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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231485/the-importance-of-teacher-support-differential-impacts-by-gender-and-sexuality
#1
Adrienne B Dessel, Alex Kulick, Laura J Wernick, Daniel Sullivan
Teachers play an important role in shaping the experiences of high school students with regard to patterns of heteronormativity and binary gender norms, particularly for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. A climate survey of high school students (n = 953) in the United States examined the association between students' well-being and their relationships with teachers. The sample was majority white (65.8%) and multiracial (14.1%). Cisgender (cis)-girls (49.6%), cis-boys (41...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228976/facebook-enables-disaster-research-studies-the-use-of-social-media-to-recruit-participants-in-a-post-disaster-setting
#2
Karin Hugelius, Annsofie Adolfsson, Mervyn Gifford, Per Örtenwall
INTRODUCTION: Disaster research entails several methodological challenges, given the context of a disaster. This article aims to describe and evaluate the use of Facebook as a tool to recruit participants for a self-selected Internet sample using a web-based survey in a post-disaster setting in the Philippines after the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the country in November 2013. METHOD: An invitation to a web-based survey about health was posted on several Facebook pages during a ten-day period...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225731/queer-frontiers-in-medicine-a-structural-competency-approach
#3
Cameron A Donald, Sayantani DasGupta, Jonathan M Metzl, Kristen L Eckstrand
In 2014, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) published a report proposing qualifiers of competence to guide medical educators towards training physicians to appropriately care for individuals who are or may be lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT); gender nonconforming (GNC); and/or born with differences in sex development (DSD). These qualifiers provide content and context to an existing framework heavily used in competency-based medical education, emphasizing individual and interpersonal abilities to enhance care delivered to individuals identifying as LGBT, GNC, and/or born with DSD...
March 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224682/young-children-perceive-less-humanness-in-outgroup-faces
#4
Niamh McLoughlin, Steven P Tipper, Harriet Over
We investigated when young children first dehumanize outgroups. Across two studies, 5- and 6-year-olds were asked to rate how human they thought a set of ambiguous doll-human face morphs were. We manipulated whether these faces belonged to their gender in- or gender outgroup (Study 1) and to a geographically based in- or outgroup (Study 2). In both studies, the tendency to perceive outgroup faces as less human relative to ingroup faces increased with age. Explicit ingroup preference, in contrast, was present even in the youngest children and remained stable across age...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222735/advancing-gender-equality-through-the-athena-swan-charter-for-women-in-science-an-exploratory-study-of-women-s-and-men-s-perceptions
#5
Pavel V Ovseiko, Alison Chapple, Laurel D Edmunds, Sue Ziebland
BACKGROUND: While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom...
February 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222576/may-a-unitary-autonomic-index-help-assess-autonomic-cardiac-regulation-in-elite-athletes-preliminary-observations-on-the-national-italian-olympic-committee-team
#6
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Fabio Tosi, Manuela Benzi, Nadia Solaro, Stefano Tamorri, Antonio Spataro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: Long term endurance training, as occurring in elite athletes, is associated to cardiac neural remodeling in favor of cardioprotective vagal mechanisms, resulting in resting bradycardia and augmented contribution of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic assessment can be performed by way of Heart Rate Variability. This technique however provides multiple indices, and there is not yet complete agreement on their specific significance. Purpose of the study was to assess whether a rank transformation and radar plot could provide a unitary autonomic index, capable to show a correlation between intensity of individual work and quality of autonomic regulation...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222094/housing-improvements-and-malaria-risk-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-country-analysis-of-survey-data
#7
Lucy S Tusting, Christian Bottomley, Harry Gibson, Immo Kleinschmidt, Andrew J Tatem, Steve W Lindsay, Peter W Gething
BACKGROUND: Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of malaria infection are lower in modern, improved housing compared to traditional housing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed 15 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and 14 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) conducted in 21 countries in SSA between 2008 and 2015 that measured malaria infection by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221820/risks-benefits-and-importance-of-collecting-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-data-in-healthcare-settings-a-multi-method-analysis-of-patient-and-provider-perspectives
#8
Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Maya Torain, Rachel Adler, Eric Schneider, Anju Ranjit, Lisa M Kodadek, Ryan Shields, Danielle German, Claire Snyder, Susan Peterson, Jeremiah Schuur, Brandyn Lau, Adil H Haider
PURPOSE: Research suggests that LGBT populations experience barriers to healthcare. Organizations such as the Institute of Medicine recommend routine documentation of sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) in healthcare, to reduce LGBT disparities. We explore patient views regarding the importance of SO/GI collection, and patient and provider views on risks and benefits of routine SO/GI collection in various settings. METHODS: We surveyed LGBT/non-LGBT patients and providers on their views on SO/GI collection...
