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Infant microbiome

Francesco Savino, Andrea Quartieri, Angela De Marco, Maria Garro, Alberto Amaretti, Stefano Raimondi, Marta Simone, Maddalena Rossi
AIM: This study compared the faecal microbial composition of formula-fed infants who did and did not have colic. METHODS: Faecal samples from formula-fed infants under 16 weeks of age with (n=38) and without (n=39) colic were collected at Department of Pediatrics in Turin, Italy, between February 2014 and October 2015. The pH and faecal ammonia were determined and total bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliforms were quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH)...
October 20, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Sonja C Sawh, Santosh Deshpande, Sandy Jansen, Christopher J Reynaert, Philip M Jones
CONTEXT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. The microbiome of the preterm gut may regulate the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Probiotics may positively contribute to mucosal integrity, potentially reducing the risk of NEC in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of probiotics for the prevention of NEC in premature infants. DATA SOURCES: Structured searches were performed in: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all via Ovid, from 2013 to January 2015)...
2016: PeerJ
Joanne E Sordillo, Yanjiao Zhou, Michael J McGeachie, John Ziniti, Nancy Lange, Nancy Laranjo, Jessica R Savage, Vincent Carey, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Robert Strunk, Leonard Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Scott T Weiss, George Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome in infancy influences immune system maturation, and may have an important impact allergic disease risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine how prenatal and early life factors impact the gut microbiome in a relatively large, ethnically diverse study population of infants at 3-6 months of age, who were enrolled in VDAART, a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy to prevent asthma and allergies in offspring. METHODS: We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 333 infants' stool samples...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Manli Y Davis, Husen Zhang, Lera E Brannan, Robert J Carman, James H Boone
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Upon the disturbance of gut microbiota by antibiotics, C. difficile establishes growth and releases toxins A and B, which cause tissue damage in the host. The symptoms of C. difficile infection disease range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Interestingly, 10-50 % of infants are asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. This longitudinal study of the C. difficile colonization in an infant revealed the dynamics of C...
October 7, 2016: Microbiome
Agus Firmansyah, Nalinee Chongviriyaphan, Drupadi Hs Dillon, Nguyen Cong Khan, Tatsuya Morita, Kraisid Tontisirin, Le Danh Tuyen, Weiping Wang, Jacques Bindels, Paul Deurenberg, Sherlin Ong, Jo Hautvast, Diederick Meyer, Elaine E Vaughan
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Xiaomei Cong, Wanli Xu, Rachael Romisher, Samantha Poveda, Shaina Forte, Angela Starkweather, Wendy A Henderson
The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
M Camilleri, S-Y Park, E Scarpato, A Staiano
BACKGROUND: Infantile colic is a frequent problem in neonates and infants. This review addresses current management including the results for nutrient modifications; soy-based formulas; and prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. PURPOSE: Given the evidence that there is still an unmet clinical need, as current treatments are incompletely efficacious, we have examined the evidence around three hypothetical mechanisms that could potentially be involved in etiopathogenesis of infantile colic: immaturity of bile acid mechanisms that alter intraluminal and absorptive mechanisms, immaturity in motility and alterations in the microbiome...
September 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kohei Hasegawa, Rachel W Linnemann, Jonathan M Mansbach, Nadim J Ajami, Janice A Espinola, Lauren G Fiechtner, Joseph F Petrosino, Carlos A Camargo
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to older siblings is associated with a lower risk of asthma. To date, no study has addressed the impact of having siblings on both the airway and fecal microbiota during infancy. We aimed to profile the nasal airway and fecal microbiota in infants, and to examine the association between having siblings and microbiota profiles. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 105 healthy infants (aged <1 year). By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing and an unbiased clustering approach to the nasal airway and fecal samples, we identified microbiota profiles and then determined the association between having siblings and microbiome profiles...
September 16, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Leah Stiemsma, Marie-Claire Arrieta, Pedro Dimitriu, Jasmine Cheng, Lisa Thorson, Diana Lefebvre, Meghan B Azad, Padmaja Subbarao, Piush Mandhane, Allan Becker, Malcolm Sears, Tobias Kollmann, William Mohn, Brett Finlay, Stuart Turvey
Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways affecting one in ten children in Westernized countries. Recently, our group showed that specific bacterial genera in early life are associated with atopy and wheezing in one-year-old children. However, little is known about the link between the early life gut microbiome and the diagnosis of asthma in preschool age children. To determine the role of the gut microbiota in preschool age asthma, children up to 4 years of age enrolled in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study were classified as asthmatic (n = 39) or matched healthy controls (n = 37)...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Deborah B Nelson, L Christie Rockwell, Morgan D Prioleau, Laura Goetzl
Recent assessments have examined the composition of bacterial communities influencing reproductive, pregnancy and infant health. The Microbiome Project has made great strides in sequencing the microbiome and identifying the vast communities of microorganisms that inhabit our bodies and much work continues to examine the individual contribution of bacteria on health and disease to inform future therapies. This review explores the current literature outlining the contribution of important bacteria on reproductive health among sexually active men and women, outlines gaps in current research to determine causal and interventional relationships, and suggests future research initiatives...
