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Probiotics in newborn

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387884/the-probiotics-in-dentistry-a-narrative-review
#1
A M Pujia, M Costacurta, L Fortunato, G Merra, S Cascapera, M Calvani, S Gratteri
The total number of microbes that colonize the human body is far greater than the number of cells that make it up. In recent years, it has been shown that bacteria play an essential role in the body; in fact, they are essential for the maturation of the intestine, the development and control of the immune system, the development of the brain, the metabolism of macronutrients, the synthesis of vitamins, and the energy balance. Bacteria play an essential role in defense of their territory against the entry of other bacteria that may be pathogenic to health...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370715/l-fermentum-cect-5716-prevents-stress-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-in-newborn-rats
#2
T Vanhaecke, P Aubert, P-A Grohard, T Durand, P Hulin, P Paul-Gilloteaux, A Fournier, F Docagne, A Ligneul, C Fressange-Mazda, P Naveilhan, H Boudin, P Le Ruyet, M Neunlist
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysfunction plays a critical role in various intestinal disorders affecting infants and children, including the development of food allergies and colitis. Recent studies highlighted the role of probiotics in regulating IEB functions and behavior in adults, but their effects in the newborn remain largely unknown. We therefore characterized in rat pups, the impact of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716 (L. fermentum) on stress-induced IEB dysfunction, systemic immune response and exploratory behavior...
March 31, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368269/probiotics-for-feed-tolerance-in-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
A Shashidhar, P N Suman Rao, Saudamini Nesargi, Swarnarekha Bhat, B S Chandrakala
OBJECTIVE: To measure the efficacy of a probiotic formulation on time to reach full enteral feeds in VLBW (very low birth weight) newborns. DESIGN: A blinded randomized control trial. SETTING: A tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Southern India between August 2012 to November 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 104 newborns with a birth weight of 750-1499 g on enteral feeds. INTERVENTION: Probiotic group (n=52) received a multicomponent probiotic formulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii once a day at a dose of 1...
March 29, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#4
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278201/the-symbiotic-bacterial-surface-factor-polysaccharide-a-on-bacteroides-fragilis-inhibits-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-in-human-fetal-enterocytes-via-toll-receptors-2-and-4
#5
Fei Jiang, Di Meng, Meiqian Weng, Weishu Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Dennis Kasper, W Allan Walker
Colonizing bacteria interacting with the immature, unlike the mature, human intestine favors inflammation over immune homeostasis. As a result, ten percent of premature infants under 1500 grams weight develop an inflammatory necrosis of the intestine after birth, e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is a major health problem in this population causing extensive morbidity and mortality and an enormous expenditure of health care dollars. NEC can be prevented by giving preterm infants their mother's expressed breast milk or ingesting selective probiotic organisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998852/-isolation-identification-and-lead-adsorption-study-of-lead-resistant-lactobacillus-casei-strains-from-feces-of-healthy-newborns
#6
Wei Shen, Qin-Fei Yu, Yu-Hao Wang, Yi-Duo Zhang, Xiao-Jing Meng, Hong-Ying Fan
OBJECTIVE: To isolate and identify lead-resistant Lactobacillus casei strains with lead adsorption ability from the stool of healthy newborns as a new source of bacteria for developing lead-eliminating food products. METHODS: MRS was used to isolate lead-resistant bacteria from the feces of 30 healthy and full-term neonates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA sequences of the isolated bacteria. Physiological and biochemical characterizations of the bacteria were performed according to the Berger's Systematic Bacteriology Handbook, followed by antimicrobial susceptibility test and acid-tolerant bile salt test...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882741/bacteremia-induced-by-bifidobacterium-breve-in-a-newborn-with-cloacal-exstrophy
#7
Shinichi Sato, Toshihiko Uchida, Shota Kuwana, Kazuto Sasaki, Tatsuya Watanabe, Junko Saito, Takahiro Kawaji
Bifidobacterium breve is an effective probiotic agent used in the field of neonatology. Although B. breve has been considered safe, a case of B. breve bacteremia has been reported. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the bacteremia is unknown. Herein, we report a second case of B. breve bacteremia that developed in a neonate with multiple abdominal organ anomalies. Following surgical repair immediately after birth, B. breve treatment was started. After 1 week, the infant developed B. breve bacteremia following the onset of adhesive ileus...
