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Infant microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634475/cesarean-or-vaginal-birth-does-not-impact-the-longitudinal-development-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-a-cohort-of-exclusively-preterm-infants
#1
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Elizabeth Clements, Pamela N Luna, Daniel P Smith, Tatiana Y Fofanova, Andrew Nelson, Gillian Taylor, Caroline H Orr, Joseph F Petrosino, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
The short and long-term impact of birth mode on the developing gut microbiome in neonates has potential implications for the health of infants. In term infants, the microbiome immediately following birth across multiple body sites corresponds to birth mode, with increased Bacteroides in vaginally delivered infants. We aimed to determine the impact of birth mode of the preterm gut microbiome over the first 100 days of life and following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. In total, 867 stool samples from 46 preterm infants (21 cesarean and 25 vaginal), median gestational age 27 weeks, were sequenced (V4 region 16S rRNA gene, Illumina MiSeq)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615382/factors-influencing-the-gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Li Wen, Andrew Duffy
The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including genetics; the mode of delivery at birth; the method of infant feeding; the use of medications, especially antibiotics; and the diet. There may exist a gut microbiota signature that promotes intestinal inflammation and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation, which in turn promotes the development of type 2 diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611768/innate-immunity-and-breast-milk
#3
REVIEW
Nicole Theresa Cacho, Robert M Lawrence
Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571671/the-microbiome-of-infants-recruited-to-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-probiotic-trial-pips-trial
#4
Michael Millar, Jo Seale, Melanie Greenland, Pollyanna Hardy, Edmund Juszczak, Mark Wilks, Nicola Panton, Kate Costeloe, William G Wade
The microbial dysbiosis associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants suggests that early exposure to probiotics may decrease and antibiotics may increase NEC risk. However, administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain BBG-001 to preterm infants did not affect NEC incidence in a multicenter randomised controlled phase 3 trial (PiPS trial). Using a subset of these subjects we compared the fecal microbiome of probiotic and placebo groups and assessed the impact of early antibiotic treatment...
May 17, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571577/protocol-for-the-emory-university-african-american-vaginal-oral-and-gut-microbiome-in-pregnancy-cohort-study
#5
Elizabeth J Corwin, Carol J Hogue, Bradley Pearce, Cherie C Hill, Timothy D Read, Jennifer Mulle, Anne L Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Adverse birth and neonatal outcomes disproportionately affect African American women and infants compared to those of other races/ethnicities. While significant research has sought to identify underlying factors contributing to these disparities, current understanding remains limited, constraining prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment. With the development of next generation sequencing techniques, the contribution of the vaginal microbiome to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes has come under consideration...
June 1, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538696/immune-components-in-human-milk-are-associated-with-early-infant-immunological-health-outcomes-a-prospective-three-country-analysis
#6
Daniel Munblit, Marina Treneva, Diego G Peroni, Silvia Colicino, Li Yan Chow, Shobana Dissanayeke, Alexander Pampura, Attilio L Boner, Donna T Geddes, Robert J Boyle, John O Warner
The role of breastfeeding in improving allergy outcomes in early childhood is still unclear. Evidence suggests that immune mediators in human milk (HM) play a critical role in infant immune maturation as well as protection against atopy/allergy development. We investigated relationships between levels of immune mediators in colostrum and mature milk and infant outcomes in the first year of life. In a large prospective study of 398 pregnant/lactating women in the United Kingdom, Russia and Italy, colostrum and mature human milk (HM) samples were analysed for immune active molecules...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#7
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530140/associations-of-nasopharyngeal-metabolome-and-microbiome-with-severity-among-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-multi-omic-analysis
#8
Christopher J Stewart, Jonathan M Mansbach, Matthew C Wong, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