February 21, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221374/climate-change-perils-for-dioecious-plant-species
#9
REVIEW
Kevin R Hultine, Kevin C Grady, Troy E Wood, Stephen M Shuster, John C Stella, Thomas G Whitham
Climate change, particularly increased aridity, poses a significant threat to plants and the biotic communities they support. Dioecious species may be especially vulnerable to climate change given that they often exhibit spatial segregation of the sexes, reinforced by physiological and morphological specialization of each sex to different microhabitats. In dimorphic species, the overexpression of a trait by one gender versus the other may become suppressed in future climates. Data suggest that males will generally be less sensitive to increased aridity than co-occurring females and, consequently, extreme male-biased sex ratios are possible in a significant number of populations...
August 2, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202078/examples-of-sex-gender-sensitivity-in-epidemiological-research-results-of-an-evaluation-of-original-articles-published-in-jech-2006-2014
#10
Ingeborg Jahn, Claudia Börnhorst, Frauke Günther, Tilman Brand
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, sex and gender biases have been identified in various areas of biomedical and public health research, leading to compromised validity of research findings. As a response, methodological requirements were developed but these are rarely translated into research practice. The aim of this study is to provide good practice examples of sex/gender sensitive health research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of research articles published in JECH between 2006 and 2014...
February 15, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199334/childhood-hematologic-cancer-and-residential-proximity-to-oil-and-gas-development
#11
Lisa M McKenzie, William B Allshouse, Tim E Byers, Edward J Bedrick, Berrin Serdar, John L Adgate
BACKGROUND: Oil and gas development emits known hematological carcinogens, such as benzene, and increasingly occurs in residential areas. We explored whether residential proximity to oil and gas development was associated with risk for hematologic cancers using a registry-based case-control study design. METHODS: Participants were 0-24 years old, living in rural Colorado, and diagnosed with cancer between 2001-2013. For each child in our study, we calculated inverse distance weighted (IDW) oil and gas well counts within a 16...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198932/eugenics-sterilization-and-historical-memory-in-the-united-states
#12
Alexandra Minna Stern
From the 1920s to the 1950s, California sterilized approximately 20,000 people in state homes and hospitals based on a eugenic law that authorized medical superintendents to perform reproductive surgeries on patients deemed unfit and "suffering from a mental affliction likely to be inherited." Working with a unique resource - a dataset created from 19,000 sterilization recommendations - my team and I have reconstructed patterns and experiences of institutionalization of sterilizations. This article presents several of our important initial findings related to ethnic and gender bias in sterilization policies, and reflects on the relevance of the history for contemporary issues in genomics and social justice...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196182/what-surgeons-need-to-know-about-gender-confirmation-surgery-when-providing-care-for-transgender-individuals-a-review
#13
Jens U Berli, Gail Knudson, Lin Fraser, Vin Tangpricha, Randi Ettner, Frederic M Ettner, Joshua D Safer, Julie Graham, Stan Monstrey, Loren Schechter
Importance: In 2014, the US Department of Health and Human Services decided that its 1981 exclusion of transsexual surgical treatments from Medicare coverage was based on outdated, incomplete, and biased science and did not reflect current evidence or standards of care, and the exclusion was therefore lifted. As a direct result of this decision, surgeons nationwide are seeing an increase in consultations for surgical therapy to help transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals. Although some clinicians may have the technical training for such surgical procedures, in many cases, they may not have a full understanding of the complex and comprehensive care required to provide optimal health care for transgender individuals...
