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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922417/lingering-single-strand-breaks-trigger-rad51-independent-homology-directed-repair-of-collapsed-replication-forks-in-the-polynucleotide-kinase-phosphatase-mutant-of-fission-yeast
#1
Arancha Sanchez, Mariana C Gadaleta, Oliver Limbo, Paul Russell
The DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) protects genome integrity by restoring ligatable 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini at single-strand breaks (SSBs). In humans, PNKP mutations underlie the neurological disease known as MCSZ, but these individuals are not predisposed for cancer, implying effective alternative repair pathways in dividing cells. Homology-directed repair (HDR) of collapsed replication forks was proposed to repair SSBs in PNKP-deficient cells, but the critical HDR protein Rad51 is not required in PNKP-null (pnk1Δ) cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922400/protein-folding-misfolding-and-aggregation-the-importance-of-two-electron-stabilizing-interactions
#2
Andrzej Stanisław Cieplak
Proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases are highly pleiomorphic and may adopt an all-α-helical fold in one environment, assemble into all-β-sheet or collapse into a coil in another, and rapidly polymerize in yet another one via divergent aggregation pathways that yield broad diversity of aggregates' morphology. A thorough understanding of this behaviour may be necessary to develop a treatment for Alzheimer's and related disorders. Unfortunately, our present comprehension of folding and misfolding is limited for want of a physicochemical theory of protein secondary and tertiary structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921974/the-hydrophobic-effect-and-the-role-of-cosolvents
#3
Nico F A van der Vegt, Divya Nayar
Cosolvents modulate aqueous solubility, hydrophobic interactions, and the stability and function of most proteins in the living cell. Our molecular-level understanding of cosolvent effects is incomplete, not only at the level of complex systems such as proteins, but also at the level of very fundamental interactions that underlie the hydrophobic effect. This Feature Article discusses cosolvent effects on the aqueous solubility of nonpolar solutes, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrophobic self-assembly/collapse of aqueous polymers, recently studied with molecular dynamics simulations...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921393/genome-wide-compound-heterozygote-analysis-highlights-alleles-associated-with-adult-height-in-europeans
#4
Kaiyin Zhong, Gu Zhu, Xiaoxi Jing, A Emile J Hendriks, Sten L S Drop, M Arfan Ikram, Scott Gordon, Changqing Zeng, Andre G Uitterlinden, Nicholas G Martin, Fan Liu, Manfred Kayser
Adult height is the most widely genetically studied common trait in humans; however, the trait variance explainable by currently known height-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from the previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is yet far from complete given the high heritability of this complex trait. To exam if compound heterozygotes (CH) may explain extra height variance, we conducted a genome-wide analysis to screen for CH in association with adult height in 10,631 Dutch Europeans enriched with extremely tall people, using our recently developed method implemented in the software package CollapsABEL...
September 18, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920963/tuning-a-circular-p-n-junction-in-graphene-from-quantum-confinement-to-optical-guiding
#5
Yuhang Jiang, Jinhai Mao, Dean Moldovan, Massoud Ramezani Masir, Guohong Li, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Francois M Peeters, Eva Y Andrei
The photon-like propagation of the Dirac electrons in graphene, together with its record-high electronic mobility, can lead to applications based on ultrafast electronic response and low dissipation. However, the chiral nature of the charge carriers that is responsible for the high mobility also makes it difficult to control their motion and prevents electronic switching. Here, we show how to manipulate the charge carriers by using a circular p-n junction whose size can be continuously tuned from the nanometre to the micrometre scale...
September 18, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920900/fundamental-principles-on-learning-new-features-for-effective-dense-matching
#6
Feihu Zhang, Benjamin W Wah
In dense matching (including stereo matching and optical flow), nearly all existing approaches are based on simple features, such as gray or RGB color, gradient or simple transformations like census, to calculate matching costs. These features do not perform well in complex scenes that may involve radiometric changes, noises, overexposure and/or textureless regions. Various problems may appear, such as wrong matching at the pixel or region level, flattening/breaking of edges and/or even entire structural collapse...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920714/expansible-thermal-gelling-foam-aerosol-for-vaginal-drug-delivery
#7
Liling Mei, Jintian Chen, Siqin Yu, Ying Huang, Yecheng Xie, Hui Wang, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Vaginal delivery of antimicrobial drugs is the most effective method for the local treatment of the vaginal infections. However, current vaginal drug delivery systems (VDDS), including gel, lotion, aerosol and cream, are suffering from low penetration in the deep vaginal rugae and easy elimination by self-cleaning of vaginal canal. To address these issues, a foam aerosol based on the thermal transformation was designed to improve penetration efficiency and achieve the extended retention. The expansible thermal gelling foam aerosol (ETGFA) consisting of thermal sensitive matrix, silver nanoparticle, adhesive agent and propellant, was optimized by evaluations of precursor viscosity, foam expansion, thermal gelation, gel adhesiveness, antimicrobial effects and tissue irritation...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920131/reversible-causes-in-cardiovascular-collapse-at-the-emergency-department-using-ultrasonography-revive-us
#8
Mui Teng Chua, Gene Wh Chan, Win Sen Kuan
INTRODUCTION: Ultrasonographic evaluation of patients in cardiac arrest is currently not protocolised in the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. Potentially reversible causes may be identified using bedside ultrasonography that is ubiquitous in most emergency departments (EDs). This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of sonographically detectable reversible causes of cardiac arrest by incorporating an ultrasonography protocol into the ACLS algorithm. Secondary objectives include rates of survival to hospital admission, hospital discharge, and 30-day mortality...