RATIONALE: Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory infection in infants; however, it remains unclear which infants with bronchiolitis will develop severe illness. In addition, while emerging evidence indicates associations of the upper-airway microbiome with bronchiolitis severity, little is known about the mechanisms linking airway microbes and host response to disease severity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relations among the nasopharyngeal airway metabolome profiles, microbiome profiles, and severity in infants with bronchiolitis...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512451/colonization-and-succession-within-the-human-gut-microbiome-by-archaea-bacteria-and-microeukaryotes-during-the-first-year-of-life
#9
Linda Wampach, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Angela Hogan, Emilie E L Muller, Shaman Narayanasamy, Cedric C Laczny, Luisa W Hugerth, Lutz Bindl, Jean Bottu, Anders F Andersson, Carine de Beaufort, Paul Wilmes
Perturbations to the colonization process of the human gastrointestinal tract have been suggested to result in adverse health effects later in life. Although much research has been performed on bacterial colonization and succession, much less is known about the other two domains of life, archaea, and eukaryotes. Here we describe colonization and succession by bacteria, archaea and microeukaryotes during the first year of life (samples collected around days 1, 3, 5, 28, 150, and 365) within the gastrointestinal tract of infants delivered either vaginally or by cesarean section and using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR as well as 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492938/association-between-breast-milk-bacterial-communities-and-establishment-and-development-of-the-infant-gut-microbiome
#10
Pia S Pannaraj, Fan Li, Chiara Cerini, Jeffrey M Bender, Shangxin Yang, Adrienne Rollie, Helty Adisetiyo, Sara Zabih, Pamela J Lincez, Kyle Bittinger, Aubrey Bailey, Frederic D Bushman, John W Sleasman, Grace M Aldrovandi
Importance: Establishment of the infant microbiome has lifelong implications on health and immunity. Gut microbiota of breastfed compared with nonbreastfed individuals differ during infancy as well as into adulthood. Breast milk contains a diverse population of bacteria, but little is known about the vertical transfer of bacteria from mother to infant by breastfeeding. Objective: To determine the association between the maternal breast milk and areolar skin and infant gut bacterial communities...
May 8, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480290/group-b-streptococci-colonization-in-pregnant-guatemalan-women-prevalence-risk-factors-and-vaginal-microbiome
#11
Anne-Marie Rick, Angie Aguilar, Rosita Cortes, Remei Gordillo, Mario Melgar, Gabriela Samayoa-Reyes, Daniel N Frank, Edwin J Asturias
BACKGROUND: Infection causes 1 of every 5 neonatal deaths globally. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most significant pathogen, although little is known about its epidemiology and risk in low-income countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 2015 at a public hospital in Guatemala City enrolled women ≥35 weeks' gestation. Vaginal and rectal swabs were processed using Lim broth and GBS CHROMagar then agglutination testing. Risk factors were assessed using multivariate analysis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473973/salivary-diagnostics-in-pediatrics-applicability-translatability-and-limitations
#12
REVIEW
Mona Hassaneen, Jill L Maron
In the last decade, technological advances, combined with an improved appreciation of the ability of saliva to inform caregivers about both oral health and systemic disease, have led to the emergence of salivary diagnostic platforms. However, the majority of these assays have targeted diseases that more commonly affect the adult population, largely neglecting infants and children who arguably could benefit the most from non-invasive assessment tools for health monitoring. Gaining access into development, infection, and disease through comprehensive "omic" analyses of saliva could significantly improve care and enhance health access...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464793/icover-an-interactive-visualization-tool-for-verification-and-refinement-of-metagenomic-bins
#13
Bertjan Broeksema, Magdalena Calusinska, Fintan McGee, Klaas Winter, Francesco Bongiovanni, Xavier Goux, Paul Wilmes, Philippe Delfosse, Mohammad Ghoniem
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing allow for much deeper exploitation of natural and engineered microbial communities, and to unravel so-called "microbial dark matter" (microbes that until now have evaded cultivation). Metagenomic analyses result in a large number of genomic fragments (contigs) that need to be grouped (binned) in order to reconstruct draft microbial genomes. While several contig binning algorithms have been developed in the past 2 years, they often lack consensus...
