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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793179/nano-strategies-for-berberine-delivery-a-natural-alkaloid-of-berberis
#1
REVIEW
Elaheh Mirhadi, Mehdi Rezaee, Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei
Berberine, as a phytochemical component of some medicinal Chinese herbs (most frequently Berberis vulgaris), is an isoquinoline alkaloid with many therapeutic effects including anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diarrhea, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Berberine has some significant effects on type 2 diabetes through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, glycolysis stimulation, and mitochondrial function inhibition which subsequently improves both lipid and glucose metabolism...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792864/delavatine-a-an-unusual-isoquinoline-alkaloid-exerts-anti-inflammation-on-lps-induced-proinflammatory-cytokines-production-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-bv-2-microglia
#2
Qing Xie, Guo-Zhen Wu, Niao Yang, Yun-Heng Shen, Jian Tang, Wei-Dong Zhang
Delavatine A, an unusual isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from I. delavayi, was first studied for anti-inflammatory effect using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglia. In the present study, we found that delavatine A substantially suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in BV-2 microglial cells. These effects resulted from the inhibition of their regulatory genes inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and TNF-a, IL-6, IL-1β...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792804/total-synthesis-of-%C3%A2-crinane-from-6-6-dibromobicyclo-3-1-0-hexane-using-a-5-exo-trig-radical-cyclisation-reaction-to-assemble-the-c3a-arylated-perhydroindole-substructure
#3
Ping Lan, Martin G Banwell, Anthony C Willis
(±)-Crinane embodies the tetracyclic framework associated with some of the most common Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. It has now been prepared in ten steps from 6,6-dibromobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (2). The initial step involves the thermally-induced electrocyclic ring opening of cyclopropane 3 and capture of the resulting π-allyl cation with benzylamine to give an allylic amine that is readily elaborated to the 3°-amine 10. This last compound was engaged in a 5-exo-trig free radical cyclisation reaction to give the C3a-arylated perhydroindole 11...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792153/antimicrobial-evaluation-of-erythrinan-alkaloids-from-erythrina-crista-galli-l
#4
Janaina M de Avila, Ionara I Dalcol, Alessandra O Pereira, Eveline W Santos, Adriano Ferraz, Maura Z Santos, Marco Aurelio Mostardeiro, Ademir F Morel
BACKGROUND: Several species of the genus Erythrina have been used as sedative, antidepressant, and anticonvulsant. Erythrina crista-galli is native to the Pampa Biome and is widely used for medicinal purposes. Erythrinan alkaloids exhibit a range of pharmacological properties. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic fractions and the alkaloids isolated from E. crista-galli bark against a collection of bacteria and fungi for the first time. METHODS: Erythrina crista-galli stem bark was extracted with MeOH under reflux...
May 23, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791083/structure-and-biocatalytic-scope-of-coclaurine-n-methyltransferase
#5
Matthew Bennett, Mark Thompson, Sarah Shepherd, Mark Dunstan, Abigail Herbert, Duncan Smith, Victoria Cronin, Binuraj Menon, Colin Levy, Jason Micklefield
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a structurally diverse family of plant secondary metabolites which have been exploited to develop analgesics, antibiotics, antitumor agents and other therapeutic agents. Biosynthesis of BIAs proceeds via a common pathway from tyrosine to (S)-reticulene at which point the pathway diverges. Coclaurine N-methyltransferase (CNMT) is a key enzyme in the pathway to (S)-reticulene, installing the N-methyl substituent that is essential for the bioactivity of many BIAs. In this paper, we describe the first crystal structure of CNMT which, along with mutagenesis studies, defines the enzymes active site architecture...
