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Infant microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135490/the-microbiome-and-hiv-persistence-implications-for-viral-remission-and-cure
#1
Wei Li A Koay, Lilly V Siems, Deborah Persaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the interaction between HIV infection, the gut microbiome, inflammation and immune activation, and HIV reservoirs, along with interventions to target the microbiome and their implications for HIV remission and cure. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies show that HIV-infected adults have a gut microbiome associated with decreased bacterial richness and diversity, and associated systemic inflammation and immune activation. A unique set of individuals, elite controllers, who spontaneously control HIV replication, have a similar microbiome to HIV-uninfected individuals...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127996/highlights-in-immune-response-microbiome-and-precision-medicine-in-allergic-disease-and-asthma
#2
EDITORIAL
Milena Sokolowska, Cezmi A Akdis
Several recent key findings in immunology of allergic diseases that have led to a need of reassessment of our current thinking are reviewed in this issue of the journal. Recently developed strong evidence on the role of hygiene hypothesis in protection from allergic disease and its immune mechanisms is reviewed by Ober et al. The authors pointed out immunologic mechanisms of lower prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization observed among Amish children living on traditional farms with higher endotoxin levels as compared to Hutterite children living on industrialized farms...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124056/microbial-therapeutics-designed-for-infant-health
#3
REVIEW
Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross
Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120455/manipulating-the-microbiome-evolution-of-a-strategy-to-prevent-s-aureus-disease-in-children
#4
D F Khamash, A Voskertchian, A M Milstone
Hospitalized infants have the highest rates of invasive Staphylococcus aureus disease of any population and infection control strategies such as decolonization have been insufficient. For decades, researchers began studying the microbiome in search of new prevention strategies. The resident microbiota was found to be closely associated with susceptibility and at times, resistance to S. aureus colonization. The evolution of nucleic acid based techniques has enhanced our understanding of the complex relationship between the nasal microbiota and S...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118049/the-first-microbial-colonizers-of-the-human-gut-composition-activities-and-health-implications-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota
#5
REVIEW
Christian Milani, Sabrina Duranti, Francesca Bottacini, Eoghan Casey, Francesca Turroni, Jennifer Mahony, Clara Belzer, Susana Delgado Palacio, Silvia Arboleya Montes, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Juan Miguel Rodriguez, Lars Bode, Willem de Vos, Miguel Gueimonde, Abelardo Margolles, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially) driven and modulated by specific compounds present in human milk. It has been shown that certain genomes of infant gut commensals, in particular those of bifidobacterial species, are genetically adapted to utilize specific glycans of this human secretory fluid, thus representing a very intriguing example of host-microbe coevolution, where both partners are believed to benefit...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083070/breastfeeding-and-autoimmunity-programing-health-from-the-beginning
#6
REVIEW
Vânia Vieira Borba, Kassem Sharif, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Breast milk is not only a completely adapted nutrition source for the newborn but also an impressive array of immune-active molecules that afford protection against infections and shape mucosal immune responses. Decisive imprinting events might be modulated during the first months of life with potential health long-term effects, enhancing the importance of breastfeeding as a major influence on the immune system correct development and modifying disease susceptibility. The aim of this review was to clarify the link between breastfeeding and autoimmune diseases, inquiring the related mechanisms, based on data available in the literature...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075620/the-influence-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-on-the-fecal-microbiome-of-infants-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-a-prospective-longitudinal-interventional-study
#7
Christoph Castellani, Georg Singer, Karl Kashofer, Andrea Huber-Zeyringer, Christina Flucher, Margarita Kaiser, Holger Till
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the standard therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease. In adults, PPI treatment is associated with Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). In contrast to adults the microbiome of infants develops from sterility at birth toward an adult-like profile in the first years of life. The effect of PPIs on this developing microbiome has never been studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of oral PPIs on the fecal microbiome in infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070552/effects-of-iron-fortification-and-supplementation-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-diarrhea-in-infants-and-children-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Daniela Paganini, Michael B Zimmermann
In infants and young children in Sub-Saharan Africa, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is common, and many complementary foods are low in bioavailable iron. In-home fortification of complementary foods using iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNPs) and oral iron supplementation are both effective strategies to increase iron intakes and reduce IDA at this age. However, these interventions produce large increases in colonic iron because the absorption of their high iron dose (≥12.5 mg) is typically <20%. We reviewed studies in infants and young children on the effects of iron supplements and iron fortification with MNPs on the gut microbiome and diarrhea...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069100/gut-microbiome-of-mothers-delivering-prematurely-shows-reduced-diversity-and-lower-relative-abundance-of-bifidobacterium-and-streptococcus
#9
Cecilie Dahl, Maggie Stanislawski, Nina Iszatt, Siddhartha Mandal, Catherine Lozupone, Jose C Clemente, Rob Knight, Hein Stigum, Merete Eggesbø
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is the main reason for neonatal deaths worldwide. We investigate whether maternal gut microbiota may play a previously overlooked role. METHODS: The Norwegian Microbiota Study (NoMIC) is a case control study on preterm birth (<259 days of gestation, calculated primarily based on the last menstrual period), including two consecutively born term infants per infant born prematurely. Eligible mothers were fluent in Norwegian and recruited from the maternity ward at a county hospital in Eastern Norway in the period 2002-2005...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067020/inheritance-and-establishment-of-gut-microbiota-in-chickens
#10
Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Lingyu Yang, Chuan He, Ke Xu, Shuyun Liu, Wenjing Zhao, Lu Xiao, Lingxiao Luo, Yan Zhang, He Meng