August 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919940/calcitox-aging-counterbalanced-by-endogenous-farnesol-like-sesquiterpenoids-an-undervalued-evolutionarily-ancient-key-signaling-pathway
#9
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919700/construction-and-test-results-of-coil-2-of-a-three-coil-800-mhz-rebco-insert-for-the-1-3-ghz-high-resolution-nmr-magnet
#10
Juan Bascuñán, Philip Michael, Seungyong Hahn, Thibault Lecrevisse, Yukikazu Iwasa
This paper focuses on the construction and test results of Coil 2 that is part of a trio of nested coils composing the REBCO 800 MHz insert. Upon its completion, the REBCO 800 MHz insert will be placed in the bore of a 500 MHz low temperature superconducting (LTS) NMR magnet (L500) to form the MIT 1.3 GHz high-resolution NMR magnet. Coil 2 is a stack of 32 double pancake (DP) coils wound with 6-mm wide REBCO tape using the no-insulation (NI) technique. Each pancake is wound on a stainless steel inner supporting ring to prevent the collapsing of its crossover due to the external pressure exerted by the winding pack...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity: a Publication of the IEEE Superconductivity Committee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918503/coq0-induced-mitochondrial-ptp-opening-triggers-apoptosis-via-ros-mediated-vdac1-upregulation-in-hl-60-leukemia-cells-and-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-athymic-nude-mice-xenografted-nude-mice
#11
You-Cheng Hseu, Varadharajan Thiyagarajan, Ting-Tsz Ou, Hsin-Ling Yang
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogs with variable numbers of isoprenoid units have been demonstrated as anticancer and antioxidant/pro-oxidant molecules. This study examined the in vitro and in vivo antitumor and apoptosis activities of CoQ0 (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, zero isoprenoid side-chains) through upregulation of the Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) signaling pathway on human promyelocytic leukemia. CoQ0 (0-40 μg/mL) treatment significantly reduced HL-60 cell viability, and up-regulated mitochondrial VDAC1 expression...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918347/anaerobic-digestion-of-brewery-spent-grains-trace-elements-addition-requirement
#12
Claire Bougrier, Delphine Dognin, Cécile Laroche, Valérie Gonzalez, Dalel Benali-Raclot, Jesús Andrés Cacho Rivero
The current study evaluates and compares the stability of anaerobic digestion of Brewery Spent Grains (BSG) with and without addition of nutrients. Based on the composition of the BSG two levels of nutrients addition were defined. Control reactor, without addition of nutrients, showed signs of instability after 3months of operation and collapsed. On the contrary, supplemented reactors led to a COD removal rate of 60% and a methane production of 280NLCH4.kg(-1) VSadded. According to these results, it was possible to define an additive solution adapted to BSG degradation...