May 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790698/inhibition-of-migration-and-invasion-by-berberine-via-inactivation-of-pi3k-akt-and-p38-in-human-retinoblastoma-cell-line
#6
Yuwen Wang, Jianshu Yuan, Liangyan Yang, Pengyun Wang, Xiajun Wang, Yue Wu, Kan Chen, Rong Ma, Yike Zhong, Xiaohong Guo, Yan Gong, Mengfang Gui, Yaming Jin
BACKGROUND: As a clinically important natural isoquinoline alkaloid, berberine has been reported to possess various pharmacological effects. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on cell migration and invasion in human retinoblastoma (Rb) cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of berberine was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. After being stimulated with berberine under various concentrations, the cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell assay...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789708/combined-genotyping-microbial-diversity-and-metabolite-profiling-studies-on-farmed-mytilus-spp-from-kiel-fjord
#7
Caroline Utermann, Delphine Parrot, Corinna Breusing, Heiko Stuckas, Tim Staufenberger, Martina Blümel, Antje Labes, Deniz Tasdemir
The blue mussel Mytilus is a popular food source with high economical value. Species of the M. edulis complex (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus) hybridise whenever their geographic ranges overlap posing difficulties to species discrimination, which is important for blue mussel aquaculture. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic structure of farmed blue mussels in Kiel Fjord. Microbial and metabolic profile patterns were studied to investigate a possible dependency on the genotype of the bivalves...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789647/microbial-production-of-novel-sulphated-alkaloids-for-drug-discovery
#8
Eitaro Matsumura, Akira Nakagawa, Yusuke Tomabechi, Shinichi Ikushiro, Toshiyuki Sakaki, Takane Katayama, Kenji Yamamoto, Hidehiko Kumagai, Fumihiko Sato, Hiromichi Minami
Natural products from plants are useful as lead compounds in drug discovery. Plant benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) exhibit various pharmaceutical activities. Although unidentified BIAs are expected to be of medicinal value, sufficient quantities of such BIAs, for biological assays, are sometimes difficult to obtain due to their low content in natural sources. Here, we showed that high productivity of BIAs in engineered Escherichia coli could be exploited for drug discovery. First, we improved upon the previous microbial production system producing (S)-reticuline, an important BIA intermediate, to obtain yields of around 160 mg/L, which was 4-fold higher than those of the previously reported highest production system...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788973/homoharringtonine-regulates-the-alternative-splicing-of-bcl-x-and-caspase-9-through-a-protein-phosphatase-1-dependent-mechanism
#9
Qi Sun, Shiyue Li, Junjun Li, Qiuxia Fu, Zhongyuan Wang, Bo Li, Shan-Shan Liu, Zijie Su, Jiaxing Song, Desheng Lu
BACKGROUND: Homoharringtonine (HHT) is a natural alkaloid with potent antitumor activity, but its precise mechanism of action is still poorly understood. METHODS: We examined the effect of HHT on alternative splicing of Bcl-x and Caspase 9 in various cells using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mechanism of HHT-affected alternative splicing in these cells was investigated by treatment with protein phosphatase inhibitors and overexpression of a protein phosphatase...
May 22, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788787/review-of-bioactive-secondary-metabolites-from-marine-bryozoans-in-the-progress-of-new-drugs-discovery
#10
Xiang Rong Tian, Hai Feng Tang, Xiao Lin Tian, Jia Jun Hu, Li Li Huang, Kirk R Gustafson
Marine bryozoans play an important role for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds among marine organisms. In this review, we summarize 164 new secondary metabolites including macrocyclic lactones, sterols, alkaloids, sphingolipids and so forth from 24 marine bryozoans in the last two decades. The structural features, bioactivity, structure-activity relationship, mechanism and strategies to address the resupply of these scarce secondary metabolites are discussed. The structural and bioactive diversity of the secondary metabolites from marine bryozoans indicated the possibility of using these compounds, especially bryostatin 1 (1), bryostatin analog (BA1), alkaloids (50, 53, 127-128 and 134-139), sphingolipids sulfates (148 and 149) and sulfur-containing aromatic compound (160), as the starting points for new drug discovery...