February 8, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194690/impact-of-pregnancy-and-gender-on-internal-medicine-resident-evaluations-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Megan L Krause, Muhamad Y Elrashidi, Andrew J Halvorsen, Furman S McDonald, Amy S Oxentenko
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and its impact on graduate medical training are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of gender and pregnancy for Internal Medicine (IM) residents on evaluations by peers and faculty. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: All IM residents in training from July 1, 2004-June 30, 2014, were included. Female residents who experienced pregnancy and male residents whose partners experienced pregnancy during training were identified using an existing administrative database...
February 13, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193126/predictors-of-major-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Maryse C Cnossen, Annemieke C Scholten, Hester F Lingsma, Anneliese Synnot, Juanita Haagsma, Prof Ewout W Steyerberg, Suzanne Polinder
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known about which patients are at risk for developing them. The authors systematically reviewed the literature on predictors and multivariable models for MDD and PTSD after TBI. The authors included 26 observational studies. MDD was associated with female gender, preinjury depression, postinjury unemployment, and lower brain volume, whereas PTSD was related to shorter posttraumatic amnesia, memory of the traumatic event, and early posttraumatic symptoms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186618/study-of-individualization-and-bias-in-nursing-home-fall-prevention-practices
#16
Cathleen S Colón-Emeric, Kirsten Corazzini, Eleanor McConnell, Wei Pan, Mark Toles, Rasheeda Hall, Melissa Batchelor-Murphy, Tracey L Yap, Amber L Anderson, Andrew Burd, Ruth A Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about how nursing home staff use resident characteristics to individualize care delivery or whether care is affected by implicit bias. DESIGN: Randomized factorial clinical vignette survey. SETTING: Sixteen nursing homes in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing, rehabilitation, and social services staff (n = 433). MEASUREMENTS: Vignettes describing hypothetical residents were generated from a matrix of clinical and demographic characteristics...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178024/the-effects-of-curcuminoids-on-musculoskeletal-pain-a-systematic-review
#17
Andrew Gaffey, Helen Slater, Kylie Porritt, Jared M Campbell
BACKGROUND: Western countries are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to assist with relieving ailments. Turmeric, from the ginger family Zingiberaceae, has a history of use for medicinal purposes. The polyphenols found in turmeric (curcuminoids) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties. With the use of CAMs increasing, it is important for the effectiveness of curcuminoids to be established. OBJECTIVES: To identify the effectiveness of the use of curcuminoids for the amelioration of musculoskeletal pain...
February 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173759/utilising-identifier-error-variation-in-linkage-of-large-administrative-data-sources
#18
Katie Harron, Gareth Hagger-Johnson, Ruth Gilbert, Harvey Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Linkage of administrative data sources often relies on probabilistic methods using a set of common identifiers (e.g. sex, date of birth, postcode). Variation in data quality on an individual or organisational level (e.g. by hospital) can result in clustering of identifier errors, violating the assumption of independence between identifiers required for traditional probabilistic match weight estimation. This potentially introduces selection bias to the resulting linked dataset...
February 7, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170291/evaluating-a-medical-school-s-climate-for-women-s-success-outcomes-for-faculty-recruitment-retention-and-promotion
#19
Amparo C Villablanca, Yueju Li, Laurel A Beckett, Lydia Pleotis Howell
OBJECTIVE: Women are under-represented in academia. Causative factors include challenges of career-family integration. We evaluated factors reflecting institutional culture (promotion, retention, hiring, and biasing language in promotion letters) as part of an intervention to help shift culture and raise awareness of flexibility policies at the University of California, Davis (UCD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on faculty use of family-friendly policies were obtained at baseline, and surveys for policy awareness were conducted pre(2010)/post(2013) an NIH-funded study educational intervention...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169146/interventions-to-improve-fundamental-motor-skills-in-pre-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Abbey Van Capelle, Carolyn R Broderick, Nancy van Doorn, Rachel E Ward, Belinda J Parmenter
OBJECTIVES: Mastery in -fundamental motor skills (FMS) is associated with increased physical activity (PA) in school-aged children; however, there is limited research on pre-schoolers (3-5 years). We aimed to evaluate interventions for improving FMS as well as PA. DESIGN/METHODS: A search of electronic databases was conducted for controlled trials using PA interventions with FMS as outcomes in healthy pre-schoolers. Standardised mean difference (SMD), 95% confidence intervals and publication bias were calculated for each outcome using Revman 5...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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