November 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857539/inhibition-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-by-lactobacillus-acidophilus-n-v-er2-317-402
#8
Haykuhi Charchoghlyan, Heejun Kwon, Dong-Ju Hwang, Jong Suk Lee, Junsoo Lee, Myunghee Kim
Lactobacillus acidophilus n.v. Er2 317/402 strain Narine is known as a health beneficial functional probiotic culture and supplementary source of nutrition for newborns. In this study, in vitro antimicrobial activities of Narine-lyophilized (Narine-L), Narine-heat treated (Narine-HT), and Narine crude cell-free extract (Narine-CCFE) were evaluated against pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) in agar as well as in a reconstituted powdered infant formula (RPIF) model. Inhibition zones of 30 mg Narine-L and Narine-HT were both 150 U, whereas inhibition zone of 30 mg Narine-CCFE was 200 U...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801789/administration-of-a-multi-strain-probiotic-product-to-women-in-the-perinatal-period-differentially-affects-the-breast-milk-cytokine-profile-and-may-have-beneficial-effects-on-neonatal-gastrointestinal-functional-symptoms-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Antonio Di Mauro, Paola Mastromarino, Margherita Fanelli, Domenico Martinelli, Flavia Urbano, Daniela Capobianco, Nicola Laforgia
BACKGROUND: Probiotic supplementation to women during pregnancy and lactation can modulate breast milk composition, with immune benefits being transferred to their infants. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high-dose probiotic supplementation to women during late pregnancy and lactation on cytokine profile and secretory IgA (sIgA) in breast milk and thus to study if differences in breast milk composition can affect lactoferrin and sIgA levels in stool samples of newborns...
October 27, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741153/can-probiotics-reduce-diarrhea-and-infant-mortality-in-africa-the-project-of-a-pilot-study
#10
Mario Del Piano, Francesco Coggiola, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Luca Mogna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea accounts for 9% of the mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, and it is significantly associated with malnutrition. Each year, diarrhea kills around 760,000 children under 5 years of age and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa.In Uganda, the infant mortality rate of 58 per 1000 is unacceptably high, and the major contributors include malnutrition, diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, prematurity, sepsis, and newborn illnesses.There is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrheal diseases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724923/effects-of-probiotics-vivomixx%C3%A2-in-obese-pregnant-women-and-their-newborn-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660157/probiotics-supplemented-with-omega-3-fatty-acids-are-more-effective-for-hepatic-steatosis-reduction-in-an-animal-model-of-obesity
#12
Nazarii Kobyliak, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Petro Bodnar, Tetyana Beregova
Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG...
September 22, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633175/the-effect-of-a-probiotic-escherichia-coli-strain-on-regulatory-t-cells-in-six-year-old-children
#13
J Hrdý, I Kocourková, R Lodinová-Žádníková, L Kolářová, L Prokešová
Probiotics are believed to prevent or reduce allergy development but the mechanism of their beneficial effect is still poorly understood. Immune characteristics of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral blood of perinatally probiotic-supplemented children of allergic mothers (51 children), non-supplemented children of allergic mothers (42 children), and non-supplemented children of healthy mothers (28 children) were compared at the age of 6-7 years. A first dose of a probiotic Escherichia coli strain (E. coli O83:K24:H31) was administered within 2 days after the birth and then 12 times during the first months of life and children were followed longitudinally...
November 30, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622346/effects-of-clostridium-butyricum-and-bifidobacterium-on-btla-expression-on-cd4-t-cells-and-lymphocyte-differentiation-in-late-preterm-infants
#14
Shi-Fa Zhang, Zong-Sheng Tang, Ling Tong, Xiang-Xiang Tao, Qi-Feng Suo, Xue-Mei Xu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Probiotics is recognized to promote growth performance and immune function via balancing the intestinal microflora. Live clostridium butyricum and bifidobacterium combined powder (LCBBCP) has been widely to treat intestinal dysbacteriosis in newborns in China. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the combined probiotics on the expression of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) on CD4(+) T cells and the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets in late preterm infants...