May 23, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788543/a-new-glutathione-conjugate-of-the-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-produced-by-human-cytosolic-enzyme-dependent-reactions-in-vitro
#11
Fashe Muluneh, Merja R Häkkinen, Rami El-Dairi, Markku Pasanen, Risto O Juvonen
RATIONALE: The toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are initially formed by cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation reactions and primarily eliminated as glutathione (GSH) conjugates. Although the reaction between the reactive metabolites and GSH can occur spontaneously, the role of the cytosolic enzymes in the process has not been studied. METHODS: The toxic metabolites of selected PAs (retrorsine, monocrotaline, senecionine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine or senkirkine) were generated by incubating them in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 7...
May 22, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787267/isolation-synthesis-and-semisynthesis-of-amaryllidaceae-constituents-from-narcissus-and-galanthus-sp-de-novo-total-synthesis-of-2-epi-narciclasine
#12
Suresh Borra, Ringaile Lapinskaite, Christine Kempthorne, David Liscombe, James McNulty, Tomas Hudlicky
An efficient protocol for the isolation of narciclasine from common Amaryllidaceae bulbs, separation from haemanthamine, and the occurrence of a trace alkaloid, 2- epi-narciclasine, are reported. Attempts to convert natural narciclasine to its C-2 epimer by Mitsunobu inversion or oxidation/reduction sequences were compromised by rearrangement and aromatization processes, through which a synthesis of the alkaloid narciprimine was achieved. The methylation of the 7-hydroxy group of natural narciclasine followed by protection of the 3,4-diol function and oxidation/reduction sequence provided the target C-2 epimer...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786655/bioactive-pyridone-alkaloids-from-a-deep-sea-derived-fungus-arthrinium-sp-ujnmf0008
#13
Jie Bao, Huijuan Zhai, Kongkai Zhu, Jin-Hai Yu, Yuying Zhang, Yinyin Wang, Cheng-Shi Jiang, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yun Zhang, Hua Zhang
Eight new 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone alkaloids arthpyrones D⁻K ( 1 ⁻ 8 ), along with two known analogues apiosporamide ( 9 ) and arthpyrone B ( 10 ), were isolated from a deep-sea-derived fungus Arthrinium sp. UJNMF0008. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods with that of 1 being established by chemical transformation and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 bore an ester functionality linking the pyridone and decalin moieties first reported in this class of metabolites, while 3 and 4 incorporated a rare natural hexa- or tetrahydrobenzofuro[3,2- c ]pyridin-3(2 H )-one motif...
May 22, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785743/four-new-diterpenoid-alkaloids-from-the-roots-of-aconitum-carmichaelii
#14
Yu Li, Feng Gao, Ji-Fa Zhang, Xian-Li Zhou
Aconitum carmichaelii, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, is mainly distributed and cultivated in southwestern China. Its parent and lateral roots, two well-known traditional medicinal materials, are commonly called as "Chuanwu" and "Fuzi" in China, respectively. A. carmichaelii is widely used for the treatment of cadianeuria, neuralgia, and rheumatalgia in Chinese medicine. According to the pharmacology studies, diterpenoid alkaloids accounted for the major effects and toxicity of this plant, such as hypaconitine, mesaconitine, aconitine...
May 21, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785738/mass-spectrometry-for-characterization-of-homologous-piperidine-alkaloids-and-their-activity-as-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors
#15
Thamires R Freitas, Amanda Danuello, Claudio Viegas Júnior, Vanderlan S Bolzani, Marcos Pivatto
RATIONALE: Piperidine alkaloids from Senna spectabilis constitute a rare class of natural products with several biological activities. However, the absence of chromophores makes their structural elucidation by conventional methods a great challenge. In this context, mass spectrometry emerges as a powerful tool for metabolomics studies. METHODS: The piperidine alkaloids (-)-cassine and (-)-spectaline and the semisynthetic derivatives (-)-3-O-acetylcassine and (-)-3-O-acetylspectaline were investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in the positive mode and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS)...
