patients were recorded. Fifty-five consecutive subjects with coronary lesions type B/C treated with everolimus eluting stent (EES) were used as control group...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024653/comparison-of-2015-medicare-relative-value-units-for-gender-specific-procedures-gynecologic-and-gynecologic-oncologic-versus-urologic-cpt-coding-has-time-healed-gender-worth
#14
M F Benoit, J F Ma, B A Upperman
BACKGROUND: In 1992, Congress implemented a relative value unit (RVU) payment system to set reimbursement for all procedures covered by Medicare. In 1997, data supported that a significant gender bias existed in reimbursement for gynecologic compared to urologic procedures. The present study was performed to compare work and total RVU's for gender specific procedures effective January 2015 and to evaluate if time has healed the gender-based RVU worth. METHODS: Using the 2015 CPT codes, we compared work and total RVU's for 50 pairs of gender specific procedures...
December 23, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013059/role-of-gender-in-basic-cough-research
#15
Jana Plevkova, Tomas Buday, Natalia Kavalcikova Bogdanova, Lea Kovacikova, Robert Ruzinak
Cough hypersensitivity affects mainly postmenopausal women. Pathogenesis remains unknown in their case; therefore, an optimal treatment is unavailable. Only male guinea pigs are used in basic cough research and exclusion of females leads to gender bias. Nowadays, the efforts of grant agencies aim to support projects which take gender into account and involve both sexes to reduce gender bias. The aim of our pilot study is to assess the suitability of female guinea pig model in cough research. Cough response to citric acid (0...
December 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012538/assessment-of-complete-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-patients-determination-of-factors-effecting-dental-arch-relationships
#16
Anas Imran Arshad, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Mohd Fadhli Khamis
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to assess the treatment outcome of non-syndromic patients having complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) by using GOSLON index and to determine any association of pre and/or postnatal factors with the treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and one sets of dental models of patients having CUCLP were assessed in this retrospective study. Five examiners that were blinded to case-specific information scored the dental models at two instances with an interval of two weeks to ensure memory bias elimination (5 × 101 × 2 = 1010 observations)...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012151/accuracy-of-self-reported-weight-among-adolescent-and-young-adults-following-bariatric-surgery
#17
Todd M Jenkins, Tawny W Boyce, C Ralph Buncher, Meg H Zeller, Anita P Courcoulas, Mary Evans, Thomas H Inge
PURPOSE: This study evaluates accuracy of self-reported weight in adolescent bariatric surgery patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During follow-up visits, participants self-reported weight and had weight measured. The differences between self-reported and measured weights were analyzed from 60 participants. RESULTS: Participants were 70% (n = 42) female, 72% (n = 43) white, mean age of 20.8 years and a median body mass index of 36.6 kg/m(2)...
December 23, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003834/discharge-against-medical-advice-at-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-gujarat-india
#18
Bhanu Devpura, Pranav Bhadesia, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Sandeep Desai, Ajay Phatak
Objective. We explored reasons for discharged against medical advice (DAMA) of neonates from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) through in-depth interviews of the parents/guardians. Methods. Of 456 babies admitted to NICU during April 2014 to March 2015, 116 babies were DAMA. Parents of randomly selected 50 babies of these 116, residing within 50 kilometers, were approached for in-depth interviews at their homes. Audio recordings were done and manually transcribed, analyzed in detail to explore common threads leading to DAMA...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000549/vitamin-d-autoimmunity-and-gender
#19
Clara Crescioli, Salvatore Minisola
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is considered a risk factor for autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D and its analogues have been proposed as therapeutic tools in autoimmunity considering their exquisite immunoregulatory effect against over-reactivity towards tolerance. Autoimmune diseases, nowadays recognized as emerging non communicable diseases, are characterized by a significant female bias. This sexual dimorphism seems related to sex hormones, which differently affect male and female immune systems...
December 19, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995690/an-investigation-of-mental-imagery-in-bipolar-disorder-exploring-the-mind-s-eye
#20
Martina Di Simplicio, Fritz Renner, Simon E Blackwell, Heather Mitchell, Hannah J Stratford, Peter Watson, Nick Myers, Anna C Nobre, Alex Lau-Zhu, Emily A Holmes
OBJECTIVES: Mental imagery abnormalities occur across psychopathologies and are hypothesized to drive emotional difficulties in bipolar disorder (BD). A comprehensive assessment of mental imagery in BD is lacking. We aimed to test whether (i) mental imagery abnormalities (abnormalities in cognitive stages and subjective domains) occur in BD relative to non-clinical controls; and (ii) to determine the specificity of any abnormalities in BD relative to depression and anxiety disorders. METHODS: Participants included 54 subjects in the BD group (depressed/euthymic; n=27 in each subgroup), subjects with unipolar depression (n=26), subjects with anxiety disorders (n=25), and non-clinical controls (n=27) matched for age, gender, ethnicity, education, and premorbid IQ...
December 2016: Bipolar Disorders
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