September 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917759/detection-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-food-samples-based-on-target-responsive-aptamer-cross-linked-hydrogel-using-a-handheld-ph-meter-as-readout
#13
Mengmeng Zhao, Peilong Wang, Yajuan Guo, Lixu Wang, Fang Luo, Bin Qiu, Longhua Guo, Xiaoou Su, Zhenyu Lin, Guonan Chen
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) can cause great threat to human health, so the development of convenient and portable device for sensitive detection of AFB1 is highly desired. The portable pH meter has the characters of facile operation, low cost, and easy availability. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the applicability of utilizing a pH meter as the readout to develop a portable sensor for AFB1. The specific detection of AFB1 is realized via the combination of AFB1-responsive aptamer-cross-linked hydrogel. Upon the addition of AFB1, AFB1 binds to its aptamer with high affinity in lieu of aptamer/DNA complex, causing the collapse of hydrogel network and results in the releasing of urease into the solution...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917061/use-of-lipid-emulsion-therapy-in-local-anesthetic-overdose
#14
Ozgur Karcioglu
The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as antidote in systemic toxicity of certain agents has gained widespread support. There are increasing data suggesting use of ILE in reversing from local anesthetic-induced systemic toxicity severe, life-threatening cardiotoxicity, although findings are contradictory. Efficiency of ILE was demonstrated in animal studies in the treatment of severe impairment of cardiac functions, via a mechanism for trapping lipophilic drugs in an expanded plasma lipid compartment ("lipid sink")...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916516/an-uncommon-manifestation-of-shock-takotsubo-syndrome
#15
Ying X Gue, Sanjay S Bhandari, Mubarak Ahamed
76 year old female presented following an episode of collapse. She was hypotensive with the paramedics and remained refractory despite fluid resuscitation. Her initial baseline tests revealed an elevated troponin; she subsequently underwent a coronary angiogram which showed mild coronary artery disease. Left ventriculogram was performed which showed abnormal mid-wall ballooning and severely impaired systolic function, characteristic of takotsubo syndrome. Echocardiogram confirmed presence of diagnosis and presence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with high gradient...
September 15, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916133/a-modified-deltoid-splitting-approach-with-axillary-nerve-bundle-mobilization-for-proximal-humeral-fracture-fixation
#16
Young Ho Shin, Young Ho Lee, Ho Sung Choi, Min Bom Kim, Sung Hee Pyo, Goo Hyun Baek
INTRODUCTION: The deltopectoral and the deltoid splitting approach are commonly used for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. While the deltopectoral approach requires massive soft tissue devascularization, the deltoid splitting approach needs an additional skipped incision to avoid axillary nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to describe a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures and to assess its radiologic and clinical outcomes...
September 8, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915754/modeling-the-mechanism-of-cln025-beta-hairpin-formation
#17
Keri A McKiernan, Brooke E Husic, Vijay S Pande
Beta-hairpins are substructures found in proteins that can lend insight into more complex systems. Furthermore, the folding of beta-hairpins is a valuable test case for benchmarking experimental and theoretical methods. Here, we simulate the folding of CLN025, a miniprotein with a beta-hairpin structure, at its experimental melting temperature using a range of state-of-the-art protein force fields. We construct Markov state models in order to examine the thermodynamics, kinetics, mechanism, and rate-determining step of folding...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915668/nsc30049-inhibits-chk1-pathway-in-5-fu-resistant-crc-bulk-and-stem-cell-populations
#18
Satya Narayan, Aruna S Jaiswal, Ritika Sharma, Akbar Nawab, Lizette Vila Duckworth, Brian K Law, Maria Zajac-Kaye, Thomas J George, Jay Sharma, Arun K Sharma, Robert A Hromas
The 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment induces DNA damage and stalling of DNA replication forks. These stalled replication forks then collapse to form one sided double-strand breaks, leading to apoptosis. However, colorectal cancer (CRC) stem cells rapidly repair the stalled/collapsed replication forks and overcome treatment effects. Recent evidence suggests a critical role of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in preventing the replicative stress. Therefore, Chk1 kinase has been a target for developing mono or combination therapeutic agents...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915021/novel-approach-for-in-situ-recovery-of-lithium-carbonate-from-spent-lithium-ion-batteries-using-vacuum-metallurgy
#19
Jiefeng Xiao, Jia Li, Zhenming Xu
Lithium is a rare metal because of geographical scarcity and technical barrier. Recycling lithium resource from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is significant for lithium deficiency and environmental protection. A novel approach for recycling lithium element as Li2CO3 from spent LIBs is proposed. Firstly, the electrode materials pre-obtained by mechanical separation are pyrolyzed under inclosed vacuum condition. During this process, the Li is released as Li2CO3 from the crystal structure of lithium transition metal oxides due to the collapse of oxygen-framework...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914612/bnc-nanoshells-a-novel-structure-for-atomic-storage
#20
Francisco Wellery Nunes Silva, Eduardo Cruz-Silva, Mauricio Terrones, Humberto Terrones, E B Barros
Quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) and density functional theory (DFT) are employed in this work in order to study the structural and electronics properties of carbon, Boron Nitride or hybrid BNC nanoshells (BNCNSs). The studied nanoshells can be formed by stacking two zigzag graphene nanoribbons (zGNRs), two zigzag Boron Nitride nanoribbons (zBNNRs) or one zigzag graphene nanoribbon on a Boron Nitride nanoribbon. In all cases only one of the edges of the ribbon is passivated, while the other one is left unpassivated...
September 15, 2017: Nanotechnology
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