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Infant microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410788/independence-of-gut-bacterial-content-and-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-severity
#1
Lauren K Barron, Barbara B Warner, Phillip I Tarr, William D Shannon, Elena Deych, Brad W Warner
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common and devastating gastrointestinal disease of premature infants. NEC severity varies widely. Recent data have demonstrated a strong link between gut microbial dysbiosis and development of NEC. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the gut microbiome at the time of diagnosis predict the severity of NEC. METHODS: We used prospectively collected fecal samples from very low birth weight infants who developed NEC, stratifying by NEC severity...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392148/molecular-insight-into-evolution-of-symbiosis-between-breast-fed-infants-and-a-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-bifidobacterium-longum
#2
Chihaya Yamada, Aina Gotoh, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Mitchell Hattie, Keith A Stubbs, Ayako Katayama-Ikegami, Junko Hirose, Shin Kurihara, Takatoshi Arakawa, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Shujiro Okuda, Takane Katayama, Shinya Fushinobu
Breast-fed infants generally have a bifidobacteria-rich microbiota with recent studies indicating that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) selectively promote bifidobacterial growth. Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses a glycoside hydrolase family 20 lacto-N-biosidase for liberating lacto-N-biose I from lacto-N-tetraose, an abundant HMO unique to human milk, while Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum has a non-classified enzyme (LnbX). Here, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of LnbX and provide evidence for creation of a novel glycoside hydrolase family, GH136...
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381231/exposure-to-household-furry-pets-influences-the-gut-microbiota-of-infant-at-3-4%C3%A2-months-following-various-birth-scenarios
#4
Hein M Tun, Theodore Konya, Tim K Takaro, Jeffrey R Brook, Radha Chari, Catherine J Field, David S Guttman, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to household pets has the capacity to reduce risk for overweight and allergic disease, especially following caesarean delivery. Since there is some evidence that pets also alter the gut microbial composition of infants, changes to the gut microbiome are putative pathways by which pet exposure can reduce these risks to health. To investigate the impact of pre- and postnatal pet exposure on infant gut microbiota following various birth scenarios, this study employed a large subsample of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) cohort, whose mothers were enrolled during pregnancy between 2009 and 2012...
April 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379925/medically-graded-honey-supplementation-formula-to-preterm-infants-as-a-prebiotic-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Hany Aly, Reem N Said, Iman E Wali, Amany Elwakkad, Yssra Soliman, Alaa Reda Awad, Mahmoud A Shawky, Mohamed A Mohamed
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of medically-graded enteral honey supplementation on the intestinal microbiota, immune response, and somatic growth of preterm infants. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted on preterm infants with gestational age ≤ 34 weeks and postnatal age > 3 days. After reaching 1/2 goal enteral feeds, medically-graded bee honey was added to milk at a dose of 5, 10, 15, and 0 g/day for two weeks in groups A, B, C and D respectively...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379454/intervention-strategies-for-cesarean-section-induced-alterations-in-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#6
Angela Moya-Pérez, Pauline Luczynski, Ingrid B Renes, Shugui Wang, Yuliya Borre, C Anthony Ryan, Jan Knol, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374667/effect-of-antibiotic-administration-during-infancy-on-growth-curves-through-young-adulthood-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#7
Heather M Sidener, Byung Park, Lina Gao
Recent human studies indicate a possible correlation between the administration of antibiotics during early life and the risk oflater obesity, potentially due to antibiotic-induced alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiome. In humans, the risk of obesity increases with multiple courses of antibiotics and when fetuses or infants are treated with broad-spectrum and macrolide antibiotics.In addition, the obesity risk in humans seems higher for males than females. We used a retrospective, case-control, matched-pair study design to evaluate health records for 99 control-matched pairs of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from an outdoor breeding colony...
April 3, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363939/nasopharyngeal-microbiome-in-premature-infants-and-stability-during-rhinovirus-infection
#8
Geovanny F Perez, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Natalia Isaza, Mary C Rose, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley, Gustavo Nino
RATIONALE: The nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of newborns and infants plays a key role in modulating airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms during viral infections. Premature (PM) birth modifies the early NP environment and is a major risk factor for severe viral respiratory infections. However, it is currently unknown if the NP microbiota of PM infants is altered relative to full-term (FT) individuals. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the NP microbiota differences in preterm and FT infants during rhinovirus (RV) infection...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360258/impact-of-maternal-antibodies-and-infant-gut-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-african-indian-and-european-infants-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Kuladaipalayam Natarajan C Sindhu, Nigel Cunliffe, Matthew Peak, Mark Turner, Alistair Darby, Nicholas Grassly, Melita Gordon, Queen Dube, Sudhir Babji, Ira Praharaj, Valsan Verghese, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Gagandeep Kang
INTRODUCTION: Gastroenteritis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young children living in resource-poor settings, majority of which is attributed to rotavirus. Rotavirus vaccination can therefore have a significant impact on infant mortality. However, rotavirus vaccine efficacy in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia is significantly lower than in high-income countries. Maternally derived antibodies, infant gut microbiota and concomitant oral polio vaccination have been proposed as potential reasons for poor vaccine performance in low-income settings...
