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Probiotics in newborn

Mario Del Piano, Francesco Coggiola, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Luca Mogna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea accounts for 9% of the mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, and it is significantly associated with malnutrition. Each year, diarrhea kills around 760,000 children under 5 years of age and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa.In Uganda, the infant mortality rate of 58 per 1000 is unacceptably high, and the major contributors include malnutrition, diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, prematurity, sepsis, and newborn illnesses.There is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrheal diseases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Nazarii Kobyliak, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Petro Bodnar, Tetyana Beregova
Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG...
September 22, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
J Hrdý, I Kocourková, R Lodinová-Žádníková, L Kolářová, L Prokešová
Probiotics are believed to prevent or reduce allergy development but the mechanism of their beneficial effect is still poorly understood. Immune characteristics of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral blood of perinatally probiotic-supplemented children of allergic mothers (51 children), non-supplemented children of allergic mothers (42 children), and non-supplemented children of healthy mothers (28 children) were compared at the age of 6-7 years. A first dose of a probiotic Escherichia coli strain (E. coli O83:K24:H31) was administered within 2 days after the birth and then 12 times during the first months of life and children were followed longitudinally...
September 16, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
Shi-Fa Zhang, Zong-Sheng Tang, Ling Tong, Xiang-Xiang Tao, Qi-Feng Suo, Xue-Mei Xu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Probiotics is recognized to promote growth performance and immune function via balancing the intestinal microflora. Live clostridium butyricum and bifidobacterium combined powder (LCBBCP) has been widely to treat intestinal dysbacteriosis in newborns in China. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the combined probiotics on the expression of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) on CD4(+) T cells and the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets in late preterm infants...
September 10, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
M J Mϋller, T Paul, S Seeliger
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in premature infants and newborns. It is defined as an ulcerative inflammation of the intestinal wall. The clinical signs of incipient NEC are often very discrete, and range from localized intestinal symptoms to generalized signs of sepsis. NEC is classified depending on its severity into disease states according to the modified Bell's Classification. Treatment of NEC ranges, depending on its severity, from a conservative therapeutic approach to surgery with resection of the affected parts of the intestine...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
John E Butler, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Nancy Wertz, Xiuzhu Sun, Marek Sinkora, David L Francis
The ileal Peyers patches (IPP) of newborn germfree (GF) piglets were isolated into blind loops and the piglets colonized with a defined probiotic microflora. After 5 weeks, IgA levels in the intestinal lavage (IL) of loop piglets remained at GF levels and IgM comprised ∼70% while in controls, IgA levels were elevated 5-fold and comprised ∼70% of total Igs. Loop piglets also had reduced serum IgA levels suggesting the source of serum IgA had been interrupted. The isotype profile for loop contents was intermediate between that in the IL of GF and probiotic controls...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yizhong Wang, Xiaolu Li, Ting Ge, Yongmei Xiao, Yang Liao, Yun Cui, Yucai Zhang, Wenzhe Ho, Guangjun Yu, Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) represent one of the main health problems in children. Probiotics are viable bacteria that colonize the intestine and affect the host intestinal microbial balance. Accumulating evidence suggests that probiotic consumption may decrease the incidence of or modify RTIs. The authors systematically reviewed data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the effect of probiotic consumption on RTIs in children. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched for RCTs regarding the effect of probiotics on RTIs in children...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tomás Sánchez-Tamayo, María Gracia Espinosa Fernández, Laura Affumicato, María González López, Verónica Fernández Romero, María Concepción Moreno Algarra, Enrique Salguero García
INTRODUCTION: An unexpected increase in the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) cases was observed in our hospital. Just in case, our feeding policy could be responsible, it was decided to conduct a systematic review and develop a clinical guideline regarding enteral nutrition of very low birth weight infants (VLBW). OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the new feeding protocol in the incidence of NEC. METHOD: A "before" (2011) and "after" (May 2012 - April 2013) study was performed on the new feeding protocol...
July 18, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Anna Lis-Święty, Dorota Milewska-Wróbel, Irmina Janicka
The paper refers to the recently published empirical data and systematic reviews on the impact of diets, foods, nutrients and bioactive substance exposures in pregnancy and in early infancy, on the development of atopic disorders. The results of studies referring to a broad range on dietary factors are mostly conflicting. There are several limitations of these researches. Based on the existing information, it is not possible to establish the role of antioxidants and vitamin D supplementation in atopic disease development...
January 2016: Developmental Period Medicine
Jisheng Gao, Hongwei Wu, Jinfeng Liu
The multifarious assortment of microorganisms present in gut of humans is termed as gut microbiota. These include 1,000 species accompanied by approximately 2 million genes in an individual adult. The gut microbiota has multifactorial protective roles against allergic reactions, inflammation, cardiac pathological states and even in the state of malignant carcinogenesis existing in humans. By contrast, adverse alterations in the microbiota result in chronic pathological states, including autoimmune diseases, cancer and circulatory system obstructions...