May 22, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785434/integration-of-phospholipid-hyaluronic-acid-methotrexate-nanocarrier-assembly-and-amphiphilic-drug-drug-conjugate-for-synergistic-targeted-delivery-and-combinational-tumor-therapy
#16
Yang Li, Huabing Zhang, Yilin Chen, Jinyuan Ma, Jinyan Lin, Yinying Zhang, Zhongxiong Fan, Guanghao Su, Liya Xie, Xuan Zhu, Zhenqing Hou
Combinational cancer therapy has been considered as a promising strategy to achieve synergetic therapeutic effects and suppression of multidrug resistance. Herein, we adopted a combination of methotrexate (MTX), an antimetabolite acting on cytoplasm, and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), an alkaloid acting on nuclei, to treat cancer. Given the different solubilities, membrane permeabilities, and anticancer mechanisms of both drugs, we developed a dual-targeting delivery system based on 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-hyaluronic acid (a principal ligand of CD44 receptors)-MTX (a selective ligand of folate receptors) nanoparticles, which was exploited to carry HCPT-MTX conjugate for synergistically boosting dual-drug co-delivery...
May 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785284/vinorelbine-induced-regression-of-a-choroidal-metastasis-from-primary-breast-carcinoma
#17
Malvika Arya, Jay S Duker
Background: Various therapeutic options exist to treat choroidal metastatic lesions. However, they are all associated with potential long-term adverse effects. This case report discusses a case of choroidal metastasis from primary breast carcinoma that regressed after single-agent chemotherapy. Case presentation: We report a case of choroidal metastasis from estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast carcinoma that became resistant to endocrine therapy. The primary malignancy was treated with surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation, followed by hormone therapy with various agents in combination with kinase inhibitors for ER resistance...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785189/the-investigation-of-the-effect-and-mechanism-of-sophora-moorcroftiana-alkaloids-in-combination-with-albendazole-on-echinococcosis-in-an-experimental-rats-model
#18
Fabin Zhang, Chunhui Hu, Shilei Cheng, Shulin Wang, Bin Li, Deping Cao, Haining Fan, Ruchong Pan, Mei Yang, Yanhui Xu
Echinococcosis is a worldwide anthropozoonosis which is highly endemic over large animal husbandry areas in northwestern China. The current clinical therapeutic medicine against echinococcosis is albendazole, although it caused serious side effects in patients. The component in traditional Chinese herb medicine, Sophora moorcroftiana alkaloids (SA), is thought to be a potential drug to treat echinococcosis. In order to explore the effect and mechanism of SA treatment against echinococcosis, we established animal echinococcosis model and treated rats with albendazole alone, alkaloids alone, and combined therapy...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785122/aloperine-executes-antitumor-effects-through-the-induction-of-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-prostate-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Zhixin Ling, Han Guan, Zonghao You, Can Wang, Ling Hu, Lei Zhang, Yiduo Wang, Shuqiu Chen, Bin Xu, Ming Chen
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignant diseases among male patients. Although androgen deprivation therapy remains the main treatment for PCa, most patients would inevitably progress to castration-resistant PCa, which is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. Thus, novel antitumor agents are urgently needed. Recent studies demonstrated that aloperine (ALO) as a natural alkaloid showed antitumor effects in other cancer types. However, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of ALO in PCa have not been investigated...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784829/short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-governs-steroidal-specialized-metabolites-structural-diversity-and-toxicity-in-the-genus-solanum
#20
Prashant D Sonawane, Uwe Heinig, Sayantan Panda, Netta Segal Gilboa, Meital Yona, S Pradeep Kumar, Noam Alkan, Tamar Unger, Samuel Bocobza, Margarita Pliner, Sergey Malitsky, Maria Tkachev, Sagit Meir, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni
Thousands of specialized, steroidal metabolites are found in a wide spectrum of plants. These include the steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs), produced primarily by most species of the genus Solanum , and metabolites belonging to the steroidal saponins class that are widespread throughout the plant kingdom. SGAs play a protective role in plants and have potent activity in mammals, including antinutritional effects in humans. The presence or absence of the double bond at the C-5,6 position (unsaturated and saturated, respectively) creates vast structural diversity within this metabolite class and determines the degree of SGA toxicity...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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