November 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589549/necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-premature-infants-and-newborns
#15
M J Mϋller, T Paul, S Seeliger
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in premature infants and newborns. It is defined as an ulcerative inflammation of the intestinal wall. The clinical signs of incipient NEC are often very discrete, and range from localized intestinal symptoms to generalized signs of sepsis. NEC is classified depending on its severity into disease states according to the modified Bell's Classification. Treatment of NEC ranges, depending on its severity, from a conservative therapeutic approach to surgery with resection of the affected parts of the intestine...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497872/antibody-repertoire-development-in-fetal-and-neonatal-piglets-xxiv-hypothesis-the-ileal-peyer-patches-ipp-are-the-major-source-of-primary-undiversified-iga-antibodies-in-newborn-piglets
#16
John E Butler, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Nancy Wertz, Xiuzhu Sun, Marek Sinkora, David L Francis
The ileal Peyers patches (IPP) of newborn germfree (GF) piglets were isolated into blind loops and the piglets colonized with a defined probiotic microflora. After 5 weeks, IgA levels in the intestinal lavage (IL) of loop piglets remained at GF levels and IgM comprised ∼70% while in controls, IgA levels were elevated 5-fold and comprised ∼70% of total Igs. Loop piglets also had reduced serum IgA levels suggesting the source of serum IgA had been interrupted. The isotype profile for loop contents was intermediate between that in the IL of GF and probiotic controls...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495104/probiotics-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Yizhong Wang, Xiaolu Li, Ting Ge, Yongmei Xiao, Yang Liao, Yun Cui, Yucai Zhang, Wenzhe Ho, Guangjun Yu, Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) represent one of the main health problems in children. Probiotics are viable bacteria that colonize the intestine and affect the host intestinal microbial balance. Accumulating evidence suggests that probiotic consumption may decrease the incidence of or modify RTIs. The authors systematically reviewed data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the effect of probiotic consumption on RTIs in children. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched for RCTs regarding the effect of probiotics on RTIs in children...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443828/-reduction-in-necrotising-enterocolitis-after-implementing-an-evidence-based-enteral-nutrition-protocol-in-very-low-birth-weight-newborns
#18
Tomás Sánchez-Tamayo, María Gracia Espinosa Fernández, Laura Affumicato, María González López, Verónica Fernández Romero, María Concepción Moreno Algarra, Enrique Salguero García
INTRODUCTION: An unexpected increase in the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) cases was observed in our hospital. Just in case, our feeding policy could be responsible, it was decided to conduct a systematic review and develop a clinical guideline regarding enteral nutrition of very low birth weight infants (VLBW). OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the new feeding protocol in the incidence of NEC. METHOD: A "before" (2011) and "after" (May 2012 - April 2013) study was performed on the new feeding protocol...
December 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416628/dietary-strategies-for-primary-prevention-of-atopic-diseases-what-do-we-know
#19
REVIEW
Anna Lis-Święty, Dorota Milewska-Wróbel, Irmina Janicka
The paper refers to the recently published empirical data and systematic reviews on the impact of diets, foods, nutrients and bioactive substance exposures in pregnancy and in early infancy, on the development of atopic disorders. The results of studies referring to a broad range on dietary factors are mostly conflicting. There are several limitations of these researches. Based on the existing information, it is not possible to establish the role of antioxidants and vitamin D supplementation in atopic disease development...
January 2016: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347013/importance-of-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-diseases-of-new-born-infants
#20
Jisheng Gao, Hongwei Wu, Jinfeng Liu
The multifarious assortment of microorganisms present in gut of humans is termed as gut microbiota. These include 1,000 species accompanied by approximately 2 million genes in an individual adult. The gut microbiota has multifactorial protective roles against allergic reactions, inflammation, cardiac pathological states and even in the state of malignant carcinogenesis existing in humans. By contrast, adverse alterations in the microbiota result in chronic pathological states, including autoimmune diseases, cancer and circulatory system obstructions...
July 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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