September 6, 2016: Anaerobe
Elizabeth A Kennedy, Jennifer Connolly, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Padraic G Fallon, W H Irwin McLean, Deirdre Murray, Jay-Hyun Jo, Julia A Segre, Heidi H Kong, Alan D Irvine
BACKGROUND: Disease flares of established atopic dermatitis (AD) are generally associated with a low-diversity skin microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus dominance. The temporal transition of the skin microbiome between early infancy and the dysbiosis of established AD is unknown. METHODS: We randomly selected 50 children from the Cork Babies After SCOPE: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact Using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints (BASELINE) longitudinal birth cohort for microbiome sampling at 3 points in the first 6 months of life at 4 skin sites relevant to AD: the antecubital and popliteal fossae, nasal tip, and cheek...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
William W Hay, Kendra C Hendrickson
Whereas human milk is the recommended diet for all infants, preterm formulas are indicated for enteral feeding of preterm very low birth weight infants when sufficient maternal breast milk and donor human milk are not available. Feeding with preterm formulas helps to ensure consistent delivery of nutrients. The balance of risks and benefits of feeding preterm formulas versus supplemented maternal and donor breast milk for preterm infants, however, is uncertain. Numerous studies and extensive practice have shown improved growth with preterm formulas, but there is concern for increased risks of necrotizing enterocolitis, possibly from cow milk antigen in the formulas or from different gut microbiomes, increased duration of total parenteral nutrition, and increased rates of sepsis in infants receiving preterm formulas...
August 30, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kristen Meyer, Kjersti Aagaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature Microbiology
Molly K Gibson, Bin Wang, Sara Ahmadi, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Phillip I Tarr, Barbara B Warner, Gautam Dantas
Development of the preterm infant gut microbiota is emerging as a critical research priority(1). Since preterm infants almost universally receive early and often extended antibiotic therapy(2), it is important to understand how these interventions alter gut microbiota development(3-6). Analysis of 401 stools from 84 longitudinally sampled preterm infants demonstrates that meropenem, cefotaxime and ticarcillin-clavulanate are associated with significantly reduced species richness. In contrast, vancomycin and gentamicin, the antibiotics most commonly administered to preterm infants, have non-uniform effects on species richness, but these can be predicted with 85% accuracy based on the relative abundance of only two bacterial species and two antibiotic resistance (AR) genes at treatment initiation...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Victoria J Martin, Wayne G Shreffler, Qian Yuan
BACKGROUND The prevalence of allergic diseases has been dramatically rising in the United States and other developed nations over recent decades. Growing evidence suggests a partial role for the microbiome in the development of these allergic diseases. Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (AP) (also referred to as cow's milk protein intolerance or allergy) is among the earliest and most common food allergic diseases of infancy, yet its pathophysiology is not well understood. The currently accepted clinical practice is to restrict the diet until 12 months of age...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Albert M Levin, Alexandra R Sitarik, Suzanne L Havstad, Kei E Fujimura, Ganesa Wegienka, Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Haejin Kim, Edward M Zoratti, Nicholas W Lukacs, Homer A Boushey, Dennis R Ownby, Susan V Lynch, Christine C Johnson
The joint impact of pregnancy, environmental, and sociocultural exposures on early life gut microbiome is not yet well-characterized, especially in racially and socioeconomically diverse populations. Gut microbiota of 298 children from a Detroit-based birth cohort were profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing: 130 neonates (median age = 1.2 months) and 168 infants (median age = 6.6 months). Multiple factors were associated with neonatal gut microbiome composition in both single- and multi-factor models, with independent contributions of maternal race-ethnicity, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, marital status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and indoor pets...
2016: Scientific Reports
Minghua Tang, Daniel N Frank, Laurie Sherlock, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Nancy F Krebs
BACKGROUND: Iron therapy induces inflammation, which could decrease iron absorption. Increased exposure of iron in the gut could also alter microbiome file. Providing antioxidants such as vitamin E with iron therapy has been associated with reduced oxidative potential. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of adding vitamin E to therapeutic iron therapy on iron repletion, inflammation markers, and gut microbiome in iron-deficient infants and toddlers...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Michael B Zimmermann
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common among infants and children in Sub-Saharan Africa and is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, as well as a hindrance to national development. In-home iron fortification of complementary foods using micronutrient powders (MNPs) effectively reduces the risk for IDA by ensuring that the iron needs of infants and young children are met without changing their traditional diet. However, the iron dose delivered by MNPs is high, and comparable on a mg iron per kg body weight to the supplemental doses (2 mg/kg) typically given to older children, which increases diarrhea risk...
2016: Nutrients
Derrick M Chu, Kathleen M Antony, Jun Ma, Amanda L Prince, Lori Showalter, Michelle Moller, Kjersti M Aagaard
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that the in utero environment is not sterile as once presumed. Work in the mouse demonstrated transmission of commensal bacteria from mother to fetus during gestation, though it is unclear what modulates this process. We have previously shown in the nonhuman primate that, independent of obesity, a maternal high-fat diet during gestation and lactation persistently shapes the juvenile gut microbiome. We therefore sought to interrogate in a population-based human longitudinal cohort whether a maternal high-fat diet similarly alters the neonatal and infant gut microbiome in early life...
2016: Genome Medicine
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