In mammals, the microbiota can be transmitted from the placenta, uterus, and vagina of the mother to the infant. Unlike mammals, development of the avian embryo is a process isolated from the mother and thus in the avian embryo the gut microbial developmental process remains elusive. To explore the establishment and inheritance of the gut microbiome in the avian embryo, we used the chicken as the model organism to investigate the gut microbial composition in embryos, chicks, and maternal hens. We observed: (1) 28 phyla and 162 genera of microbes in embryos where the dominated genus was Halomonas (79%)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056933/linking-the-gut-microbial-ecosystem-with-the-environment-does-gut-health-depend-on-where-we-live
#11
Nishat Tasnim, Nijiati Abulizi, Jason Pither, Miranda M Hart, Deanna L Gibson
Global comparisons reveal a decrease in gut microbiota diversity attributed to Western diets, lifestyle practices such as caesarian section, antibiotic use and formula-feeding of infants, and sanitation of the living environment. While gut microbial diversity is decreasing, the prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity, allergies and asthma is on the rise in Westernized societies. Since the immune system development is influenced by microbial components, early microbial colonization may be a key factor in determining disease susceptibility patterns later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049069/the-maternal-infant-microbiome-considerations-for-labor-and-birth
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049058/the-neonatal-microbiome-implications-for-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-nurses
#13
Jeannie Rodriguez, Sheila Jordan, Abby Mutic, Taylor Thul
Nursing care of the neonate in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is complex, due in large part to various physiological challenges. A newer and less well-known physiological consideration is the neonatal microbiome, the community of microorganisms, both helpful and harmful, that inhabit the human body. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by the maternal microbiome, mode of infant birth, and various aspects of NICU care such as feeding choice and use of antibiotics. The composition and diversity of the microbiome is thought to influence key health outcomes including development of necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, altered physical growth, and poor neurodevelopment...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049057/the-postpartum-maternal-and-newborn-microbiomes
#14
Abby D Mutic, Sheila Jordan, Sara M Edwards, Erin P Ferranti, Taylor A Thul, Irene Yang
Biological and environmental changes to maternal and newborn microbiomes in the postnatal period can affect health outcomes for the mother-baby dyad. Postpartum sleep deprivation and unmet dietary needs can alter commensal bacteria within the body and disrupt gut-brain communication. Perineal injury and breast infections also change microbial community composition, potentiating an environment favoring pathogen growth. The gut microbiome refers to the collection of microorganisms working in harmony. Disruptions within the gut microbiome and gut-brain communication may lead to postpartum depression, a potentially devastating sequela...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040820/systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-enteral-feeding-on-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants
#15
Wanli Xu, Michelle Judge, Kendra Maas, Naveed Hussain, Jacqueline M McGrath, Wendy A Henderson, Xiaomei Cong
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of feeding type on microbial patterns among preterm infants and to identify feeding factors that promote the colonization of beneficial bacteria. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and the Cummulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were thoroughly searched for articles published between January 2000 and January 2017, using the keywords gut microbiome, gut microbiota, enteral microbiome, enteral microbiota, premature infant, preterm infant, extremely low birth weight infant, ELBW infant, very low birth weight infant, feeding, breast milk, breastfeeding, formula, prebiotic, probiotic, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038841/the-maternal-microbiome-during-pregnancy-and-allergic-disease-in-the-offspring
#16
REVIEW
Peter J Vuillermin, Laurence Macia, Ralph Nanan, Mimi Lk Tang, Fiona Collier, Susanne Brix
There is substantial epidemiological and mechanistic evidence that the increase in allergic disease and asthma in many parts of the world in part relates to changes in microbial exposures and diet acting via the composition and metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome. The majority of research in this field has focused on the gut microbiome during infancy, but it is increasingly clear that the maternal microbiome during pregnancy also has a key role in preventing an allergy-prone immune phenotype in the offspring...
October 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032226/maternal-depressive-symptoms-linked-to-reduced-fecal-immunoglobulin-a-concentrations-in-infants
#17
Liane J Kang, Petya T Koleva, Catherine J Field, Gerald F Giesbrecht, Eytan Wine, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) plays a critical role to infant gut mucosal immunity. Delayed IgA production is associated with greater risk of allergic disease. Murine models of stressful events during pregnancy and infancy show alterations in gut immunity and microbial composition in offspring, but little is known about the stress-microbiome-immunity pathways in humans. We investigated differences in infant fecal sIgA concentrations according to the presence of maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy...
October 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030459/household-triclosan-and-triclocarban-effects-on-the-infant-and-maternal-microbiome
#18
Jessica V Ribado, Catherine Ley, Thomas D Haggerty, Ekaterina Tkachenko, Ami S Bhatt, Julie Parsonnet
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration banned the use of specific microbicides in some household and personal wash products due to concerns that these chemicals might induce antibiotic resistance or disrupt human microbial communities. Triclosan and triclocarban (referred to as TCs) are the most common antimicrobials in household and personal care products, but the extent to which TC exposure perturbs microbial communities in humans, particularly during infant development, was unknown. We conducted a randomized intervention of TC-containing household and personal care products during the first year following birth to characterize whether TC exposure from wash products perturbs microbial communities in mothers and their infants...
October 13, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#19
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018426/transfer-and-persistence-of-a-multi-drug-resistance-plasmid-in-situ-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota-in-the-absence-of-antibiotic-treatment
#20
Heidi Gumpert, Jessica Z Kubicek-Sutherland, Andreas Porse, Nahid Karami, Christian Munck, Marius Linkevicius, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Agnes E Wold, Dan I Andersson, Morten O A Sommer
The microbial ecosystem residing in the human gut is believed to play an important role in horizontal exchange of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes that threatens human health. While the diversity of gut-microorganisms and their genetic content has been studied extensively, high-resolution insight into the plasticity, and selective forces shaping individual genomes is scarce. In a longitudinal study, we followed the dynamics of co-existing Escherichia coli lineages in an infant not receiving antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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