May 2, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456910/microbes-and-the-role-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-wheezy-lower-respiratory-tract-illnesses-in-preschool-children
#14
REVIEW
Christina G Kwong, Leonard B Bacharier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibiotics are commonly used to treat wheezy lower respiratory tract illnesses in preschoolers, although these infections have been traditionally thought to be predominantly of viral origin. Our purpose is to review recent research pertaining to the role of antibiotics in lower respiratory tract illnesses and on subsequent asthma development, as well as the possible mechanisms of their effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing evidence suggests that asthma pathogenesis is associated with events during infancy and early childhood, particularly respiratory tract infections...
May 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454555/a-critical-assessment-of-the-sterile-womb-and-in-utero-colonization-hypotheses-implications-for-research-on-the-pioneer-infant-microbiome
#15
REVIEW
Maria Elisa Perez-Muñoz, Marie-Claire Arrieta, Amanda E Ramer-Tait, Jens Walter
After more than a century of active research, the notion that the human fetal environment is sterile and that the neonate's microbiome is acquired during and after birth was an accepted dogma. However, recent studies using molecular techniques suggest bacterial communities in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium from healthy pregnancies. These findings have led many scientists to challenge the "sterile womb paradigm" and propose that microbiome acquisition instead begins in utero, an idea that would fundamentally change our understanding of gut microbiota acquisition and its role in human development...
April 28, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448623/development-of-the-cutaneous-microbiome-in-the-preterm-infant-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#16
Mohan Pammi, Jacqueline L O'Brien, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, James Versalovic, Joseph F Petrosino
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis in preterm infants is often due to organisms that colonize the skin including Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. Development and maturation of the skin microbiome in the neonatal period, especially in preterm infants, may be critical in preventing colonization with pathogens and subsequent progression to neonatal sepsis. Development of the skin microbiome in preterm infants or its determinants in the first 4 weeks of life has not been evaluated. METHODS: We evaluated the skin microbiome from three body sites, antecubital fossa, forehead and gluteal region, in a prospective cohort of 15 preterm (birth weight < 1500 g and < 32 weeks of gestation) and 15 term neonates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447406/the-prenatal-gut-microbiome-are-we-colonized-with-bacteria-in-utero
#17
REVIEW
R W Walker, J C Clemente, I Peter, R J F Loos
The colonization of the gut with microbes in early life is critical to the developing newborn immune system, metabolic function and potentially future health. Maternal microbes are transmitted to offspring during childbirth, representing a key step in the colonization of the infant gut. Studies of infant meconium suggest that bacteria are present in the foetal gut prior to birth, meaning that colonization could occur prenatally. Animal studies have shown that prenatal transmission of microbes to the foetus is possible, and physiological changes observed in pregnant mothers indicate that in utero transfer is likely in humans as well...
April 26, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410788/independence-of-gut-bacterial-content-and-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-severity
#18
Lauren K Barron, Barbara B Warner, Phillip I Tarr, William D Shannon, Elena Deych, Brad W Warner
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common and devastating gastrointestinal disease of premature infants. NEC severity varies widely. Recent data have demonstrated a strong link between gut microbial dysbiosis and development of NEC. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the gut microbiome at the time of diagnosis predict the severity of NEC. METHODS: We used prospectively collected fecal samples from very low birth weight infants who developed NEC, stratifying by NEC severity...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392148/molecular-insight-into-evolution-of-symbiosis-between-breast-fed-infants-and-a-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-bifidobacterium-longum
#19
Chihaya Yamada, Aina Gotoh, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Mitchell Hattie, Keith A Stubbs, Ayako Katayama-Ikegami, Junko Hirose, Shin Kurihara, Takatoshi Arakawa, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Shujiro Okuda, Takane Katayama, Shinya Fushinobu
Breast-fed infants generally have a bifidobacteria-rich microbiota with recent studies indicating that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) selectively promote bifidobacterial growth. Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses a glycoside hydrolase family 20 lacto-N-biosidase for liberating lacto-N-biose I from lacto-N-tetraose, an abundant HMO unique to human milk, while Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum has a non-classified enzyme (LnbX). Here, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of LnbX and provide evidence for creation of a novel glycoside hydrolase family, GH136...
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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