July 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ping Li, Qing Gu
Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 is a potential probiotic isolated from newborn infant fecal and it is identified to produce riboflavin with great antimicrobial activity. The complete genome sequence of this strain was reported in the present study. The genome contains a 3,261,418-bp chromosome and two plasmids. Genes, related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins and riboflavin, were identified. This work will facilitate to reveal the biosynthetic mechanism of bacteriocins and B-group vitamins in lactic acid bacteria and provide evidence for its potential application in food industry...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Yvan Vandenplas
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is worldwide a common problem in infants and children. While AGE is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, it is mainly a problem with high socioeconomic impact in the rest of the world. Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and rapid refeeding remain the cornerstone of the management. However, ORS does not decrease the duration of diarrhea. There is evidence that selected strains of probiotics decrease the duration of AGE with 24 h, both in ambulatory care and in hospitalized children, resulting also in a decrease of the duration of hospitalization...
February 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Nazarii Kobyliak, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Oleksandr Virchenko, Galyna Mykhalchyshyn, Petro Bodnar, Mykola Spivak, Dmytro Yankovsky, Tetyana Beregova, Lyudmyla Ostapchenko
BACKGROUND: To investigate the efficacy of different probiotic strains, their combinations and forms (alive or lyophilized) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention. METHODS: In this study, 70 rats have been used divided into 7 groups of 10 animals in each: I - intact rats, II-VII - rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD. Rats with NAFLD were untreated (group II, MSG-obesity group) and treated with probiotics (groups III-VII). In order to develop NAFLD, newborn rats of groups II-VII were injected with a solution of monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g) subcutaneously (s...
2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Lingfen Xu, Yun Wang, Yang Wang, Jianhua Fu, Mei Sun, Zhiqin Mao, Yvan Vandenplas
OBJECTIVE: The use of probiotics is increasingly popular in preterm neonates, as they may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis sepsis and improve growth and feeding tolerance. There is only limited literature on Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii) in preterm infants. METHOD: A prospective, randomized, case-controlled trial with the probiotic S. boulardii (50mg/kg twice daily) was conducted in newborns with a gestational age of 30-37 weeks and a birth weight between 1500 and 2500g...
May 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Carlo Dani, Caterina Coviello C, Iuri Corsini I, Fabio Arena, Alberto Antonelli, Gian Maria Rossolini
Many term and preterm infants are commonly supplemented with probiotics to prevent adverse effects of antibiotic administration and necrotizing enterocolitis and they are believed to be safe. However, the supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been associated with the development of sepsis with a cause-effect relationship in six newborns and children. In this study, we report two further cases and discuss the emerging issue of probiotic supplementation safety in neonates. We conclude that physicians must be aware that supplementation with L...
March 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Natalia Zeber-Lubecka, Maria Kulecka, Filip Ambrozkiewicz, Agnieszka Paziewska, Milosz Lechowicz, Ewa Konopka, Urszula Majewska, Maria Borszewska-Kornacka, Michal Mikula, Bozena Cukrowska, Jerzy Ostrowski
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in culture-independent approaches have enabled insights into the diversity, complexity, and individual variability of gut microbial communities. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of oral administration of Saccharomyces (S.) boulardii and mode of delivery on the intestinal microbial community in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from preterm newborns randomly divided into two groups: a probiotic-receiving group (n = 18) or a placebo group (n = 21)...
2016: PloS One
Heidi E Karpen
Both protein and energy malnutrition are common in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). Neonates with CHD are at increased risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), particularly the preterm population. Mortality in patients with CHD and NEC is higher than for either disease process alone. Standardized feeding protocols may affect both incidence of NEC and growth failure in infants with CHD. The roles of human milk and probiotics have not yet been explored in this patient population...
March 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Taylor K Soderborg, Sarah J Borengasser, Linda A Barbour, Jacob E Friedman
Maternal obesity and diabetes dramatically increase the long-term risk for obesity in the next generation, and pregnancy and lactation may be critical periods at which to aim primary prevention to break the obesity cycle. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiome in newborns and infants plays a significant role in gut health and therefore child development. Alteration of the early infant gut microbiome has been correlated with the development of childhood obesity and autoimmune conditions, including asthma, allergies and, more recently, type 1 diabetes...
May 2016: Diabetologia
G Reid, H Kumar, A I Khan, S Rautava, J Tobin, S Salminen
Successful human reproduction requires microbial homeostasis in the female reproductive tract, and colonisation of the newborn with beneficial microbes. In order to prevent several complications associated with dysbiosis, the administration of probiotics is more often being considered. The objective of the enclosed review was to examine the rationale for probiotic utility before and during pregnancy and in the early phase of infant life. The conclusions emerged from a panel of researchers who met during the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) workshop held in Washington, DC, USA in 2015...
June 2016: Beneficial Microbes
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