March 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356374/concordance-between-upper-and-lower-airway-microbiota-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Sabine M P J Prevaes, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Karin M de Winter-de Groot, Hettie M Janssens, Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders, Mei Ling J N Chu, Harm A Tiddens, Mireille van Westreenen, Cornelis K van der Ent, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Debby Bogaert
Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples are commonly used to direct therapy for lower respiratory tract infections in non-expectorating infants with cystic fibrosis (CF).We aimed to investigate the concordance between the bacterial community compositions of 25 sets of nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 17 infants with CF aged ∼5 months (n=13) and ∼12 months (n=12) using conventional culturing and 16S-rRNA sequencing.Clustering analyses demonstrated that BAL microbiota profiles were in general characterised by a mixture of oral and nasopharyngeal bacteria, including commensals like Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veillonella and Rothia spp...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356137/ethnic-and-diet-related-differences-in-the-healthy-infant-microbiome
#11
Jennifer C Stearns, Michael A Zulyniak, Russell J de Souza, Natalie C Campbell, Michelle Fontes, Mateen Shaikh, Malcolm R Sears, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Stuart E Turvey, Milan Gupta, Joseph Beyene, Michael G Surette, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: The infant gut is rapidly colonized by microorganisms soon after birth, and the composition of the microbiota is dynamic in the first year of life. Although a stable microbiome may not be established until 1 to 3 years after birth, the infant gut microbiota appears to be an important predictor of health outcomes in later life. METHODS: We obtained stool at one year of age from 173 white Caucasian and 182 South Asian infants from two Canadian birth cohorts to gain insight into how maternal and early infancy exposures influence the development of the gut microbiota...
March 29, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355943/atopic-eczema
#12
Stephen M Bauer
Atopic eczema (AE), or atopic dermatitis (AD), is a common inflammatory skin disease with a disrupted epidermal barrier and an allergic immune response. AD/AE is prominently characterized by a symptomatic itch and transient skin lesions. Infants compose a significant percentage affected. Two models have been proposed to explain AD/AE skin pathology: the gut microbiome-focused inside-outside model and the outside-inside model concentrating on the disrupted skin barrier/skin microbiome. Gene disruptions contributing to epidermal structure, as well as those in immune system genes, are implicated...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#13
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346935/dysbiosis-in-the-neonatal-period-role-of-cesarean-section
#14
Josef Neu
From epidemiological studies and studies done evaluating microbiomes in infants, there is a strong signal that the infants born by elective cesarean section (C-section) develop microbiota that differs from those babies born by vaginal delivery. Epidemiological studies show increased odds ratios for the development of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, asthma, allergic diseases as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity in babies born by C-section. These are interesting associations, and if supported by additional studies that rigorously control for confounding factors, they will have major public health implications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#15
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346925/microbiota-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#16
Sanjay Patole
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired gastrointestinal inflammatory condition with significant mortality and morbidity in preterm very low birth weight infants. The interplay between toll-like receptors, bacterial endotoxins, developmentally regulated excessive proinflammatory responses of the immature innate immune system, hypoxia, ischemia, reperfusion, free radicals, and the presence of substrates and bacterial endotoxins is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NEC. The association (cause?) of various microbes (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) with NEC has intrigued researchers for many years...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337207/gastrointestinal-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-infant-mice-alters-peripheral-cd8-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#17
Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Esi S N Lamousé-Smith
We recently reported that maternal antibiotic treatment (MAT) of mice in the last days of pregnancy and during lactation dramatically alters the density and composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota of their infants. MAT infants also exhibited enhanced susceptibility to a systemic viral infection and altered adaptive immune cell activation phenotype and function. CD8(+) effector T cells from MAT infants consistently demonstrate an inability to sustain interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in vivo following vaccinia virus infection and in vitro upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322134/reproductive-microbiomes
#18
Michael L Power, Caroline Quaglieri, Jay Schulkin
Almost every part of our body has a coevolved microbial community. The expressed microbial genes comprise the various microbiomes that play important roles in normal physiology and development. The various microbiomes are separate, yet often connected, with the species composition of one affecting others. The female reproductive system microbiomes (eg, vaginal, placental, and mammary/milk) remain less well explored than the gut microbiome although they comprise a large proportion of the female microbial network...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317399/recent-advances-in-pediatric-celiac-disease
#19
Grace J Lee, John Y Kao
The incidence of celiac disease (CD) has increased over the last half-century, resulting in rising interest in identifying risk factors for CD. The necessity of duodenal biopsies in the diagnosis of CD has recently been challenged. Areas covered: This review covers the recent literature regarding the role of infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding and timing of gluten introduction, and the microbiota in the development of CD. Additionally, the application of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for a non-biopsy approach to the diagnosis of CD is reviewed...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#20
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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